Bibliographic references

Ryazanov V. V. Spacecraft motion control while contactless space debris removal. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

The urgency of the issue under consideration is determined by the need to develop methods for cleaning the near-Earth space from space debris objects that pose a threat to the spacecraft functioning. The article considered the process of removing the CubSat3U format nanosatellite from the near-Earth orbit by a contactless method employing an active spacecraft equipped with ion and control engines. A nanosatellite can serve as a universal base for conducting orbital experiments to develop the technology for removal using ion beam. When analyzing the removal process, it was assumed that at the stage of towing the distance between the active spacecraft and nanosatellite remains constant. For the stages of approach and towing, it is necessary to know the maximum value of control engines thrust, and the time of movement stabilization at which the nanosatellite center of mass will be located on the longitudinal axis of the blowing engine of the active spacecraft. The presented work is devoted to the analysis of the proposed control laws for the active spacecraft. The author obtained differential equations of the motion of an active spacecraft relative to a nanosatellite in the orbital coordinate system for the stages of approach and towing. The article suggest control laws of an active spacecraft relative to nanosatellite for the stages of approach and towing. Aerodynamic coefficients of the object being removed were used for determining the force transmitted from the ion beam to nanosatellite. With the selected coefficients of the control laws, the time of motion stabilization was determined.

Ulybyshev S. Y. . Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

This article is a continuation of the previous work, where the issues of substantiation and elaboration of the design appearance of a promising spacecraft towing vehicle (STV) with two variants of the propulsion system (DU) using liquid rocket engines (LRE) and stationary plasma engines (SPD) were considered, as well as the calculation of the power supply system of STV.

This paper describes in detail the features of the implementation of schemes for the space debris object (SDO) disposal by the STV, with the SPD remote control. The control laws of thrust vector orientation at the stages of flight to the SDO orbit with its subsequent removal, ensuring the problem solution, are selected. Mathematical modeling and comparison on the reachability area for two variants of the orbit of burial being formed, coplanar to the SDO orbit and synchronously precessing with it, were performed. In the first case, determining the scheme of one mission to the SDO orbit and the coplanar descent are hampered by the required orbit mismatch along the longitude of the ascending node (LAN) for the flight start and ensuring the possibility of operations repeating. In the second scheme, this aspect is eliminated by creation of synchronous precession orbits (SPO) during the flight by the inclination correcting. The limits of these schemes efficiency depending on the inclination and altitude of the SDO orbit were determined. Recommendations on the possibility of these flight schemes application depending on the orbits parameters of the towed objects are formulated.

Ledkov A. S., Sobolev R. G. Electro-dynamic tether system stabilization in a circular orbit. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

The existence of technologies for strong materials production allows create extended space tether systems, which can be employed to solve a wide range of practical issues. Some projects imply the space tether system stabilization in a certain position. Stabilization can be realized by of the conductive cable interaction with the Earth electromagnetic field. The goal of the work consists in searching for the tether current control law, ensuring of the space tether system stabilization in a certain stationary state in a circular orbit. In contrast to the majority of existing works, the article considers the simultaneous stabilization of the system center of mass in a circular orbit and tether deflection angle stabilization in a certain stationary position.

A mathematical model of the cable system is described, and equations of motion using the second-kind Lagrange equations are obtained. In the framework of the assumptions made, the tether is considered as inelastic massless rod, and the bodies connected by it are material points. The model accounts for the attraction of the Earth and the Ampere force. A current in the electro-dynamic cable is considered as a control element. Control is sought as the sum of the programmed and stabilizing current force. It is shown that a limited set of program motions in a circular orbit can be implemented in the system. Equations of these motions are obtained. The stabilizing control is sought in the form of a linear dependence on generalized coordinates and velocities. The law of stabilizing control is sought in the form of a linear dependence on generalized coordinates and velocities. Selection of the control law parameters was performed using the Lyapunov theorem on asymptotic stability in the first approximation. Numerical simulation was executed to demonstrate the effectiveness of using an electrodynamic tether for the system stabilization in a circular orbit.

The results of the work may be employed while preparation of space programs involving of electro-dynamic tether systems implementation in a circular orbit.

Anan’ev A. V., Rybalko A. G., Goncharenko V. I., Klevcov R. P. Operational evaluation of target hit errors by free-falling containers of small-class unmanned aerial vehicles. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

The article introduces a new approach to solving the problem of in-the-field operational determining of systematic error of drop-off a free-fall unguided container by prospective small-class strike unmanned aerial vehicles.

Analysis of the existing techniques of drop points’ coordinates determination of destruction weapons, employed for the manned aircraft, revealed their poor accuracy, which does not allow further performing the effectiveness evaluation of strike unmanned aerial vehicles application while ground targets striking.

Two ways of drop points coordinates determination of a free-fall unguided container were developed. They are based on modification of measuring and resection methods. The first technique realizes the direct measuring method, differing from the other by the sounding signal device application, particularly, a laser measuring device. The second technique is based on the indirect measurement method. Its difference from the resection method consists in the simplified order of measurements realization, and the application of one laser measuring device, instead of three.

The presented work reveals the content and the order of realization of each technique, which allows apply them not only for tests performing, but also while planned flights execution of unmanned aerial vehicles to maintain a high-level proficiency of operators at the ground control stations.

A scientific-methods apparatus for accuracy evaluation, based on comparing a polygon area as well as error theory methods, was developed for determining measuring error of the drop points coordinates of ammunition dummies performed by suggested and well-known methods.

Thus, two new operational techniques for drop points determining of ammunition dummies, being dropped from strike unmanned aerial vehicles, were developed. These techniques ensure two times and more increasing in performed measures accuracy. It will allow increase the efficiency of the systematic error determining for the batch small-class strike unmanned aerial vehicles in the field (combat) conditions.

Polyakov A. A., Zashchirinski S. A. Virtual space application for mock-design tests on a spacecraft electronic model. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

A spacecraft creation in modern conditions makes the developer both conduct a profound engineering analysis in various fields and a large volume of tests in conditions close to the flight with the simulation of various impacting factors.

With the advent of advanced software for simulation modelling a concept of system-oriented design, based on application of the system of object-oriented models for developing basic simulation model of a space product, came to the forefront.

The described approaches allow performing tests, including model ones, with the help of which it is possible to determine with sufficient probability the spacecraft operational parameters and the reserve resource for each of them to make a decision on the readiness of the device for further application without flight design tests or with a significant cost reduction on them. Naturally, modelling, and simulation modelling in particular, herewith starts playing the main role, and its results evaluation with modern means of information processing. Already today, the modern means of modeling, engineering analysis and virtual design allow eliminate materiel application from mock-design, or at least significantly reduce the number of full-scale tests, substituting them by a greater amount of virtual tests.

At present, a technique for mock-tests executing by the spacecraft electron layout, employing virtual medium, is developed and conciliated at JSC “NPO Lavochkina”.

Virtual models application for tests preparation not only reduces the costs and risks associated with them, but also reduces the time required for the testing process itself.

It is obvious that the problem of experimental testing of the device can be fully solved only when it is completed by device tests, least of all differing from the standard sample, under the full-scale conditions, i.e. flight tests.

The presented article describes successively the goals and objectives imposed during the prototype tests in accordance with State Standards, as well as software and technical means to transfer the tests into the virtual space.

Babaitsev A. V., Burtsev A. Y., Rabinsky L. N., Solyaev Y. O. A technique for approximate stresses evaluation in a thick-wall composite axisymmetric structure. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

Design calculations based on one-dimensional models of rods with variable cross-section can be effectively applied in the design of structures with large elongation. Similar one-dimensional models are employed, for example, for the design of columns, supports, rocket systems, etc. Such models allow, as a first approximation, evaluate the strength of a structure and determine loading conditions of its elements (compartments, sections) for further refined numerical calculations.

The article presents an option of the strength analysis performing method for a thick-walled axisymmetric structure consisting of a metal core (reinforcing component) and an external thick-walled shell of composite material. The structure is loaded with a linear load distributed along a part of its length associated with the acting external pressure and inertial forces associated with the resulting acceleration. The technique is based on a one-dimensional model of a composite rod with variable cross-section, approximately accounting for transverse deformations, which is necessary when analyzing a thick-walled structure operating under pressure. In the proposed approach, the geometry of the product is splitted into sections and approximated by fragments in the form of truncated cones and, in particular case, cylinders. As the result of the calculations, the distribution of the normal longitudinal tensile / compression stresses in the outer shell and in the reinforcing rod is being determined, and the tangential stresses at the boundary of their contact are being estimated. As the result of the test calculations, a reasonably good consistency of the proposed one-dimensional analytical calculation method with the numerical result obtained by refined finite element modeling for normal stresses acting in the rod and in the shell in the direction of the symmetry axis of the structure is shown. Numerical calculations were performed in the Comsol Multiphisics system using in a axisymmetric formulation. For tangential stresses at the contact boundary between the rod and the shell, approximate estimates, which quantitatively differ rather strongly from the numerical modeling, are obtained, and, therefore, require developing a refined technique accounting for the uneven normal and tangential stresses distribution in the radial direction.

Mitin A. Y., Tarlakovsky D. V., Fedotenkov G. V. Non-stationary contact of a cylindrical shell and perfectly rigid elliptic paraboloid. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

The article studies a strain-stress state of a circular cylindrical shell of the Tymoshenko type and perfectly rigid cylindrical paraboloid in the process of their collision at the supersonic stage of interaction. The process of vertical impact is being considered, where the shell movement is regarded in Cartesian coordinate system. The contact occurs in free sliding conditions.

The problem setting includes equations of the shell motion, and equations of the elliptic paraboloid as a perfectly rigid body, boundary and initial conditions. To solve the problem, influence functions are used for a circular cylindrical shell, which represents normal displacement and is a solution to the initial-boundary problem of the impact on the surface of an elastic shell of normal pressure, given as a product of Dirac delta functions.

A numerical-analytical algorithm for solving the system associated with the inversion of Fourier-Laplace integral transformations, which is based on the bond of Fourier integral with decomposition into a Fourier series on a variable interval, was developed and implemented. Examples of computations are presented.

The goal of the work consists in formulating a spatial non-stationary contact problem for perfectly rigid impactors and a circular cylindrical shell of the Tymoshenko type.

The relevance of the research topic is stipulated in theoretical terms by the small number of studies of spatial non-stationary contact problems. From a practical viewpoint, it is associated with the need to determine the stress-strain state in the process of collision of an perfectly rigid body with a shell structure.

Stepanov R. P., Kusyumov A. N., Mikhailov S. A., Mikhailov S. A. Experimental study of wingtip vortices behind the finite-span wing. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

The article presents the results of experimental study of wingtip vortices behind a rectangular wing of a finite-span in the near field (at a distance of 0.5 to 4.2 wing chords length from the trailing edge). A rectangular wing with a modified Göttingen 387 airfoil and aspect ratio of 7.8 was used in the experiments.

During the experiments, the Reynolds number corresponded to Re = 350000, and an incoming flow velocity was set to 28 m/s. Wing tip vortices were studied at various angles of attack in the range from —6° to +18°. Experiments were performed in T-1K wind tunnel of Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev. The wingtip vortices study was performed by the velocity fields, obtained with PIV-system. Parameters identification of the vortex core was performed employing Cross-Sectional Lines method and Q-criterion, and demonstrated good agreement. The article presents dependencies of the core size changing on the angle of attack and a distance to the core section. It is shown that the vortex core size increases away from the wing the wing and the angle of attack increasing. The dependencies of the vortex core square on the Q value were plotted. It was established that the wingtip vortex bunch stranding at large angles of attack occurs at the shorter distances, than at the smaller angles of attack. The article demonstrates that maximum value of relative circulation is almost constant and independent from the angle of attack value.

Balakin S. V., Serbinov D. L. A method for liquid fuel rockets fueling level sensors parameters determining by the AC technique. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

Methods for parameters determining of various objects based on the judgment on the measuring object according to its mathematical model and associated with analysis of alternating current passage through these objects gain more and more proliferation [1].

These methods found widespread occurrence in space rocket industry in particular. Abandonment of the CE5002 AC bridge, which was widely employed on technical complexes of space-rocket products, was the reason for new measuring techniques developing.

Dielectric liquids and cryogenic liquefied gases, reaching the temperatures about −253°C, are rocket fuel componentThe fueling level sensor represents a cylindrical air capacitor in double version in accordance with Fig. 1. Thus, the capacitive measuring method became widely spread in space-rocket products due to the possibility of operation in a boiling component, linearity of characteristic, movable parts absence etc. The fueling level sensor represents a cylindrical air capacitor in double version in accordance with Fig. 1.

A universal meter for impedance parameters' analyzer for performing studies in the field of materials analysis of ferroelectromagnetic phenomena, ion and superionic conductivity etc. [8] was developed at V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences.

The measuring devices for impedance measurements such as materials analysis, ferroelectricity, ionic and superionic conductivity etc. was developed in V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences.

In this transducer, computer controls measuring sequence and connects phase frequency detector (PFD) and analog to digital converter (ADC) firstly to the measuring object, and then to the reference with excitation voltage phase step of 

, where n is integer. As a result, after each measuring cycle the value Uij (i = 1, 2; j = 1 … n), representing projection of measured voltage vector on the reference voltage, is formed at the ADC output:

Where T is integration interval; Uij(t) is PFD input signal; Gj(t) reference signal.

Computer receives the codes carrying information on Uij(t), and computes real and imaginary part of the voltage at the tested object and measure.

The developed device allows measuring fueling level sensor parameters with high accuracy, but the main restriction while its application is the presence of a long double-wire cable communication link, reaching the length of 500 m. With such a cable link length, the phase measurements are extremely difficult to be realized due to the parasitic components of the communication line.

That is why the authors took another path aimed at developing a new technique for fueling level sensor parameters determining.

As long as the fueling level sensor (FLS) is a two elements two-pole, its parameters determining consists in alternating current impact at the two specified frequencies firstly on fueling level sensor, and then of the reference.

According to the given FLS equivalent circuit we have the following equations to determine its parameters:

where CW is working capacity of the sensor;

RL is leakage resistance of sensor;

RR is reference resistance;

ω1, ω2 is excitation frequencies;

  are measured currents via capacity sensor and reference at two frequencies.

However, operation results revealed that currents induced by the communication line length fr om the external sources, as well as AC frequencies difference value affect measuring results, namely, the more the AC frequencies separated, the higher the measuring accuracy.

Thus, the goal of the new measuring approach is increasing measuring accuracy due to bias currents compensation and providing one measurement at the direct current excitation using the following equations:

wh ere sign of Δ denotes bias currents compensation, which were measured at turned-off AC and DC current sources.

The Xilinx FPGAs were employed for the newly developed technique realization, on which base measuring data processing and computation blocks, and functional blocks of analog measuring channel, including analog-to-digital converter of integrating type, sine voltage generator, frequency and scale of amplification control circuit.

The developed measuring technique allowed create a unit for ensuring FLS parameters measuring on the technical complex instead of out of production CE5002 AC bridge.

The technique described in the article may be applied for parameters measuring of two-poles, employed as physical processes sensors (temperature, pressure, level of liquid and granular media, etc.) at the industrial objects, transportation means and, above all, in the systems for measuring fueling level of liquid fuelled rocket carriers in the space-rocketry.

Golomazov A. V., Smirnov N. Y., Iosifov P. A. Creating a concept of information support for decision-making based on man-machine interaction procedures. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

At present, studies on the information support formation for decision-making in the environment of multi-agent systems can be referred to as particularly relevant, since a multitude of problems to be solved can be represented as functional agents of multi-agent systems. Such studies integrate both the results of solving deterministic problems and the problems solved based of the theory of fuzzy sets.

This scientific article reflects theoretical aspects of the interaction between the Cargo Owners and Carriers, and information support formation for decision-making in the multi-agent platform environment. At the same time, methods for solving the tasks based on a deterministic and fuzzy approach are proposed at reaching a consensus of interacting subjects. The article explores the possibility of applying the dialogue interaction principles of interacting subjects based on the multi-agent system (MAS) software in conditions of uncertainty, risk and conflict.

The considered approach of interaction between the Cargo Owners and Carriers is based on the following main provisions that ensure [6]:


  • realization of one of the principles of the consciousness functioning, i.e. providing the decision-making processes participants with a common interpreter of information on the processes monitored and the state of implementation of transport and logistics process (TLP);

  • ­ mutually beneficial combination of human capabilities and means of MAS in information processing;

  • ­ joint implementation of the functions of information services, regulated interaction of all participants in the processes of the formation of decision support system (DSS).

Personnel is presented with the opportunity to form requests for the selection and extraction of information available in the system. These queries describe combinations of features using the functions “equal”, “not equal”, “greater”, “less”, “greater and equal”, “less and equal”, “nesting” or special functions for which information will be selected, and those information components are determined that should be extracted from the selected array and provided to the specified persons. Requests can be formed for both interconnected and unrelated fuzzy information.

In this mode, on the request of personnel from among the subjects, the generated request can be cataloged in the MAC environment and used multiple times with the possibility of correction before the next execution.

The set of forms for displaying the information received as the result of a request processing can be diverse enough (text, statistical data, graphs, charts, etc.), and it depends on the specific ways of using information on the activity being monitored, allowing the interacting swarm subjects of Cargo Owners and Carriers advance to a consensus more intensively and expeditiously.

Gerasimchuk V. V. Dynamics modelling of the landing platform two-link mechanism. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

The article is devoted to the dynamics study of the two-link mechanism of the landing platform of the landing module. Federal space program includes the planet rover delivery on the planets under exploration by landing modules. An important scientific problem on rational selection of design solution for studying the deployment dynamics of the multilink mechanism of the landing platform gangway is formulated.

The author analyzes the existing methods of compiling the multi-link mechanisms motion dynamic equations, and chooses the of Denavit-Hartenberg matrix representation together with the Lagrange-Euler method for complete description of the mechanism motion. The movement dynamics is represented as a two-link mechanism with rotational joints. Further, we formulate a direct problem of kinematics to determine the vector of generalized accelerations for a given force and moments. A system of nonlinear differential equations of motion is being derived, which is numerically integrated, and modeled in the EULER software complex. The EULER software package was developed by NPO Avtomatika and meant for mathematical modeling of multi-component mechanical systems dynamics. The results are compared, and conclusion is made on the sufficient convergence of the results (the discrepancy does not exceed 15%).

The author draws attention to the fact that nonlinearity generates heterogeneity of dynamic, elastic and velocity properties of the mechanism and the variability of parameters in nonlinear equations. This feature is clearly manifested in the positions of the multiplicity π of the generalized coordinates and at their zero values. When φ1 = φ2 = 0, the mechanism is pulled into a line, or if φ multiples of π and the links are folded, a loss of controllability may occur. The author explains this by the fact that the choice of the conceptual model of the mechanism and the formation of its kinematic design model is an independent task.

Approbation of the developed system of non-linear equations with the results of the work on the transformable structures of the EXOMARS SPACECRAFT landing platform was performed additionally. A conclusion was made on the model suitability at the outline design and determining the layout and main kinematic characteristics of the mechanism of the landing platform gangway of the landing module of the interplanetary space station.

Yudin D. A. Numerical modelling results of the products structures upon the impact when hitting liquid and solid impediments. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

The article presents an adaptive theory and the results of mathematical modeling of structural elements of products while encountering with various types of obstacles. The problem of developing an effective method for the numerical simulation of three-dimensional dynamic problems of hydroelasticity and structural dynamics is being solved. Finite element method is used to solve these coupled problems.

The results of the stress-strain state calculations using numerical simulation, as well as some highlights of the process of impact interaction of the product and obstacles are obtained.

In recent years, a large number of analytical and semi-empirical methods have been developed to study the stress-strain state of structures under impact. However, these methods were used mainly for a limited type of structures, as a rule, of simple geometry and in the presence of a number of restrictions in the problems formulation and boundary conditions formation. At the same time, it is obvious that in order to solve practical problems along with those of the objects of the rocket and space industry, it is necessary to account for rather complex geometry of structural elements and the corresponding boundary conditions. The main modeling problem in this case is the need to obtain a joint coordinated solution of the equations of structural dynamics and the equations of flow of liquid or solid barrier. In this regard, numerical modeling is considered to be one of the main and non-alternative approaches these days for solving these complex problems.

The advantages of the FEM are as follows: relatively simple setting of boundary conditions, sufficiently high accuracy, and the capability of tracing the entire evolution of the free boundary as well as a high degree of universality. It is worth noting that this method application while performing calculations in the areas with complex free surface behavior can lead to the cell grid boundaries overlapping due to large deformations of the simulated structure.

The goal of the work consists in developing an effective methodology for numerical modeling of three-dimensional dynamic problems of hydroelasticity for specifying the stress-strain state of elements of metal structures impact upon water and a solid impediment impact.

Goldovsky A. A. Numerical models for contact zones prediction as the result of impact interaction of aviation structures with barrier in emergencies. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 107,

This presented article is devoted to the study of issue on the possibility of predicting and determining the contact zones of the colliding elements according to the result of their impact interaction. Developing methods for predicting contact zones is an urgent task in the case of any objective data absence on real cause-and-effect relationship, led to the impact interaction, and subsequently to some abnormal situation (emergency). Frequently, the study of an emergency often comes down to many experimental works, in which the opportunity of repeating all the conditions of an abnormal situation (emergency) that has already happened is not always possible. The presented article suggests a method, which may significantly reduce the number of experimental studies of abnormal situations (emergencies) in combination with the numerical simulation. The general application area of the developed models is aerospace industry and mechanical engineering.

The subject of the study is the impact interaction of two elastoplastic bodies. Due to the shock interaction, the stress-strain state of an elastoplastic barrier is considered to obtain a qualitative assessment of the force factors acting on the colliding elements. The article presents the main methods for studying impact interaction, as well as numerical simulation of the impact of two elastoplastic bodies.

Based on the conducted numerical simulation, methods for determining contact zones of impact interaction are presented; an algorithm for recovering the picture of impact interaction is developed; the main drawbacks of the method are considered; ways of development in terms of describing more complex geometric bodies and sequential-circular motion are proposed.

Grushenkova E. D., Mogilevich L. I., Popov V. S., Popova A. A. Longitudinal and bending oscillations of a three-layered plate with compressible filler contacting with a viscous liquid layer. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The study of a three-layered plate interaction with a layer of pulsating viscous incompressible liquid was performed. The liquid layer motion was regarded as a laminar one occurring in a narrow channel with parallel walls. Sticking conditions at the boundaries of liquid contact with the channel walls were assumed. The upper wall of the channel is being regarded absolutely rigid. The lower wall of the channel represents three-layered plate, and its bearing layers satisfy Kirchhoff's hypotheses. The plate filler is being regarded compressible in the transverse direction. The free support conditions are accepted at the plate end-faces. Oscillations of the three-layered plate are caused by the pressure pulsations at the channel end-faces. Pressure in the liquid layer changes herewith according to harmonic law.

The plane problem of longitudinal and bending hydroelastic oscillations of the three-layered plate was studied. The elastic displacements amplitudes of the three-layer plate were supposed to be much smaller than the thickness of the liquid layer in the channel. On the other hand, the longitudinal size of the channel was supposed to be much bigger compared to its transverse size. The hydroelastic problem consists of dynamics equations of the three-layered plate with compressible filler and liquid dynamics ones. The hydroelasticity problem was formulated. It consists of dynamic equations of the three-layered plate with compressible filler, as well as viscous liquid layer dynamic equations, namely Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. Accounting of normal and shear stresses, acting from the liquid side on the plate bearing layer contacting with it, is being performed while the experiment. Linearization of hydrodynamic equations was performed by the perturbation technique, and solution of the above said problem was obtained for the case of steady-state harmonic oscillations. Hydrodynamic parameters of the liquid layer were determined. Frequency dependent distribution functions of elastic displacements of the plate's layers and pressure of the viscous liquid layer were plotted.

Dudarkov Y. I., Levchenko E. A., Limonin M. V., Shevchenko A. V. Computational studies of some types of operational and technological damages impact on bearing capacity of stringer panels made of composite fiber reinforced plastic. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

At present, one of the main tendencies while aircraft design is carbon fiber reinforced plastics implementation in the load carrying structure of the airframe. Composites allow the structure weight reduction and the aircraft performance improvement. There are examples of composite materials successful implementation in the wing structure, stabilizer, fuselage and other aircraft structural elements in civil aviation.

A serious problem on the way of effective implementation of modern polymer composite materials in the aircraft airframe load-bearing structures is their high sensitivity to in-service damages and technological defects. The issues of strength characteristics degrading in the presence of damages and defects are generally being solved on the experimental basis. Nevertheless, computational methods allow performing similar estimations.

The article presents the results of numerical studies on operational and technological damages effect on strength and stability characteristics of a stringer panel. Impact damages of skin, stringer delamination, and the stringer peeling fr om the skin were regarded as damages. The effect of the above said damages' sizes on the strength and stability characteristics of the panel was being studied. The studies were performed by the finite elements method, including its nonlinear version.

The article demonstrates the presence of the critical damage size of the skin. Prior this size the requirements to residual strength can be met. This lim it exceeding leads to irreversible process of composite destruction and exhaustion of the panel bearing capacity. Numerical studies of the panel bearing capacity with damage in the stringer allowed determining the minimum value of the panel residual strength at the damage zone size increasing. The obtained results may be handy for the composite structure residual strength estimating and forming damage criteria with regard for possible in-service and technological damages.

Ivanychev D. A. Solving thermoelasticity problems for anisotropic solids of revolution. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The goal of the work consists in determining the stress-strain state of anisotropic bodies of revolution in conditions of temperature exposure with no internal heat sources. The body boundary is free fr om external forces and kinematic dependencies.

The task setting is ensured by the inverse method development for the class of stationary axisymmetric thermoelasticity problems for transversely isotropic bodies. The author proposes the theory of the internal states’ spaces basis forming, including displacements, deformations, stresses and temperature. First, a basis of plane auxiliary states is formed for the case of plane deformation, based on the general solution of the plane thermoelasticity problem for a transversely isotropic body. Further, on its ground, a basis of internal spatial states is being induced by integral overlays method. This basis is being orthonormalized based on the Gram-Schmidt recursive-matrix orthogonalization algorithm, where integrals of the product of temperatures act as cross scalar products. After the basis orthogonalization the target state is being determined by the Fourier series, wh ere the coefficients represent definite integrals which kernels compose the functions of the temperatures in the basic elements multiplication by the specified temperature.

Verification of the solution is performed by comparing the specified temperature field with that obtained while the solving.

A strict solution of the test problem for a circular cylinder, and an approximate solution for a body in the form of a stepped cylinder, made of rock, with the corresponding conclusions on the series convergence are presented. A graphical visualization of the results is presented as well. The advantage of the presented approach consists in the fact that the most time-consuming calculations, namely an orthonormal basis construction, are performed once for a body of a certain configuration. Subsequently, this basis can be used for solving various thermoelastic problems for this body.

Khatuntseva O. N. Analytical method for velocity profile determining of the turbulent liquid flow in the flat Poiseuille problem. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The present paper continues the circle of publications devoted to solving the hydrodynamic problems allowing an analytical approach to their consideration. Searching for analytical solutions in rather simple «model» problems is not an end in itself. Developing an approach, enabling accounting for the laminar and turbulent flow modes specifics in Navier-Stokes equations (NSE), for further correct NSE integrating by both analytical and numerical methods is the main motivation of this work. However, studying specifics of various flow modes is possible namely while solving the problems allowing exact (analytical) solutions. Unfortunately, due to their complexity the Navier-Stokes equation have such solutions for a very restricted set of problems, namely for very simple geometries. The most well-known of them all are:

– The Hagen-Poiseuille problem, describing the flow of the incompressible thermally non-conductive liquid in a tube of a circular cross-section;

– The flat Couette problem describing the flow of incompressible thermally non-conductive fluid between two infinite parallel plates, moving under a constant velocities in opposite to each other directions in their own planes;

– The flat Poiseuille problem describing the flow of incompressible thermally non-conductive fluid under the pressure drop between two infinite parallel plates.

There is unique analytic solution describing the laminar profile of velocity for any Reynolds numbers in all these problems while Navier-Stokes equations integration under the absence of entropy production caused by excitation of velocity stochastic pulsations.

Two solutions were determined analytically due to the account of the entropy production in NSE for both the flat Poiseuille problem and other above-listed problems (considered in the previous articles). One solution corresponds to the laminar flow mode, and the second to the turbulent one. The first one is realized for any Reynolds numbers and is specified by the parabolic velocity profile in the total fluid flow domain, and the second one is realized for relatively high Reynolds numbers and is specified by the logarithmic velocity profile in the center of the flat channel. The multiplier prior to the logarithm function is the von Karman constant. The article presents comparison of the results with the available experimental data.

Ermakov V. Y. The use of the magnetic-liquid effect to reduce static and dynamic imbalance from the moving masses of drive devices. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

While mechanical systems with rotating or moving masses operation, small amplitude vibrations, which cause negative effect on both control system (CS) operation and sensing elements, are being transferred to the spacecraft structure, which may lead to the CS orientation accuracy degradation. This problem can be solved provided that mounting locations of both precision instruments (PI) and moving masses are known. It is required to determine the moments of inertia of the spacecraft elastic structures provided that dynamic requirements depending on the spacecraft angular velocity are fulfilled, and minimize:

- micro vibrations while special spacecraft precision instruments operation;

- functions of static and dynamic imbalance.

A five-degree-of-freedom vibration isolator employing magneto-liquid effect was developed to reduce the effect of the above said factor on the relative movement of the optical path. The experimental results of its mathematical modelling are presented as well. The tests on studying the effect of the cavity height between the permanent magnet enveloped by the magnet liquid and the unit case, as well as the permanent magnet and case materials on the system characteristics; the permanent magnet base area on the system operation effectiveness were conducted. The results of experimental studies of the vibration system with vibration isolator employing magnet liquid effect revealed 5–10 times reduction of absolute linear traversing. The suggested system herewith was recommended for “Spectrum-UV” spacecraft adaptation as a tool for eliminating undesirable micro disturbances created by flywheel-motors.

Zvonarev V. V., Moroz A. V., Sherstuk A. V. Evaluation technique of direction pattern characteristics of an ultrasonic radar in the antenna aperture synthesizing mode. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The purpose of the article consists in direction pattern characteristics verification of ultrasonic radar in the antenna aperture synthesizing mode, which were obtained both by experiments and calculations.

The object of this article is ultrasonic radar in the antenna aperture synthesizing mode.

The subject of the article is the transmitting ultrasonic sensor functioning.

The methodology of writing the article is comparing the results obtained employing a mathematic model of the radar system in ultrasonic wavelength range and by experiments with its real prototype.

Developing the radar with synthesized antenna aperture assumes:

–  functioning processes modeling of elements of the pattern under development to obtain the direction pattern characteristics;

–  designing and developing the prototypes realizing the main operation modes of the pattern or its constituent parts.

The authors proposed to develop a prototype in ultrasonic range rather than in radio range, which allowed modelling the main processes with real equipment employing high accuracy and reliability. Modelling of the unit’s elements functioning processes is being performed to obtain the values of direction pattern characteristics. The obtained values evaluation is being performed with the technique for evaluating the direction pattern of the ultrasonic radar in the antenna aperture synthesizing mode.

The article regards the issues of direction pattern parameters modelling, as well as presents the evaluation results of characteristics of the direction pattern of the ultrasonic transmitting device, obtained applying the suggested methodological approach. Experimental validation of the results applying ultrasonic test site was performed.

Application of the presented technique allows refine errors evaluation model of a radar-location channel of the radar prototype with the synthesized antenna aperture, and solve problems of radiometric calibration of the system through path prior to its manufacturing.

The developed technique is practical to employ while developing algorithms for controlling direction pattern of prospective radars with synthesized aperture already at the stage of laboratory workout.

Generalov A. G., Gadzhiev E. V., Salikhov M. R. Spiral antennas application for prospective onboard systems and complexes. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The onboard antenna-feeder devices constitute an integral part of space vehicles according to both the type used (small or large) and the target-oriented task: Earth remote sensing; weather observation; emergencies monitoring; communications; scientific research; applied research and etc.

Each of the above said tasks solving is accompanied by a certain set of onboard equipment application.

However, there are onboard radio links, such as inter-satellite communication, navigation system, telemetry etc.), which include receiving and transmitting antennas.

The article presents the spiral antennas application for prospective onboard systems and complexes of transportation vehicles.

For example, application of a quadruple single-turn antenna (with operating frequency of 406 MHz) with circular polarization of the clockwise rotation was proposed as a receiving antennae, while a quadruple spiral antennae (with operating frequency of 1544 MHz) with circular polarization of the counterclockwise rotation was proposed as a transmitting one. The emitter and recording device of the transmitting antenna are fabricated by printing technology. Both spiral antennas are employed as a part of the antenna system of the COSPAS–SARSAT onboard equipment.

The COSPAS-SARSAT system includes two types of space vehicles:

- of a low Earth orbit;

- of a geostationary orbit.

The article presents also the spiral antennas developed for various onboard systems and complexes such as telecommand system, satellite navigation, inter-satellite communication, scientific system, etc., for the spacecraft such as “Meteor”, “Ionosphere”, etc.

Mikhalyev S. M. Aerospace System Adaptation to Satellite Injection into High-Energy Orbits. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The object of the study is a reusable aerospace transportation system based on a twin-fuselage subsonic carrier aircraft for launching various payloads into near-Earth orbit.

The purpose of the work consists in determining the applicability of reusable aerospace systems for injecting payloads into high-energy orbits including interests GLONASS.

The method and methodology of the works handling are based on theoretical and computational works, including application of Computer-Aided Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics.

The work presents the follwing:

– analysis of the main GLONASS parameters as the initial data for the aerospace system configuration design;

– trajectory formation of the reusable aerospace system with its return to the launch point of its first stages;

– comparative analysis of various types of the space-rocket system fuel;

– aerospace system basic parameters optimization for GLONASS satellites delivery into orbit.

The article analyses application of partially reusable aerospace system, i.e. maximally unified modification of the fully reusable aerospace system, for satellites injection into high-energy orbits.

To increase the rocket system energy performance required for delivering GLONASS satellites to the high-energy orbits, the authors proposed an aerospace option with the non-recoverable second rocket stage and a space accelerating block on oxygen-hydrogen fuel (like the two first stages of the aerospace system). The performed analysis of appearance formation allowed determining optimal trajectories and thrust-to-weight ratio of the aerospace system and the space acceleration block.

Karpuhin E. О., Makarenkov N. S. Application of frequency-hopping OCDM-OFDM signals for physical level attacks preventing. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

It is utterly important to ensure the intentional radio jamming resistance for information and communication systems of special and military purpose. Attacks on such kind of networks may inflict vast damage, including a State level. Simulated jamming exercises the most dangerous impact among the existing intentional interferences, since they repeat the signal structure while its transmission. The impact of such kind of interferences may also disrupt the information availability while attempting to get access to it through a radio channel.

The presented work proposes application of frequency-hopping OCDM-OFDM signals to counteract the physical level attacks of OSI model and enhancing the signal structural stealth. Jamming immunity from the relay interference, indicators of structural stealth, and the impact from Doppler effect were considered. Simulation revealed the energy gain of 1 dB while employing the suggested signal-code structure prior to frequency hopping OFDM signals in conditions of relay interference. It demonstrated also that the signals of this type possess higher structural stealth figures, as well as more stable to Doppler effect compared to OFDM-frequency hopping signals.

The disadvantages of the proposed approach include the complexity increase of the signal-conditioning and synchronization systems on both the receiver and transmitter. It is necessary to ensure assignment of code signature from the earlier generated OCDM to each each subcarrier of the OFDM signal while the signal forming process. Besides, the frequency-hopping spread spectrum process is rather complicated itself. It requires fine synchronization between the receiver and transmitter, as well as knowing the pseudo-random sequence. The suggested signals will be less effective while data transmission in the channel without attacker, than the structure with FH-OFDM application.

Masalkin A. A., Kolesnik A. V., Protsenko P. A. A technique for application planning of satellite radio-monitoring system means. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The presented work puts forward an approach to raise the effectiveness of the satellite radio monitoring system means application. The subject for studies is methods for the said system planning.

The existing methods of solving the problem of planning the satellite radio monitoring system means involvement are based on employing a flexible approach, foreseeing larger encompassing of the territories with high population density, and a smaller one for the territories with small population density. This approach has a number of disadvantages including inability for regarding the density of space vehicles location on a geostationary orbit, and impossibility of simultaneous transponders radio monitoring of one spacecraft accounting by several radio monitoring means.

To eliminate the above said disadvantages the authors suggest a technique for application planning of the satellite radio monitoring system means regarded in this article, and based on solving the problem of discrete programming. The quality indicator is effectiveness, i.e. the number of serviced channels. The problem is aggravated by the fact that the objective function is non-linear, which makes impossible application of mathematical programming methods. For this complexity resolve, a linearization technique for the function with Boolean parameters based on additional variables introduction is put forward.

This technique essence consists in performing an iteration procedure for solving the problem of discrete programming with subsequent refinement of the objective function value.

Computational experiments were conducted employing suggested technique for radio monitoring means planning. The obtained results prove the principal possibility of increasing the satellite radio monitoring system effectiveness by 15-30% due to channels duplication elimination.

Podstrigaev A. S., Slobodyan M. G., Mozhaeva E. I. Criteria set for efficiency evaluation of counteraction to unmanned aerial vehicles methods. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The presented work puts forward a technique for qualitative comparison of technical means for counteracting the growing unlawful application of unmanned flying vehicles (UAV). This technique is based on a set of criteria for the effectiveness evaluation of UAVs counteraction techniques developed by the authors.

The article itemizes the most widespread technical methods for the UAV counteraction. It states the main disadvantages of the conventional approaches to these methods evaluation, such as evaluation incompleteness, poor analysis of application conditions, and in many cases the lack of quantitative indicators.

reveals the most commonly used techniques of counteraction methods and the basic disadvantages of approaches to efficiency evaluation of these counteraction methods. They are an incomplete evaluation, weak analysis of practical implementation conditions and, in most cases, quantification deficiency. It is demonstrated, that physical principles difference of counteraction methods realization causes a problem of their direct comparison. Thus, the goal of the presented work consists in developing the system of criteria for qualitative evaluation of the UAV counteraction methods devoid of the said disadvantages.

The presented set of criteria allows performing a comparative evaluation of various UAV counteraction methods with regard for their characteristics of detection and counteraction, the UAV recognition quality, hardware volume, versatility and consequences of its implementation, electromagnetic compatibility, economic indicators etc. The proposed system envisages criteria splitting into sub-criteria, as well as partitioning the latter into their own sub-criteria and further by analogy if necessary. The final quantitative evaluation is computed by the special equation employing the obtained evaluating coefficients depending on the introduced weight coefficients of each criterion and sub-criterion.

The developed set of criteria allows quantifying various implementations of the existing UAVs counteraction methods; compare various implementations of one or several methods of UAVs counteraction; educe more effective counteraction methods for specific application conditions; forecast the efficiency of prospective counteraction methods.

Kosachev I. M., Chugai K. N., Rybackov K. A. Methodology of high-precision non-linear filtering of random processes in fixed structure stochastic dynamic systems (Part 2). Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The article presents a methodical approach to high-precision nonlinear filtering of multidimensional non-Gaussian random processes in continuous-time stochastic dynamical systems with a fixed structure. The high accuracy of the developed algorithms for the optimal nonlinear filtering problem is stipulated by application of a posteriori higher order central moments of the filtered process. Adaptability of the developed high-precision nonlinear filtering algorithms is ensured by real time computing of a posteriori skewness and excess kurtosis for all phase coordinates of the filtered process, their subsequent comparison with the threshold values corresponding to Gaussian random process. If necessary, a posteriori higher central moments of the process being filtered are used in filtering algorithms.

The methodical approach under consideration to high-precision nonlinear filtering of multidimensional non-Gaussian random processes can be applied for eight basic variants of filtering problems, but engineering algorithms are presented only for the filtering problem with additive noises in mathematical model of the stochastic dynamical system.

The second part of the article describes five stages of the proposed methodical approach (the first three stages were described in the first part of the article):

4. Obtaining formulas linking a posteriori arbitrary order central moments with a posteriori cumulants for the filtered process.

5. Truncation and closure of a system of stochastic differential equations for a posteriori central moments of the filtered process.

6. Synthesis of high-precision optimal non-linear filters.

7. Setting known and computing missing initial conditions for a posteriori central moments of the filtered process.

8. Solving the optimal filtering problem (obtaining optimal estimate of the filtered process).

Evdokimenkov V. N., Lyapin N. A. Minimax optimization of enemy pursuit maneuvers in conditions of close air combat. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

One of the main tasks facing a fighter aircraft consists in gaining the dominance in the air and holding it up, which is considered as the irremissible condition of successful of a warfare conduct for all kinds of armed forces. This task can be solved by destroying the enemy aircraft in the air. Besides, the air operations effectiveness while performing other missions also depends to a great extent on the crew ability to wage the air combat. Thus, the experience of aviation utilization in war conflicts is being carefully studied all over the world to search for tactical techniques, ensuring advantage in air combat.

The article presents the situation, when the attacking fighter aircraft tends to move through the active offensive maneuvering to the area of possible attacks, which configuration depends on characteristics of TSAs located on it. With this, the actions of an enemy aircraft performing passive defensive maneuver are aimed at evading the attack of the aircraft-fighter to prevent its entering the area of possible attacks of his aircraft.

All this is indicative of the need of employing the game approach to study offensive maneuvers of the aircraft-fighter.

The article presents an algorithm for the guaranteeing trajectory control of an aircraft-fighter for the pursuit-and-evasion task in conditions of a close air combat. It also presents modelling results, reflecting the effect of the attacking aircraft-fighter maneuvering capabilities on achieving positional superiority in an air combat.

Golomazov A. V. Decision-making information support method realizable in multi-agent system environment. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The need to improve the quality and efficiency of transportation and logistics management systems requires application of mathematical methods and models contributing to that increasing the level of intellectualization of decisions being made.

For this purpose, the proposed method employs a structure including the interacting subjects monitoring of transportation and logistics process (TLP), and selecting on its basis the significant content of factors of variables and characteristics, representing the basis of their decisions selecting. The article proposes to improve this quality by models and algorithms application, based on deterministic approach and fuzzy logic principles. Structurally, this method was regarded in the form of functional agents complexes developed based on the theory of multi-criteria selection in uncertainty conditions, game theory and principles of potential risks size and direction reduction evaluation of the interacting TLP subjects.

A possibility of periodical or continuous correction of the said content of significant variables appears herewith. This, in its turn, contributes to the decisions being taken adequacy level improvement. The intellectualization level increasing of the decisions being taken is achieved by developing complexes of functional agents being formed for the interacting TLP agents. These agents forming is performed in the method based on both deterministic approach and principles of fuzzy sets theory. Models and algorithms of functional agents allow realize information support of the TLP interacting subjects with regard for the risks and conflict situations. The method includes realized functional agents for negotiations process support, transportations planning and predicting.

The above said agents are interconnected and dynamically functioning in the multi-agent system (MAS) environment. Multi-functional agents developing by this method is base on:

- The multi-criteria theory of selection preferable solutions options in the uncertainty conditions;

- Matrix, bi-matrix, corporate and dynamic games, as well as strategies estimation with regard to Nash equilibrium;

- Ford and Fulkerson methods;

- Travelling salesman problem, knapsack problem and dynamic programming (rational route selection);

- Gantt charts plotting methods, and network scheduling and managing (transportations planning);

- Moving average method and approximation (predicting), ELECTRE method, and fuzzy logic algorithm (negotiation process support).

Romanov A. M. A novel architecture for Field-Programmable Gate Array-based Ethernet POWERLINK controlled nodes. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The article solves the problem of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based Ethernet POWERLINK controlled node implementation with minimal application of both logical cells and memory blocks. As a solution, a novel modular architecture is proposed, which resource intensiveness can be flexibly adjusted depending on the required functionality. Unlike previously known solutions, the proposed architecture does not employ soft-processors and does not require the incoming frames buffering. All data is processed “on the fly”, which allows the node to send a response to the request from the managing node with the minimum latency allowable by the Ethernet standard. The novel architecture employs one shared kernel for interaction with the Ethernet physical layer chip (PHY). This kernel forms a common data channel to which all other modules are connected. Each module processes frames of a certain type (synchronous, asynchronous, cross-traffic frame) and generates corresponding responses. Based on the proposed architecture, the first Russian Ethernet POWERLINK device was created, which compliance with the Standard was certified by Ethernet POWERLINK Standardization Group. By the results of experimental studies, it was demonstrated that the novel architecture requires from 3.5 to 9 times less FPGA logic resources, and up to 126 times less block memory for the of Ethernet POWERLINK devices implementation. The result of no less importance is the possibility of proposed solutions implementation based on FPGA chips from Russian vendors, including those in radiation-resistant version, which allows apply them in aerospace technology.

Ulybyshev S. Y. Mathematical modeling and comparative analysis towing vehicle schemes application to solve the problem of space debris objects removal to the disposal orbit. Part 1. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The presented materials of the study, split into four parts (separate articles), consider the complex issue of mathematical modeling and comparative analysis of the two types of remote control and associated with it design appearance of a promising spacecraft-towing vehicle (STV). The STV is designed to solve the problem of space debris objects (SDO) removal into the disposal orbit from satellite systems (SS) configuration. On the example of mission realization of the SDO removal from the specified orbital plane with return ensuring for the next object removal, scenario of the STV repeated application is being numerically computed.

Substantiation and workout of the design appearance of the prospective STV with two types of propulsion system (PS), such as liquid rocket engine (LRE) and stationary plasma engine (SPE), is being performed. The article presents the STV electric power supply system calculations and determines its weight and energy characteristics, as well as solar batteries size. Specifics and options of possible schemes of SDO removal into the disposal orbit were analyzed. Disposal orbits parameters have been determined for each STV PS type. The issue of the mean value computing of the STV SPE ballistic coefficient on the typical turn of functioning while SDO towing into the disposal orbit was considered. The boundaries of minimum possible altitude of the SPE application ensuring acceleration above the level of atmospheric deceleration were determined.

Scriabin Y. M., Potechin D. S. Determining the unmanned aerial vehicle horizontal flight path through the line of electrostatic sensors. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

The article considers the problem of unmanned flying vehicles (UAV) detection and localization. This problem is associated with the UAVs rapid growth in number and relatively mild laws on the UAVs' regulation and flights organization. Thus, it is utterly important to ensure safety of critical facilities and highly crowded places fr om possible threats associated with the UAV application, as well as monitor the air space any time and under any weather conditions. To solve the problem, the authors propose to employ electrostatic monitoring technology.

It is worth mentioning, that conventional detection methods have problems with the low-altitude small UAVs detection. The advantage of electrostatic monitoring technology consists in the fact that this technology is capable provide information passively on low-altitude targets by monitoring changes in the electrostatic field in several points on the Earth surface. Besides, combining electrostatic monitoring technology with other existing detecting techniques may increase the probability of targets detecting.

The authors propose employing the time-frequency analysis for the electrostatic signal extraction. This method may be based on positions of the electrostatic signal extremes. The article defines analytical solution of the electrostatic problem of a point electrostatic charge movement above an infinite horizontal conducting plane.

The results of the analytical solution of the electrostatic problem of a UAV detecting by three electrostatic sensors lying on one straight line are presented. The article determined the theoretical lim it of the UAV detection by an electrostatic sensor. Theoretical equations for the UAV coordinates calculating based on the time-frequency analysis of electrostatic signals were derived.

The article presents experimental electrostatic signals received by an electrostatic sensor while the UAV flight. Two types of sensors were examined in the experiment. These are electrostatic fluxmeter and electrostatic probe.

The authors note that the electrostatic sensor system is potentially capable of detecting UAVs with a charge of 1 µC at the altitudes up to 100 m.

Vernigora L. V., Kasmerchuk P. V. Low-thrust spacecraft trajectories optimization by linearization method. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 106,

Problems of a low thrust spacecraft trajectories optimization are rather complicated problems of nonlinear optimization in the presence of constrains. The authors suggest applying linearization method modified for compound dynamic systems optimization for solving them. The Modified Method of a Linearization (MML) is quite a general method of nonlinear optimization problems solution. However, specifics of trajectory optimization problems of a low thrust spacecraft require confirmation of the MML application possibility to solve them. Two problems are being solved in this work:

- A flat flight optimization of a spacecraft with electric propulsion unit (EPU) and a solar sail between the Earth and Mars orbits;

- An optimization problem of a flight between two arbitrary non-coplanar near-Earth orbits.

The obtained results were compared to the results obtained by other authors.

The flat flight optimization problem of a spacecraft with EPU and a solar sail between the Earth and Mars orbits was solved for the two values of dimensionless initial acceleration of 1.0 and 0.02. An error of 0.37% in term of criterion, and 0.32% in the flight range angle was obtained for the first problem. In the second problem, the flight range angle error was 4.9%. The criterion value agreed within the put forward significant figures. In the flat flight optimization problem of a spacecraft with EPU and a solar sail between the Earth and Mars the results obtained with MML are better than the results obtained by the majority of other authors in the sense of criterion value. In the optimization problem of elliptic-to-geostationary orbit transfer for minimum time the obtained error in the criterion value was 0.05%, and control and trajectory nature coincided with the considered work.

Based on a number of the well-known examples the article demonstrates the MML steady work while solving the offered problems of trajectory optimization of a low thrust spacecraft with EPU and solar sail. A close agreement of the results with the results of other authors was obtained. This allows make conclusion on the possibility of MML application for solving the regarded classes of the trajectory optimization problems for low thrust spacecraft. The main advantages of the method are the large area of the solution convergence, which allows selecting trivial initial approximations, operating in terms of the loop problem without the necessity of obtaining additional structures of the transversability condition type etc. Rather slow convergence in the problem of transfering a spacecraft with EPU between two noncoplanar orbits, associated with the necessity of selecting a small-size area of the acceptable variations (the area in which the linear programming problem is being solved) to ensure the acceptable linearization level may be related to the shortcomings.

Ivanov S. V., Mogilevich L. I., Popov V. S. Longitudinal Waves in a Nonlinear Cylindrical Shell Containing a Viscous Liquid. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The problem of wave propagation in gas dynamics and elastic shells theory is being studied by linearized equations, propagation velocity being constant and equal to sound propagation velocity in unperturbed medium. Nevertheless, a certain set of occurrences, despite the dependent variables small values, are fully defined by perturbations propagation velocity dependence on dependent variables values and are studied basis on non-linear equations. These studies are performed by the perturbation method. The equations for an elastic body dynamics and liquid for the joint hydroelasticity problem are solved simultaneously, the corresponding boundary conditions impenetrable surfaces are being accounted for herewith. This approach is employed to sudy the non-linear deformation waves of elastic shells, containing viscous incompressible liquid.

The perturbation method for studying deformation waves in physically non-linear elastic cylinder shell, containing viscous incompressible liquid, was developed. The method of two-scale disintegration leads to Korteweg – de Vries generalized modified equation not having the exact solution. The surrounding elastic medium, the structure damping in the longitudinal direction and viscous liquid impact require the numerical solution of the equation.

There are no studies on viscous incompressible liquid impact on the non-linear wave process in elastic shells, the liquid being inside them, with considering its inertia movement local members. The presented article studies consideration viscous incompressible liquid impact on non-linear deformation wave propagation, which requires computer modeling, the liquid being inside the shell. The existing methods of mathematical models qualitative analysis do not fully allow studying deformation wave models in case of the shell filled with viscous incompressible liquid. Transition to initial discrete analogue models represents a far more universal method of models investigation. This publication studies the impact of the structure damping in longitudinal direction, surrounding the elastic medium and viscous incompressible liquid inside the shell on the wave amplitude and velocity. Systematic studying of this model wave movements in physically non-linear elastic shell is performed by the difference scheme in analogy with Crank-Nicholson for heat conduction equation.

Ivanychev D. A. Solving the mixed type axisymmetric problems for anisotropic bodies with mass forces. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

A technique for solving the mixed axisymmetric problems for the bodies bounded by the coaxial rotating surfaces from transversal-isotropic material being under the impact of mass forces was developed in this work.

Its basis is a notion of the internal and boundary states, conjugated by the isomorphism, which allows establishing one-to-one correspondence between the elements of these spaces. The internal state includes the stress tensor components, deformation tensor components and displacement vector. The boundary state includes the forces and movements at the boundary, as well as mass forces. The isomorphism of the state spaces is proved, which allows finding the internal state to be reduced to the study of a boundary state isomorphic to it. The basis is formed based on the general solution of the boundary value problem for a transversely isotropic body of revolution and on the method of creating basic displacement vectors. The orthogonalization of the state spaces is performed. Finally, the desired state detecting is reduced to solving an infinite system of algebraic equations regarding the Fourier coefficients.

The article presents the solution of the problem with mixed boundary conditions for a cylinder. The material is a transversely isotropic siltstone with the anisotropy axis coinciding with the geometric axis of symmetry. Mass forces, imitating centrifugal inertial forces, act on the cylinder. Mechanical characteristics have an analytical polynomial character. The article presents the explicit and indirect signs of problem solution convergence, and graphical visualization of the results.

Britenkov A. K., Bogolyubov B. N., Deryabin M. S., Farfel V. A. Measuring electromechanical characteristics of a complex shape compact low-frequency hydro-acoustic irradiator. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

Low-frequency hydro-acoustic irradiators are employed in a wide specter of practical applications: from the long-distance underwater acoustic communication and teleguidance to seismic-geophysical prospecting. The irradiator case manufacturing is one of the most complicated technological procedures while its fabrication and tuning. The proposed structure of the hydro-acoustic transducer with corrugated radiating sheath allows eliminate a number of problems such as sealing, tolerance to hydrostatic pressure, parameter spread and reliability. Mechanical transformation ratio measuring was performed to evaluate the suggested irradiator effectiveness. Distribution of oscillations amplitudes of the radiating case and active element were obtained by the laser vibrometry method. The article presents the comparison of the irradiator mechanical characteristics measuring results in the water with the results of its resonant frequency evaluation based on the simplified theoretical model.
Parameters of the suggested hydro-acoustic irradiator demonstrate the prospects of such converter design and manufacturing techniques. The maximum specific acoustic power of the experimental irradiator with the corrugated case exceeds 360 kW/m3, that is more than one and a half times more, than for the existing compact transducers. The irradiator material and case structure allow its transportation by aerospace carriers. Compact radiators of such design may be applied in small-sized and tiny hydro-acoustic systems, modems, control units, sonars and communication at frequencies from hundreds of hertz to tens of kilohertz.

Nguyen T. T., Tarlakovsky D. V. Antiplane non-stationary motion of electromagnetic-elastic half-space with account for piezoelectric effects. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The article considers homogeneous anisotropic unsteady electromagnetic-elastic motion related to the rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. The resolving system of equations includes equations of motion, Cauchy relations for deformations, Maxwell equations, as well as linearized generalized Ohm’s law and piezo-effects accounting for the physical relationships.

The article demonstrates that the antiplane movement is possible for the transversally isotropic medium in conditions of magnetic piezo-effects absence. It is assumed, that in this option the displacement and non-zero component of electric induction vector are set, and zero initial conditions and all components of stress and strain state are limited at the half-plane boundary.

The problem solving is being sought in the form of convolution functions of the specified displacement and electric induction with relevant surface Green’s functions. Laplace transformations in time and Fourier transformations in space coordinate are applied for their plotting. Analysis of images and characteristic equation revealed the intricacy of plotting the originals in an explicit form. Thus, the method of a small parameter, which is used as a coefficient, linking mechanical and electromagnetic fields, is employed. With this, it was marked that with the zero small parameter these fields are independent.

An explicit form of images of the first two coefficients of the corresponding power series was found. Their original are being found either by sequential Fourier and Laplace transforms inversion, or with the algorithm of joint Fourier and Laplace transforms inversion. In the most complicated case, the original is being presented in the form of definite integral, being calculated by a numerical procedure.

As a result, the problem solution is reduced to the two linear operators in convolution functions for the sought-for functions.

The examples of calculations are presented for the the material of a half-space in the form of quartz. The article demonstrates the dependencies on time and spatial coordinate of the resolving relations kernels, as well as electric induction and displacement for the concrete option of boundary conditions. Induction changes linearly along the coordinate, as the Heaviside function in time, while the displacement changes correspondingly as the Dirac delta function and linearly.

It is stated that single-error corrections introduced into the solution with due regard to piezoelectric properties of the medium have the order of the coefficient linking mechanical and electromagnetic fields.

Abramova K. A., Soudakov V. G. Flow Control Optimization by Tangential Blowing-Out on Transonic Airfoil. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

Aerodynamic characteristics optimization of the transonic airfoil while flow-around control was performed based on numerical modelling. A jet of compressed air was blown-out from a small slot nozzle tangentially to the upper surface of the airfoil in the region of the shock wave. The blowing-out affects the shock wave and boundary layer interaction (SBLI), thus improving the airfoil performance.

The flow-around modelling was performed in the framework of the Reynolds equations. Computations were carried out in the 2D-setting for a mode with the Mach number of M = 0.72 and Reynolds number Re = 2.6 ∙ 106, computed by the chord, which corresponds to the testing mode in the wind tunnel.

Numerical optimization was performed to find optimal blowing-out parameters. With this, the blowing-out position, its intensity and the angle of attack were varied. Two objective functions were considered, namely, aerodynamic quality maximization and drag minimization at the constant lifting force. For the first objective function, position was being varied from 55% to 96% of the chord, and for the second one from 55% to 65% of the chord. The intensity was being varied from 100 to 300 kPa. The angle of attack was varied from 0.9 to 2.5 degrees.

The adaptive single-objective optimization was used. This method consists in employing Optimal Area Filling, Kriging response surface, and MISQP gradient algorithm (Mixed-Integer Sequential Quadratic Programming). Optimization revealed that for the lift-over-drag ratio objective function maximization, the optimal slot position was 83% of the chord, and the optimal jet intensity is Cµopt = 0.0049. For the objective function of Cxa minimization at a constant Cya ≈ 0.51, the utmost right position of the nozzle (65%) of all considered, and jet intensity Cµopt = 0.0051 are optimal. Tangential blowing-out with optimal parameters increased Kmax by 6% for the case of maximum quality; in the case of minimization of drag, Kmax increased by 3.5%, while the drag decreased by 1.1%.

Further the authors are planning consider more complex objective functions, accounting for the jet reaction contribution, as well as energy consumption for its blowing-out.

Zhbanov V. A., Kashevarov A. V., Miller A. B., Potapov Y. F., Stasenko A. L., Tokarev O. D. Studying icing under various conditions. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The article discusses the results of aircraft icing studying performed at TsAGI in the conditions of liquid droplet, crystalline and mixed clouds. The experimental set-ups for icing studying are described. Methods of ice crystals forming in the flow of icing wind tunnel are presented. The article presents data on the size and shape of the obtained crystals.

The results of the latest activity of TsAGI in international research projects on icing are presented. A number of coatings were studied under the conditions of run-back ice formation within the framework of the ICETRACK project.

The HAIC project (High Altitudes Ice Crystals) is studying the physics of icing under fully glaciated conditions. The experimental results on the formation of run-back ice on a wing profile model with a heated leading edge are described. The experiments were performed under conditions of crystal impingement for the cases of the initially dry heated surface and for that covered with an artificially created liquid film.

The physical-and-mathematical models of the of ice crystals interaction with both dry and wetted surfaces of streamlined bodies were developed.

For the case of a wetted surface, the water film movement along the surface is considered. The impact of the finite melting time of the crystals and the dependence of the effective suspension viscosity from the mass fraction of the dispersed phase on the processes occurring in the film are accounted for.

The movement of spheroidal crystals in the airflow is considered for the case of a dry surface. The model accounts for the orientation of non-spherical particles with respect to the air velocity vector. It is shown, that the process of ice accretion on the wing profile surface in the stream carrying oblate spheroidal crystals differs greatly from the case of a flow with spherical crystals

A numerical verification of the developed models was performed by comparison with the experimental data. The results of these studies are important for the problems of icing of engines and Pitot tubes in fully crystalline and mixed conditions.

Kirillov O. E., Mirgazov R. M., Golubev N. V., Petruhin D. A. Experimental studies of non-stationary aerodynamic characteristics of a helicopter airfoil vibrating in pitch angle. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

There is presently no reliable theoretical approach capable to predict the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the airfoils at the helicopter blade sections operating near or beyond the dynamic stall angle of attack. However, numerous wind-tunnel tests of vibrating airfoils do provide a valuable experimental foundation for establishing phenomenological models, through which certain semi-empirical predictions can be made.

The article presents the results of experimental studies of non-stationary integral and distributed aerodynamic characteristics of the helicopter's airfoil in stationary and non-stationary modes. The stationary mode is a fixed airfoil in a uniform steady airflow. The non-stationary mode is an airfoil vibrating in the pitch angle in a uniform steady airflow. The studies were being performed in the vertical, closed-circuit TsAGI wind tunnel with an open test section at Reynolds numbers Re = 270,000 and 540,000, and at reduced frequencies from 0.06 to 0.26.

A particular feature of the study was application of two methods for aerodynamic characteristics determining, namely, a direct method of forces measuring using balance, and calculating forces by integrating the pressure distribution along the chord. The obtained results are compared to each other, and their satisfactory agreement in the stationary mode is shown.

Another feature of the study is the analysis of forces pulsations and pressures on the airfoil surface. In particular, using the wavelet analysis, a phenomenon called “frequency explosion”, specific for the dynamic stall of the flow, is demonstrated.

Krioukov V. G., Abdullin A. L., Nikandrova M. N., Iskhakova R. L. Reactions Mechanisms Reduction While Modelling The High-Temperature Flows in Nozzles. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

Modern models for high-temperature chemically non-equilibrium flows calculating in nozzles are based on the detailed chemical kinetics. For this purpose, a certain reaction mechanism is built into the model. An expert approach is usually used to substantiate (reduction) this mechanism. However, it requires significant time consumption, and is performed only by the experienced specialists.

However, a number of automated reduction methods (an automated approach) are already developed thus far, and widely used. The article proposes a procedure for reducing the reaction mechanisms for chemically non-equilibrium flows in aircraft engines nozzles. This procedure consists of two methods: DRGEP (Directed Relation Graph Error Propagation) method and method of engagement with an adaptive threshold. The DRGEP method is focused on selection of only unimportant species and removal them from reaction mechanism along with reaction triggering them. If insignificant reactions still remain in the mechanism, they are removed by the method of engagement.

This procedure is included in the program for calculating chemically non-equilibrium flows in a nozzle. It generates a reduced local mechanism (L-mechanism) from the initial (redundant) set of reactions for the given values of the parameters αok, Pос , rm. Joining the L-mechnisms, obtained with the other values of these parameters it is possible to form a global mechanism (G-mechanism) for the specified area of their variation.

The cre ate d procedure validation was performed for the combustion products flow in the profiled nozzles for the LRE engine fuel (“О2 + kerosene” and “N2O4 + C2H8N2”) for a wide range of variation: oxidant excess ratio ( αok = 0.7…1.2); pressure (Pос = 20…100 atm.); minimum radius (rm = 0.006….0.06 m) with a geometric degree of expansion fa = 50.

With an acceptable error in the flow characteristics prediction:

a) G -mechanism recombination of the working medium “О2 + kerosene” was reduced from 47 reactions and 16 substances to 15 reactions and 9 substances (H , H2 , O , O2 , CO2 , H2O , CO , OH , HCO);

b) G -mechanism recombination of the working medium “N2O4 + C2H8N2” was reduced from 82 reactions and 26 substances to 27 reactions and 15 substances (H, H2, O, O2, CO2, H2O, CO, OH, N, N2, NO, NH, HCO, HNO, N2O).

Firsanov V. V., Pham V. T. Stress-strain state of the spherical shell based on the refined theory. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The classical theory does not produce a satisfactory compliance with practice while calculating the stress-strain state of structural elements in the areas of fixture and action of local and rapidly changing loads, as well as structural elements made of heterogeneous materials. To describe the volumetric stress-strain state, it is necessary to develop a refined, with respect to the classical theory of the Kirchhoff-Love type, theory based on the three-dimensional equations of the elasticity theory.

The presented work proposes an option of the refined theory of the stress-strain state calculation of isotropic shells. The mathematical model is built based on the 3D equations of the elasticity theory. The problem of 3D equations reduction to the 2D equations is being solved by representing the desired displacements with polynomials over the normal coordinate of two orders higher relative to the classical theory.

The system of differential equations of equilibrium in displacements with variable coefficients was obtained using the Lagrange variational principle. The aforesaid system of equations solution was being performed by methods of finite differences and matrix run. As a result, the displacements in the grid nodes were obtained, and splines were used for their approximation. The shell deformations are being found by dint of geometry relationships, and tangential stresses are determined from the Hook’s law relationships. Lateral stresses are obtained by direct integrating of the equilibrium equations of the 3D elasticity theory.

A hemispherical shell rigidly clamped along the lower contour of the base is considered as an example. Comparing the obtained results with the data of the classical theory allowed establishing that the refined theory should be used while studying the stress-strain state of the spherical shell near the zones of the stress state distortion. For example, it should be applied in the vicinity of a rigidly clamped edge, since the maximum stresses in this zone are being refined substantially.

Neglected in the classical theory, the transverse normal and tangential stresses in the border zone are of the same order as the maximum stress values corresponding to the classical theory. Such high levels of additional stresses should be accounted for while assessing the shell structures strength and durability.

With distancing from the edge the stresses, obtained by the refined and classical theories are practically concurring, which confirms the fidelity of the obtained results.

Philatov V. I., Borukaeva A. O., Berdikov P. G., Kulakov D. V. Developing methods for noise-proof signals distinction. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The purpose of this work consists in selecting an optimal device for processing a complex signal, ensuring a low noise level. The article considers the operation principle of the scheme for forming and processing a complex signal with informational modulation. It describes also the receiver operation, which performs the inverse transformation of the signal. The authors consider several types of demodulator schemes and their principle of operation. Based on the existing options for schemes structures that solve the problem of the channel selection in which the signal is located, the comparative analysis of the options for the solver structure, allowing substantially reduce the interference impact, was performed. In conclusion, the brief comparative review of the proposed solver units is carried out. The authors make conclusion on selection of a certain type of solver unit that increases the noise immunity of complex signals due to selection of the signal certain parameters.

Relevance of the presented work theme is substantiated primarily by the necessity of developing the new techniques and methods allowing detecting, classifying and distinct complex signals of this or that radio-receiving unit, since more and more radio-electronic means employed onboard the civil and military aircraft are operating with complex signals. The most widespread complex signals herewith are the signals based on linear M-sequences. Application of complex signals is stipulated by their pronounced noise-proof characteristics necessary in conditions of radio channels operation in jamming environment. The radio channel saturation by the complex signal herewith requires the receiver quite accurately detect exactly its own radio signals. In this regard, it is necessary to develop an approach allowing determine the class and distinct the type of signal-code structure to step-by-step simplification of the algorithm for signal detection, identification and processing.

Krylov V. P., Pronin T. Y. Relative statistical evaluation of printed circuit boards mechanical characteristics technological non-uniformity. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

A model of statistical factor analysis was applied for a batch of 12 samples of glass-epoxy double-sided and multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs) to examine the engineering tolerance of the average values of elastic modulus and mechanical loss coefficient. Experimental estimates of the variations were obtained in the form of ratios of standard deviations of the technological and measuring errors.

Samples of various thickness with a shape of rectangular plates with 130 by 60 mm size were alternately secured in the fixture on a vibrating table by the four screws on the corners. Registration of frequency characteristics near the first resonance was performed with the IMV shaker i220 in the sinusoidal vibration mode within the frequency range of 5 ... 2000 Hz with a vibration acceleration of 2 g. In this frequency range the device has no natural resonances.

The measurement cycle consisted of two series of measurements of each sample, performed within one working day, with one-hour interval between each series. Three cycles were performed: before and after the heat treatment in a convective reflow oven, and after 6 months of storage at room temperature.

The numerical values of the mechanical characteristics were measured by solving inverse ill-posed problems using SolidWorks Simulation program. The calculated model of factor analysis assumes the random nature of technological and measuring errors, as well as a linear correlation between the series of measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient uniquely determines the relative statistical evaluation of the technological error of the aforementioned mechanical characteristics of the PCBs within the batch.

The relative estimate of the elastic modulus variation equals to 14 and does not depend on the heat treatment and storage within the confidence interval of the sample value of the correlation coefficient. The corresponding estimate of the variation in the coefficient of mechanical loss, initially equal to 3, increases by more than 50% after the heat treatment and returns to its original values after storage.

Recommendations on the application of the results obtained while the vibration strength testing of electronic devices of the unmanned spacecraft are given.

Zvonarev V. V., Popov A. S., Khudik M. Y. Error probability computing technique for symbol-by-symbol receiving of discrete messages in the presence of interference. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The purpose of the article consists in obtaining analytical expression for of error probability computing of symbol-by-symbol receiving of discrete messages in the presence of interference.

The article presents the analysis of optimum symbol-by-symbol coherent correlation reception without noise, the principles of modems' circuit and constructive implementation, methods of achieving high noise immunity by transmission and reception of the phase-shifted keyed signals in satellite radio channels, in the TV transmission channels, computer simulation of the correlation receiver.

Mathematical formalization of the device in the form of equations is the solution of statistical problem of finding addition to the probability determination of the correct exceedance of one Gaussian random variable over another in the presence of negligible algorithm of optimum reception deliberate, harmonious and coherent with signal, noises.

The article presents the technique and results of error probability calculation of the of symbol-by-symbol reception of binary phase-shifted keyed opposite signals in the presence of the harmonious co-phased noise, not considered by the correlator. Optimum symbol-by-symbol reception of discrete messages is performed by the correlation receiver, or the matched filter configured on the signal in the noise absence, in the presence of receiver noises only.

The approach considered in article is necessary for calculation of error probability of character recognition the presence of the additive noises of various structures, which are not considered by the reception algorithm of the manipulated radio signals.

The developed technique application is prospective for potential noise stability calculation of the symbol-by-symbol reception in conditions of presence of the deliberate noises of various structures at a radio channel.

Smirnov A. A. Applying digital predistortion introduction technique to improve energy efficiency of info-communication radio equipment. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

In recent years, the explosive growth of portable info-communication devoces is being observed. Several factors became the catalyst of this development, including Internet of things (IoT) development, a wide proliferation of UAVs (unmanned flying vehicles), the fourth industrial revolution (4.0 industry) etc. These conditions impose a complex of requirements to the info-communication electronic equipment, responsible for data transmission. One of the basic tasks is energy efficiency enhancing of the radio devices under development.

The article considers methods of digital predistortion (DPD) introducing and envelope tracking (ET) as ways of efficiency increasing of info-communication means, and performs a comparative analysis of both methods implementation.

Radio module is the most energy-consuming part of modern radio communication devices. It consumes up to 50% of the total battery charge. Power amplifiers, in their turn, are the main energy consumers of the radio modules. They consume up to 50% of the radio module total consumption as well [1].

Due to its non-linearity, the amplifier requires a precise selection of the input level to ensure its operation in linear mode. However, this requirement contradicts to the need for the amplifier most effective utilization, i.e. obtaining the maximum possible signal at its output. A compromising solution consists in finding an optimal operating point.

Modern standards of communication and data transmission are very sensitive to various kinds of nonlinearities. This is determined by the high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) as well. The higher this value, the less time the amplifier runs at maximum power.

Ananev A. V., Stafeev M. A., Makeev E. V. Developing communication organization method employing short-range unmanned flying vehicles. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The article proposes a method of radio communication employing a group of short-range UAVs-repeaters allowing ensure information exchange in conditions of the enemy counteraction. The main correspondents of the article are members of the reconnaissance and strike contours involving manned and unmanned short-range aircraft..

The disadvantages of this communications method when employing a single UAV in the information area are the high vulnerability of the transmission system due to the destruction of a single UAV-repeater, and insufficient communication range.

The purpose of this article consists in providing a method of organizing application of groups of unmanned aerial vehicles in reconnaissance and strike contours, including those involving aviation.

Analysis of the radio communication structure employing a single UAV-repeater is presented. The necessity of using a composite communication channel formed by the groups of unmanned aerial vehicles repeaters is substantiatied.

The result of the of the proposed method application is the ability of high-quality information exchange between the subscribers located outside of the direct visibility zone within the required period of time.

The positive effect is being achieved due to the fact, that the method comprises communication establishing between subscribers by deploying a radio link for a limited period of time (required for the task accomplishment) in the areas of interest. These are the areas where the deployment and application of terrestrial communications is hampered (difficult terrain, swamps, fires, electromagnetic incompatibility, radio-electronic counteraction). The article presents the results of the method practical approbation.

Chistyakov V. A. Algorithm for adaptive noise filtering in digital antennae arrays of satellite communication. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

Currently, no radio equipment can do without an antenna system, ranging from primitive radios to complex space systems. So on modern communication spacecraft, complex antenna arrays (AR) are installed, which differ in their configuration, a set of elements and a number of other important parameters. The main trend of space technologies development is noise immunity of communication channels in conditions of both peace and wartime. The article proposes an algorithm for adaptive filtering of useful signals against the background of various disturbances, which allows ensure necessary interference protection of communication channels during messages transmission

The adaptive algorithm is based on the method of direct inversion of the signals correlation matrix at the input of the antenna system. The main idea of the algorithm consists in obtaining an optimal weighting factors vector that allows changing the amplitude-phase distribution of the antenna array in such a way that deep sags are formed in the directional pattern (DP) in the direction of the interference.

The optimal weighting factors vector estimation computing is being performed by direct inversion of the interference correlation matrix. This method implicate creating a sample estimate of the correlation matrix using a pack of training vectors.

The advantages of this algorithm include a high rate of convergence of the weight coefficients vector and a rather deep formation of sags in the DP of AR in the direction of interference. Nonetheless, this algorithm is difficult to implement, in the case when the correlation matrix is degenerate, which makes its inversion impossible. This problem occurs when the signals from the outputs of the antenna array elements are linearly dependent.

However, there are two ways to solve this problem.

The first method involves application of the so-called diagonal load, which allows increase the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the correlation matrix, allowing thereby solve the singularity problem. Also, this method is noteworthy in that it allows evaluating the correlation matrix when the number of training pack is less than the number of the antenna array elements.

The second method involves increasing the number of training pack so that their number is at least twice the number of the antenna array elements.

The process of adaptive filtering is represented by the example of a flat rectangular 25-element array antenna, which input receives useful and interfering signals. The narrow-band signals with FM4 modulation, acting within the main lobe of the directional pattern, are used as the useful signals. The interference, in turn, is represented as a white Gaussian noise with a wide spectrum. In consequence of the algorithm modeling, the author has formed an adaptive antenna array directional pattern, and presented a useful signal spectrum passed the adaptive processing, which allowed filtering-out the interfering signals components.

Thus, the performed simulation has confirmed theoretical calculations of the adaptive filtering algorithm for the direct inversion of the correlation matrix, which makes it attractive for applicaiton in modern digital antenna systems.

However, the main factors affecting the technical characteristics of the adaptive filtering algorithm should be noted as well.

The first factor affecting the high characteristics of the above-described algorithm is, in the first place, its own noise caused by analog and digital equipment included in the antenna system.

In particular, the internal noise of the analog-digital path is determined by the jitter of the aperture, jitter from sampling, and differential nonlinearity.

The second factor is the length of the sample of training packs. As was said above, the correlation matrix of the input signals might be degenerate, which would lead to an inaccurate estimation of the weight coefficients. Thus, to avoid this situation, it is necessary to increase the number of training pack.

The third factor, causing the operation errors of the adaptive filtering algorithm is the decorrelation of the signals in the receiving channels of the digital antenna array. This is due primarily to the nonidentity of the amplitude-phase characteristics of the antenna array channels, as well as the moments of signals sampling discrepancy in them. Thus, decorrelation of signals leads to the fact that the non-diagonal elements of the correlation matrix of the input signals decrease in modulus, which causes an incorrect estimate of the weight coefficients.

Vasil`ev V. A., Fedyunin P. A., Danilin M. A., Vasil`ev A. V. Problem issues of information support of striking aircraft complexes management. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The article substantiates the need for further improvement of the information supply organization for the management striking aircraft complexes with the direct support of the Ground Forces. The analysis of the information supply management organization, which means information collection, processing and transmission in time, was performed. The impact of the message delay in the control channel due to the perturbing action on the effectiveness of the striking aircraft complex control was estimated. The contradiction between the need to increase the intensity of control information transmission to maintain its adequacy and the limited capacity of the aviation radio network capacity was revealed.

The order of access to common time-frequency resources of aviation radio networks is determined by the random multiple access algorithm with carrier verification, for which the system queuing models are well-known. Information flows through logical connections are represented by a stationary Poisson flow, and the transmission medium is represented by a multiple-access radio channel Application of this model allows determining the pack delay time as a function of the information exchange intensity and network parameters. The steady state of the network is characterized by low latency and the highest performance. An unstable state is characterized by irreversible latency increase, and performance decrease. Representation of the information exchange process without introducing model elements into the network, which account for the state of the network under the impact of the intentional interference may lead to an error in determining messages delay.

The effectiveness of target indication and guidance of striking aircraft complexes on the maneuvering ground target depends on the delay of managing messages, which leads to an error in determining the information damage management.

This contradiction resolution may consist in the information intensity updating of the assignment control, at which specified permissible information damage in predicted conditions of situation and a priori known dynamic characteristics of target will not be exceeded. With a large number of options for the situation and target movement parameters, this approach has low efficiency. Its more advanced version is represented in adaptive traffic intensity control in the control channel of the striking aircraft complexes or speeds of logical connections in aviation radio network.

Practical implementation of this approach will ensure the required timeliness of information exchange while target indication and guidance, and increase the likelihood of the guidance of striking aircraft complex on the target.

Titov A. G., Neretin E. S., Dudkin S. O., Brusnikin P. M. Developing the onboard data server for application as a part of radio-electronic equipment employing the concept of integrated modular avionics. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

Modern onboard equipment (OBE) complexes include the systems for which storage and processing of a large amount of information is required. The real time data access is required herewith.

Analysis of the existing data storage systems revealed that on the samples of domestic aircraft, information is most often stored on computers which main functions are not data storage, but data processing. The main part of computing resources is spent on running applications. This leads to slow processing of requests to the database, which in turn affects the operation speed of the systems that need data from the database or that are writing to the database.

The article is devoted to the development of an onboard data server (BSD) with employing the concept of integrated modular avionics (IMA) for the onboard equipment (OBE) complex of the medium-range MS-21 aircraft.

The main functions performed by the BSD are storing the aircraft systems databases (DB) (such as on-board maintenance system and air navigation system), supporting database management systems (DBMS) for these databases and ensuring access to them at the request of functional applications as part of OBE.

The BSD represents computing platform of a separate data server ensuring execution of several independent functional applications and interaction with on-board equipment via the interfaces AFDX, USB, Ethernet, RS-232.

The article proposes and describes four operation modes, namely, starting mode, operating mode, advanced monitoring and technological modes. Switching algorithm between the OBD operating modes is described.

The authors propose requirements for the onboard data server, software requirements, architecture and design of the onboard data server.

The BSD employing will allow relieve the load the computing kernels of the functional applications of aircraft systems, simplify the work of the maintenance personnel, interacting with the onboard maintenance system and the aircraft crew, when compiling the flight plan using navigational data processed on the server.

Kosachev I. M., Chugai K. N., Rybackov K. A. Methodology of random processes high-precision filtering in stochastic dynamic systems with fixed structure. (Part 1). Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The article presents a methodical approach to high-precision nonlinear filtering of multidimensional non-Gaussian random processes in continuous-time stochastic dynamical systems with a fixed structure. The high accuracy of the developed algorithms for the optimal nonlinear filtering problem is stipulated by application of a posteriori higher order central moments of the filtered process. The adaptability of the developed high-precision nonlinear filtering algorithms is ensured by computing in real time a posteriori skewness and excess kurtosis for all phase coordinates of the filtered random process. Further, they are compared with the threshold values corresponding to the Gauss random process, and, if necessary, accounting for by iteration way filtering algorithms of a posteriori higher central moments of the filtered process.

The methodology under consideration for high-precision nonlinear filtering of multidimensional non-Gaussian random processes may be employed for eight basic options of filtering problems. Though engineering algorithms are presented only for the problem of filtering with adaptive noises in mathematical model of the stochastic dynamic system.

The methodical approach to high-precision nonlinear filtering of multidimensional non-Gaussian random processes can be used for eight basic variants of filtering problems, but engineering algorithms are given only for the filtering problem with additive noises in the mathematical model of the stochastic dynamical system.

The first part of the article describes three stages of the proposed methodical approach:

  1. Obtaining universal stochastic integro-differential equations for a posteriori arbitrary order central moments of the filtered process.

  2. Obtaining stochastic integro-differential equations for a posteriori the required order central moments based on the given mathematical model of the stochastic dynamical system.

  3. Obtaining stochastic differential equations for a posteriori central moments of the required order by expansion of averaging in corresponding stochastic integro-differential equations by the non-linearities statistical approximation method.

Other stages of the proposed technique will be described in the second part of the article.

Zhukov S. V., Danilin A. I. Infrared optoelectronic transducer of the helicopter main rotor deformation state. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

This article deals with developing a method and a device for a helicopter main rotor deformation state. It proposes an additional infrared channel for the main rotor monitoring. The article considers fundamentals and operation conditions of the proposed method and device. The experiment was performed with the blades models, manufactured from various materials. The experiment was being conducted for various setting angles of the blade model. As a result, the studies of the blade models setting angles impact on the reflected flux formation were conducted assisted by the setting angle adjusting mechanism. Amplitude characteristics, showing the dependence of the signal amplitude from setting angle of the blade model, were obtained. Natural and technogenic sources of jamming radiation, and the atmosphere bandwidths are presented. Natural interference of the infrared band were studied experimentally. For this purpose, an experiment with infrared radiation detector was performed. As an addition to the experiment, the impact of natural sources of infrared radiation and optical properties of the atmosphere on the sensors operation was considered theoretically. Based on the considered data, a part of the infrared band spectrum was offered for utilization for the subsequent development of the sensors and systems. The article presents the description of the experimental test bench for the workout of separate propositions of the method and separate units of the device. Conclusions on the applicability and further development of the method are drawn.

Baranov N. A., Taipova D. R. A device for space particles parameters measuring and evaluating their impact on the satellite-building materials. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The article describes the effect of small fractional space debris on satellite-building materials that are most vulnerable to the impact of dust particles, such as various optical products materials (portholes, protective glasses, lenses, mirrors, solar batteries, thermal control coatings and electrovacuum insulation).

Collision with particles of the centimeter-sized space debris is fatal for a satellite, and the space stations may be damaged. A head-on collision with millimeter-sized particles will cause the satellite or station equipment failure or destroy it. The smaller particles are cannot inflict significant damage to satellite equipment, but may lead to degradation of the fragile parts.

The article proposes the design and principle of operation of a flat panel cosmic dust detector. This device makes allows perform complex spatial registration of the impact of meteoroid and technological particles on the spacecraft. The basis of the device design is a body made of nanocomposite material or beryllium aluminum alloy with mechanically fixed cells containing the following materials: a piezo-active polarized PVDF film, a thin-film capacitor sensor, a phosphor, various satellite-building materials, and an aerogel layer for trapping and further post-flight study of fractional space debris. The detector registers and measures parameters of impacts based on several physical phenomena, such as an MDM structure breakdown consisting of a dielectric layer and metal conductive layers deposited on it, phosphor glow and a signal from the piezosensor. The design being described includes special target inserts from vulnerable satellite building materials to control the degree of their degradation under the impact of a dust particles stream.

Kuksenko S. P. Simulation of a spacecraft noise immune power network. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 105,

The article presents a generalized characteristic of a spacecraft power grid and tendencies of its improvement with regard to power buses application. It proves the relevance of mathematical modelling employing with account for electromagnetic compatibility requirements while the system designing. The article presents a brief description of the software prototype developing specifics in TUSUR for designing elements of the spacecraft distribution network. The prototype is based on the TALGAT system, which functional was updated. The system was employed earlier while fulfilling several space projects. TEM-approximation, the method of moments and the modified method of nodal potentials for calculating parameters of the of transmission lines segments and the response at the end of the structure were used as the mathematical basis for the software prototype developing. Such an approach allows significant simulation time saving, and thus, considering a greater number of possible topologies of the power supply network, as well as speeding up the process of its designing, as compared to electro-dynamic simulation.

The article presents the simulation results of the power bus and wire taps connected to it, as well as the development of a module for evaluating the effectiveness of shielding enclosures with apertures and a database of conducted interference signals. Computing of N-norms used to characterize the signal in the time domain and determine the limit of susceptibility of the equipment were also implemented. Thus, they may be used to evaluate not only the immunity of the spacecraft power supply network, but also its reliability, as well as to identify the most critical network nodes to eliminate product failures during operation.

The approach to reducing the time spent on simulation was tested. It is demonstrated, that the simulation can be accelerated up to 19 times when the frequency dependence of the relative dielectric constant of the dielectric is accounted for.

Tleulinov M. K., Jafarzade A. . On reaction determining in connections of combined lifting member and control surfaces of low aspect ratio. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article considers the combined structure, consisting of a lifting member and control surface, connected in three or more points, i.e. statically undefined manner. The reactions value of such structures is determined not so much by the external loading as by the displacement compatibility conditions of lifting member and control surface hinged to it. Thus, it matters how the structure is being modeled, and what design models are being employed. The issue of the interrelation of reactions in the control panels hinging nodes, obtained while modelling according to the beam and plate analogies at small aspect ratios is studied. It was established earlier that the difference in reactions, obtained with the rod and plate models, decreased with the structure aspect ratio increase. It was close to zero at medium and high aspect ratio. The presented article studies the issue on the interrelation of the reactions in the control panels hinging nodes, obtained while modelling according to the rod and plate analogies at small aspect ratio. The frontal (laying in the control surface plane) reactions are being evaluated. It was established, that with small aspect ratio the divergence of the rod and plate values of the frontal reactions depended greatly on the aspect ratio and relative thickness. With this, the less the aspect ratio, the greater the dependence from the relative thickness. The difference between the reactions decreases with the relative thickness increase.

Thus, there is no need to use the plate model while determining the reactions value in the control surface hinging nodes at the lifting member length to width ratio greater than two. If this ratio is less, this necessity occurs. With this, the less the aspect ratio, the more the need for the plate analogy.

Khatuntseva O. N. Analytical method for velocity profile determining of the turbulent fluid flow in the flat Couette problem. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

Despite the great progress related to the solution of hydrodynamical problems both for the laminar and for turbulent flow modes based on the numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations (NSE), the main question is not resolved at the mathematical level of rigorousity: whether the NSE describe both these modes.

The Navier-Stokes equations represent the Newton second law for the selected small enough but finite volume of the isothermal liquid, and describe this volume acceleration under the action of the force caused, on one hand, by the pressure gradient and external forces, and, on the other hand, by viscous force action on the surface of this volume.

In case of the deterministic, i.e. laminar, liquid flow mode the NSE correctness for such process describing is undoubtful. However, while transition to the turbulent liquid flow mode a great number of additional stochastic degrees of freedom occur. In this regard, the issue on the possibility of such system description by the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations remains open.

It is obvious that the issue on the possibility or impossibility of the turbulent flow mode description based on the NSE can be considered in the simplest way on the example of solving those hydrodynamic problems, which allow analytical solutions. Regrettably, due to their complexity, the NSE have such solutions only for the restricted set of problems for very simple geometries.

The flat Couette problem is one of such problems. The transition to the analysis of Navier-Stokes equations in the space expanded via the additional variable, which specifies the entropy production due to the excitation of the stochastic pulsation in the fluid flow enables to find two solution of this problem. One of them corresponds the laminar flow mode, and the second corresponds the turbulent flow mode. is characterized by the linear velocity profile over the complete liquid flow domain. The second one is realized for the high enough Reynolds numbers, and is specified by the velocity profile proportional to the hyperbolic sine with parameters dependent on the Reynolds number.

The critical Reynolds number, at wich the laminar to turbulent flow mode transition is possible, is determined. Comparison with the available experimental data is presented.

Baklanov A. V., Makarova G. F., Vasil'ev A. A., Nuzhdin A. A. Gas injector geometry changing impact on the fuel jet spread angle. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

Ensuring of qualitative fuel supply to the combustion chamber primary zone is an important process affecting the fuel burn-up characteristics. Thus, the injector structure impact study on mixture, spread angle and fuel jet flow structure is an actual problem.

The article considers the combustion chamber injector of the NK-16ST gas turbine engine as the subject of research.

The injector contains a screw in its structure serving fuel swirling device, which allows classify it as a centrifugal gas injector.

This work performs research work on studying changes of a swirled fuel jet supplying method impact on the angle of fuel spray cone forming. For this purpose the installation was developed. Injector and flame stabilizer with a swirler, to which compressed air is supplied, are being fixed in the working section of the installation. The installation structure makes provision for separate control of the compressed air supplying to the air and gas pipelines.

A small metal balloon filled with aluminum powder to admixture it to the air is installed in the fuel line for the flow pattern visualization. A screen with the graduated scale is being installed to fix the spread angle of gaseous fuel and spread angle axial line shifting behind the injector

The results of the study allowed reveal that changing the distance between the screw and injector output section did not significantly affect the opening angle of the swirled jet, while the diameter change of aperture in the injector output section affected significantly the opening angle of the swirled jet. Flow characteristics of injectors were plotted. Structural measures allowing affecting the cone angle of the gaseous fuel and hence forming the necessary fuel burning process parameters were determined.

Varyukhin A. N., Ovdienko M. A. OpenFOAM software verification using seaplane gliding modelling problems. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

Drag force, seaworthiness and gliding stability of marine aircraft, including seaplane, amphibious aircraft and ekranoplan are the main characteristics which define their operational capability. Currently, the hydrodynamic layout development is being performed by the towing tests of dynamically scaled models. The reliable design procedure for hydrodynamics and seaworthiness performance determining could have allowed decrease the number of experiments and increase their efficiency. For this purpose, the open source computational fluid dynamics toolbox (OpenFOAM) verification was performed for hydrodynamic gliding and fast water entering problems

The test study was performed based on several experimentally validated typical problems. The keeled plate gliding on a partial and full width, keeled body on a regular wave, keeled plate water entry, and gliding with a stern interceptor are among them.

A comparison of the experimental and numerical results revealed that OpenFOAM accurately simulates the flow pattern and free surface of keeled planning plate. It also replicates the lift force and pitch moment (within the limits of the experiment accuracy). Unfortunately, the match of computational and experimental results for the drag force was no achieved. In general, this accuracy level can be considered as satisfactory for the certain class of problems where the drag force determining is not principle.

Further, it is necessary to perform parameters variation of the turbulence model, computations with more detailed computational grid, as well as perform simulations without the near-wall functions in the boundary layer etc.

A good agreement of computational and experimental values of hydrodynamic lifting force acting on flat-keeled body while its passing through the series of regular waves was achieved. A close agreement for both flow patterns and hydrodynamic lifting forces, acting on the bodies, was achieved while modelling the water entry by four different keeled bodies. A good agreement of additional lifting force and drag force was obtained while gliding modeling of a flat-keeled plate with stern interceptor.

As a conclusion, it can be recommended to apply the OpenFOAM open source software for obtaining the hydrodynamic lift force and the moment acting on the body while gliding and entering the water in steady state and transient cases. It is necessary perform additional studies to determine the drag force of gliding bodies accurately.

Sorokin F. D., Zhang H. ., Popov V. V., Ivannikov V. V. Experimental verification of the roller bearing energy model for aircraft engines supporting nodes modelling Part 2. Studying the rings bending impact on the full-load characteristic in case of a bearing unfixed in the bearing race. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

Bearings with flexible rings analysis is presented in a vast number of technical papers [3-11]. One of the first attempts to perform analysis of the bearing with account for its structural deformations was made by Jones and Harris [3]. They incorporated the outer ring flexibility into the model, although for a very particular case such as the support of an idler gear in a planetary transmission. Later Filetti and Rumbarger [4], developing a general method for predicting the impact of sthe tructural support upon bearing performance, treated the outer ring as a set of beam elements and used 1D linear springs for the rollers in contact. This model proved to have good correlation with experimental data. However, a priori knowledge on the attachment points of the outer ring significantly limits the approach applicability. Moreover, as with the of Jones and Harris formulation [3], only one of the bearing rings is deformable in the Filetti and Rumbarger model [4]. The recent model of Cavallaro et al. [5] considers deformations of both bearing rings. In contrast to the previous formulations, the problem of the rings deformations determination was formulated in terms of forces. The model considered also the centrifugal expansion of the rings, the cage rotation and the lubricant presence. Balykin et al. [6] has also recently studied the effect of the bearing races compliance, although limiting the discussion to some specific cases of external loading.

To verify the energy model of the roller bearing, a full-scale experiment was performed with the universal Zwick/Roell Z100 test machine. The roller bearing of 12309KM type was being loaded by the local compressive load acting on the outer ring. The bearing outer ring deformation was being measured by the strain gage. The experimental data comparison with the numerical results obtained by FEM and the results obtained from the previously developed energy model also confirmed the impact of ring compliance on the elastic characteristic of the bearing. The study revealed that in the absence of structural elements that exclude the rings bending (shafts, clips), the energy model of the roller bearing should be supplemented by a technique for accounting for the rings deformation.

Turanov R. A., Pykhalov A. A. Analysis of the "ear-plugˮ type structure operation by the finite elements method and by the contact problem of elasticity theory solution. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The wing to fuselage connection is one of the most critical part of any aircraft. Here, in most cases, the wing represents the main bearing surface, and the fuselage is the load. With the wing design complication, such as a caisson type, the urgent task of analyzing its fastening elements with the fuselage arises to obtain the most advantageous design in terms of mass and reliability. This problem has been traditionally solved by of empirical methods. This solution can be significantly expanded employing highly efficient theoretical methods that allow analyzing both the parts stress-strain state (SSS), and their conjugation conditions.

The results of experimental studies presented in the works of E.V. Ryzhov [7], show that while the joint structure loading, out of the total amount of deformations 80% from them are those at the parts joints, and only 20% are deformations of the parts themselves. Thus, in contrast to its monolithic analogue the operability of the prefabricated structure is determined by both the strength of the parts and the conditions of their conjugation (layout) aimed at ensuring the minimum level of stress concentration in the joints assemblies of the aircraft structure.

With the empirical approach, when solving design problems of this type, there is a need to create a large number of field test samples. As a result, the total and time costs are rather large. With the advent of modern computational technologies based on FEM, new computational techniques have appeared that allow the most detailed study of the perception of mechanical loads in the aircraft’s structural elements. They include the structural elements connecting the aircraft’s wing to the fuselage, which main component is the ear-plug design. Under certain operation conditions of the product (aircraft) the stress field in the presented structures attains the unevenness of a high gradient.

Thus, the task is relevant, and its implementation is possible by the finite element method and employing the solution of the contact problem of a solid deformable body, by building a finite element model and introducing a contact joint between the node elements (fork, ear, bolt, nut).

The basis of the design is an empirical method for calculating the stress-strain state of a fixed plug-type “Ear-plug” type, which is employed as a test object in this work.

Firsanov V. V., Vo A. H., Tran N. D. Studying stiffened shells stress state by the refined theory with account for ribs elasticity and clamped edge. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The presented article considers the clamped edge pliability and ribs stiffness impact on the stress state of stiffened shells determined by the refined theory.

Computing was performed according to the approach based on the shell displacement expanding into polynomials, one degree higher than the classical theory of Kirchhoff-Love type, over the coordinate normal to the median surface. Differential equation of equilibrium and boundary conditions of the shell were obtained based on the 3D theory of elasticity and Lagrange variation principle. The formulated boundary problem was solved by an analytical method using the Laplace transform.

The calculation results revealed quickly damping additional stress states of the “boundary layer” type while calculations were performed by the refined theory. The values of longitudinal and circumferential shell stresses are substantially refined nearby the stress state distortion zones (in places of ribs fixing and clamped edge), while normal stresses values are of the same order with maximum values of the main (internal) stress.

The study revealed that the shell stresses reduced several times with account for the clamped edge pliability. An important result related to the additional stress state consists in the fact that with the ribs stiffness increases, the transverse normal stresses, neglected in the classical theory, increase substantially. The obtained results can be applied for the design and evaluation of the strength of aircraft stiffened shells.

Philatov V. I., Borukaeva A. O., Berdikov P. G. Distance measuring system employing modulation chaotic noise function. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article discussed in detail the general characteristics of a distance measuring system or the range in which the transmitted signal is modulated by the chaotic noise. The distance measurement is performed by correlating the transmitted and received modulation signals. The modulating signal spectrum determines the function of this correlation dependence, and, hence, the system output, on the distance to the reflecting object. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of practical implementation of the filter, which limits the linear portion of the “system distance – output systems” characteristic for the system with noise modulation. Some new results that can be obtained are indicated. The article considers limitations of the method, and describes several types of noise-modulated systems. The successful operation of the system of one type is revealed. With a result of the described work, a system similar to the existing altimeters is proposed, but free from the ambiguity of reference inherent to the systems with periodic modulating function, devoid of systematic errors and allowing measure distances below several meters. This makes it particularly suitable for application as an altimeter in blind-landing systems. A method of analysis consideredin the article allows, within practicality, design the system with the desired “output – distance” ratio which can be installed further in the aircraft to determine the distance when performing takeoff and landing.

Kuznetsov V. S., Volkov A. S., Solodkov A. V., Slepov A. V. Studying OFMD with Amplitude-Phase Shift-keying Pulse-Amplitude Subcarrier Modulation and 10 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The presented work suggests a new modulation process, based on amplitude-phase modulation, with introduction of additional data transfer channel with amplitude modulation into quadrature to the transmitted signal with the amplitude-phase modulation. The OFDM system employing the suggested amplitude-phase amplitude-pulse modulation as a primary modulation method with frequency effectiveness of 10 bit/sample was considered.

Due to the quadrature modulation and demodulation scheme, with 8 amplitude levels of phase-shift keyed signal and 16 levels of a signal with amplitude-pulse modulation this method ensures frequency effectiveness in the output bandwidth up to the value of γPM-APM = 20 bit/s/Hz.

Additional advantages of this new proposed quadrature discrete modulation method consist in its high reliability while one of the modulation blocks failure, as well as its successful operation while phase inversion of the carrier recovered synchronization. Amplitude-phase modulation was selected as a prototype of the suggested modulation method.

A simulation model of a data transmission system with the given modulation method and OFDM technology was developed for studying the method of primary amplitude-phase amplitude-pulse modulation with selected effectiveness, surpassing the traditionally employed modulation methods in OFDM mode.

The simulation results allowed obtain experimental dependencies of the bit error caused by the signal to noise ratio conforming the analytical computation. The signal constellations of the amplitude-phase amplitude-pulse modulated signal, which shapes corresponded to the shape of the modulation type described by the author were obtained as well. The spectrum of the amplitude-phase amplitude-pulse modulated signal and OFDM signal were plotted. The spectrum effectiveness of the method, which also conformed with the theoretical computation, was obtained using the graph of the amplitude-phase amplitude-pulse modulated spectrum.

The required signal/noise ratio in the channel with additive Gauss white noise can be evaluated for the system functioning at the permissible error level by the dependence of the bit error probability, obtained while the system modelling. Thus, for the error level of 10–6 the required signal/noise energy ratio is 36.5 dB. The graph of power peak-factor distribution of the OFDM signal was obtained. The distribution appears the same as when the phase keying modulation used as a primary modulation. It is explained by the fact, that the main parameter affecting the distribution shape and peak-factor value is the number of subcarriers in the OFDM signal.

Gusev S. N., Sahno I. V., Khubbiev R. V. Evaluation technique for virtual objects on radar images formation quality. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article proposes an approach to solving the problem of calibrating quality of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) employing test signal simulation system. Thus, the subject of the research is the quality evaluating methods of virtual objects formation on radar images in the interests of SAR calibration.

At present, a common approach to evaluating the bjects imitation quality on radar images does not exist. Thus, the goal of the work consists in developing alternative approaches to assessing the quality of virtual objects formation on radar images, which allow obtaining quantitative characteristics of similarity degree of virtual and real objects.

The proposed method is based on applying correlation analysis technique and the theory of signal detection, which allows drawing a comparison between two images. The radar images herewith are represented by matrices of independent random variables characterizing the values of the intensity and coordinates of the corresponding target marks on the radar image. A special feature of the proposed approach is the study of the statistical characteristics of differential radar images.

The result of the work is a method for evaluating the virtual objects formation quality on radar images, and analytical expressions for computing the following characteristics:- the correlation index of the reference and virtual radar images:

  • the mean-square error of the virtual object formation on radar images;

  • the probability of a virtual object creation, which is an integral indicator, characterizing the probability of achieving such similarity degree of real and virtual objects, under which they cannot be distinguished.

The developed method was approbated during a semi-natural simulation of the virtual objects formation process on the radar images. The simulation results, presented in the work, validated the method and the required quality of the predefined virtual object formation.

The proposed method can be used for:

  • SAR calibration at various stages of development and design;

  • transponders development with program signal generation;

  • feasibility demonstration of the development trends for the SAR methods and measures.

Semakov S. L. On one approach to the probabilistic estimation of a civilian aircraft safety landing. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The problem of probabilistic estimate of safe landing for a civilian aircraft is considered. As is known, for civilian aircrafts, multi-channel means of recording flight parameters (MMRFP) are established, and in the ground service of the airline there is a division engaged in decoding the records of MMRFP. If necessary, the entire flight can be decoded, but, as a rule, only the most important parts of the flight, including the landing, are deciphered. The following task is posed: after a real flight, relying on the MMRFP records, we have to analyze the implementation of the random landing process and we have to characterize the quality and, in particular, the degree of safety of this particular landing of the aircraft in question. As a rule, according to the MMRFP, the deviations of the flight parameters fr om their nominal values ​​at given times, such as the time of flight of the runway end, are estimated. However, often going beyond the individual restrictions set out in the Flight Manual of an aircraft not only does not create the prerequisites for an accident, but also, taking into account the whole situation, can reduce the probability of an undesirable event. Therefore, it is not individual deviations that are more important, but an integral indicator of the landing process, for example, the probability of a safe landing, by which one can objectively judge the quality of piloting (manual or automatic) and the degree of safety of the landing in general.

In this paper, an aircraft motion is described by an n-dimensional random process Υ(x)={Υ1(x),...,Υn(x)}T, where T is the transposition symbol, x is the flight distance counted from the moment the landing process is considered from a fixed point of the landing surface (or its continuation), Υ1(x) is a random process of changing the flight altitude. A safe landing is the event ZD consisting in that the component Υ1(x) reaches the zero level (the level of landing surface) for the first time at any moment x* from a given interval (x',x"), x0<x'<x" , and at this moment the condition (Υ2(x*),...,Υn(x*))∈D is fulfilled, wh ere D is the specified subset of Rn-1. A scheme is proposed that allows decoding the MMRFP record of a specific landing implementation a posteriori to assess the quality of an already perfect landing from the point of view of its safety, i.e. a posteriori estimate the probability of event ZD.

Vataeva E. Y. Dynamics modelling of the extremal control system operation with extremum memorization. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

Landing is the most complicated and potentially dangerous operation mode of the aircraft. It is well known, that in the landing mode the aircraft behavior differs from its behavior in the other modes. It relates to its dynamic characteristics as well. The study of landing dynamics is characterized by complexity and specificity, associated with significant instability of the considered modes related to the essential changes in flight parameters. The main feature of the landing mode is the aircraft proximity to the Earth surface, and the need to fly at low speeds, implementing rather complex evolutions. The article considers the issue of dynamics modeling of nonlinear automatic control systems (ACS) in transient conditions. A system with extreme characteristics is selected as an object, namely the extremum seeking system with extremum memorization.

The main task of the extremal control system is the automatic maintenance of the optimal value of the regulating action, which ensures an extreme value of the coordinates, object parameters, or any indicator of the process efficiency during uncontrolled and unknown changes in the properties of the control object itself and its operating conditions.

It must be borne in mind that the interaction of the braking wheel with the surface along which it rolls is of an extreme character. The feature of the developed system is that the aircraft behavior on the left slope of the characteristic differs greatly from its behavior on the right slope. The left slope of the characteristic characterizes a stable movement of the system, while the right slope corresponds to an unstable state of the system. This article addresses the issue of developing an extremum seeking control (ESC) system with extremum memorization in “Matlab/Simulink”. A semi-natural system ECS was developed on the NI ELVIS – II platform in conjunction with the LabVIEW graphical programming language. This complex can be employed for studying and developing regulators for various braking systems.

Volkov S. S. An approach to solving the problem of personality identification by gas-discharge visualization method. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article considers the approach to solving the identification problem by gas-discharge visualization (GDV) method. This approach is planned to be applied in aerospace branch for the purpose of prevention of industrial espionage and penetration to the classified objects.

This work purpose consists in demonstrating the unique possibilities of the gas-discharge visualisation method.

The work novelty consists in the fact that the approach to solving the problem of identification with the GDV method was not applied anywhere else, and was not considered. The interest to the personality identification in an aerospace complex is caused by the fact that many modern identification methods have shortages and can be falsified. In this connection, a necessity for searching for the new identification methods, one of which is represeted by the suggested approach. The hypothesis that the GDV-images possess the «identification cells» was put forward, and the images with the filter obtained in the process of shooting are constant and arenot subjected to changing. Thus, based on the identification determination they will be the reference, with which the images without the filter will be compared. The images without a filter are made while an employee authentication

The article presents the example of application of the proposed identification method in aggregate with the automated assessment system of the operator psychophysiological state (PPhS). The given example is interesting to that it allows perform simultaneous monitoring of health and readiness for professional activity, and, at the same time, to carry out personality identification of the aerospace complex employee

In consequence of the study, it was confirmed that the above said approach really allows identifying the personality. The obtained data confirms the put forward hypothesis. However, it is necessary to perform at least ten iterations for the higher purity of the experiment.

The author recommends apply the approach to the personality identification with the GDV method combined with the automated system for phsycophysiological state estimation. This will allow both ensure claasified information integrity, and perform monitoring of physical and phsycological health of all employees of aviation, rocket and space branches.

Nemychenkov G. I. Control of beams of trajectories of automation type stationary systems given discrete inaccurate measurements. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article considers the problem of optimal control for deterministic discrete stationary automation-type systems under parametric uncertainty in the presence of discrete inaccurate measurements.

The discrete automation system (SAT) is described by recurrent equations and serves as a mathematical model of control devices in the form of a memory automation. On a continuous time period of the SAT operation a finite number its state changes occurs. At the switching moments, when the changes of the state occur, the system trajectory has jumps. The system maintains its state between switches. In contrast to the classical models of discrete systems [1, 2], changes in the states, occurring at specified (clock) moments of time, the SAT switching might be arbitrary, not predetermined by moments of time [3, 4]. The quality of one trajectory control of the system is estimated by the functional, which takes account of the switching costs. Selection of the number of switches and clock moments is one of the control resources and is a subject to optimization [5]. This does not exclude multiple switching at a fixed time [3]. Thus, the problem of optimal SAT synthesis generalizes the problem of the discrete controlled system control [1, 2].

The problems in which suboptimal beam control is optimal are of interest. The well-known results relate to the linear-quadratic problems where the linear systems control is evaluated by a quadratic quality functional. It is shown in [6] that the optimal control of the beam of trajectories of a continuous system coincides with the optimal control of one (isolated) trajectory coming from the geometric center of gravity of the set of possible initial states.

Generally speaking, the principle of separation is not fulfilled in the linear-quadratic problem of controlling the beams of the set of trajectories In the examples given in [7], the optimal control does not coincide with the optimal control for the trajectory coming from the geometric center of gravity of the set of possible initial states. The reason for this consists in the fact that the price function in the linear-quadratic control problem of non-stationary CAT is not quadratic. It is shown in [18] that for the linear-quadratic control problem of stationary CAT, the price function is piecewise quadratic. This circumstance allows prove the validity of the principle of separation (with some modification) [19].

Based on the sufficient conditions the algorithms of synthesis of suboptimal and conditional suboptimal control of beams of set trajectories are developed. The algorithm efficiency the is demonstrated by the academic example of a linear-quadratic problem.

Shipko V. V. Method and algorithms of inter-channeled gradient reconstruction of multi-spectral images in optical-electronic complexes of air and space reconnaissance. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The goal of the work consists in improving the accuracy of multispectral digital images reconstructing distorted by applicative interference due to the inter-channel redundancy property of multi-channel optic-electronic complexes of air and space reconnaissance.

The author proposed and studied a new method and algorithms for inter-channel gradient reconstruction of the information component of multispectral images distorted by the impulse and spatially extended applicative interference, based on the implementation of the inter-channel redundancy property.

The proposed method is based on the assumption of the approximate equality of gradients of the adjacent channels of multispectral images. The method consists of the two stages.

At the first stage, the spatial position of the interference in each component is estimated. For these purposes, an algorithm for inter-channel gradient detection of interference in each spectral channel based on a new principle of the inter-channel discrepancy between the gradients of individual spectral channels of a multispectral image, has been developed. At the second stage, an inter-channel gradient reconstruction of the spectral channels of the multispectral image is performed in the distorted sections according to one of the developed algorithms, based on the borrowing information on the gradients of the corresponding sections of undistorted channels.

As the results of the numerical and experimental studies demonstrated, the proposed method allows obtaining a higher detection and reconstruction accuracy of distorted image areas in comparison with existing processing methods. In this case, the computational costs of the developed algorithms allow processing color (3-channel) images in a time scale close to the real one.

Groshev A. V. Algorithmic improvement strategy for accuracy characteristics and information reliability of inertial satellite navigation systems withing unmanned aerial vehicles. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

Nowadays information reliability improvement of inertial satellite navigation systems (ISNS) and competition in correction and guidance accuracy are the most significant tasks for developers of special types of advanced unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

Non-redundant ISNSs for highly dynamical UAVs, tested in natural and semi-natural conditions, as well as with complexes of simulation and mathematical modelling, are the subject of research in the presented article.

The research objective is the development of the ideology and program-algorithm solutions for the accuracy and information reliability improvement of high-precision ISNS for UAVs, continuous true navigational information acquisition for the control system of highly dynamic UAVs in condition of unstable operation of the satellite navigation systems consumers, or and electronic countermeasures.

Strategy and effective program-algorithmic solutions for ISNS failure information identification and elimination of co-processing were developed based on SINS mathematical models, satellite navigation systems and electronic countermeasures systems consumer equipment scientific software of complex system, seminatural and development tests. Such a strategy and solutions improve the control stability, accuracy and information reliability of the system.

Errant information identification algorithms based on Kalman filter (KF) residuals, which are able to retain the characteristics of the system in varied operating conditions, and also the results of its tryout on the mathematical and simulation modeling systems are considered in the article. Approaches based on tolerance control using time-series model predictions or KF squared residuals normalized with RMS deviation of its moving unweighted average which is calculated with intervals by means of sliding window are suggested. The article enlightens an approach to the satellite navigation systems consumers equipment corrections after the “information shadow” for high accuracy systems, and presents the results of mathematical, simulation and semi-natural tests.

Correction methods for satellite navigation systems and electronic countermeasures systems consumer equipment after “information shadow” for high accuracy systems are presented.

The proposed methods and algorithms were used while ideology formation of the certain types of UAVs application.

Ivashova N. D., Mikhailin D. A., Chernyakova M. E., Shanygin S. V. Neural network solution of the operational planning task for unmanned aerial vehicles route flight and time setting for ground based objects observation employing the fuzzy logic while displaying these results on the computer screen prior to the start. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article considers the possibility of neural network realization of operational planning of the route flight of the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) while ground based objects observation, when the flight task requires correction due to the change of dynamic situation. It happens when either the observation quality of certain object appeared too low, or video information indicates the new objects occurrence, or observation of a number of of objects was untimely.

The number of ground based objects, coordinates of their position and their relative importance as well as the number of UAVs and their current coordinates at the given planning step are regarded as set in the formulated problem statement. The article demonstrates that the operation planning at each step consists of two operations. The first operation consists in determining the initial set of the most important objects of observation, and the second is assigning for each of them their “own” UAV.

The authors suggest the problem solution with the three layer neural networks of sequential distribution with sigmoidal activation function in the first two layers and relay function in the last layer. The article demonstrates that these neural networks training required a small number of examples. Employing special schemes for determining the number of the primary target and the number of the servicing UAV, the onboard program neural network complex was formed. This complex is capable of realizing the process of operational planning in the real time mode.

At the same time, the objects significance estimation representation in the form of the multiplicative convolution of partial criteria reduces the input signals number, and, hence, the neural network structure dimensionality. The structural diagram of the fuzzy logic expert system for the allowed search time determining, and detecting each of the objects of observation with account for the three factors: the growing risk of detection failure at the searching time increase; significant fuel consumption excess, as well as the time reduction to the flight termination.

The adaptive fuzzy logic expert system, determining the moment of observation termination depending on the current parameters of the dynamic situation, was formed to automate the process of continuing managing servicing of the next object of observation, while searching for it in the proper place.

Eremin E. O., Kharlamov G. Y. Instrumental photometric standard for onboard optoelectronic devices of near-Earth monitoring space systems. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article introduces a notion of an instrumental photometric standard for onboard optoelectronic instruments and considers specifics of its forming. This standard employing allows evaluate energy characteristics of a particular onboard optoelectronic device in various background-signal conditions with a reference accuracy. The structure of the instrumental photometric standard application is based on employing classical methods of astronomical photometry and statistical processing of measurement results. The proposed method is similar to the satellite photometric observations processing, but the onboard optoelectronic device is evaluated by the photometric stars-standards, and not contrariwise. The article presents equations for energy units conversion between the in-system units and astronomical photometry units. Basic photometric and spectrophotometric catalogues that can be employed to develop the instrumental photometric standards of the onboard visible and infrared optoelectronic devices are considered (both for visual and infrared optical bands). Graphical representation of the reviewed star catalogs’ photometrical bands is presented. The methods of photometric measurements on digital frames from the onboard optoelectronic devices, namely the method of aperture photometry and method of PSF-photometry (Point Spread Function photometry) are briefly reviewed. The method of standard stars samples forming for developing the approximating models of the instrumental magnitudes for different background-signal conditions is presented. Applications of an instrumental photometric standard for onboard optoelectronic devices are the near-Earth space monitoring systems at the stages of flight tests and exploitation. Efficiency of algorithms of construction and employing implementations of the instrumental photometric standard for the onboard optoelectronic devices based on simulated and experimental data will be considered in the subsequent articles.

Mironenko V. V. Cutting-downs shaping on sheet parts employing a movable clamp. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The possibility of the defect of an «incomplete stamping» type is demonstrated on the example of the part with the standard cutting-down. This part has a standard cutting-down, and according to the regulatory document OST 1.52468-80 should be shaped without defects. Such defects occurrence leads to the manual refinement, and, hence, to the part cost value increase. The author proposes a scheme of shaping with the movable clamp application, allowing avoid the above said defect. The article demonstrates this scheme application for producing the parts with non-standard cutting-downs. It demonstrates also the scheme of shaping with the movable clamp, and describes the route of the part shaping to obtain the maximum effect from the suggested technology application. The author shows on the model parts that only the movable clamp application allows avoid the defects of “incomplete stamping” and “corrugation forming” type. The model parts were selected from the regulatory document OST 1.52468-80 zones, in which the part should come out with the defects. However, a movable clamp application for shaping allowed avoid defects such as “incomplete stamping” and “corrugation forming”.

For all three parts, a finite element analysis was performed with the PAM-STAMP 2G simulation program of the French ESI Group company. Actual tests with the INRTU experimental installation and the QFC1.2×3 industrial press were performed according to the simulation results.

The purpose of the article consists in improving the conventional technological process of producing the parts with the cutting-down element. The article solves the following tasks:

replacing the unstable forming method with a newer one:

  • elimination of «incomplete stamping» and «corrugation forming» defects while the cutting-downs formation;

  • expanding the possibilities of parts manufacturing with the cutting-downs through the non-standard cutting-downs application;

  • ensuring the cutting-down formation with specified sizes that do not require manual finishing.

As a result, a technology for cutting-downs shaping with a movable clamp has been found that allows stably producing of the flawless parts with both standard cutting-downs, and cutting-downs that go beyond the normative documentation recommendations. The technology is universal, and it can be employed at various aircraft-and machine building enterprises.

Lobastov I. A., Paleshkina Y. V., Alexeeva N. N., Paleshkin A. V. Selecting design parameters of the centrifugal test bench while quasi-static-oscillating loading of the test object with free oscillations of the system. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

At present, rocket and space technology (RST) is developing at a rapid pace in all advanced countries. A huge amount of resources is invested in this promising sector. RST has a number of features. Its design cannot be duplicated, and it is almost impossible to repair it after the start of flight operation. The designed construction has to function at all operation stages. The loading factors determine the shape and internal structure of the structural elements and the structure as a whole, and loading analysis is an important, integral part of the rocket design of and space technology elements. Thence, a problem arises as recently as at the preliminary design stage on the possibility of application of the already existed experimental base of the space-rocket engineering designer for performing experimental developing in conditions close to the product natural operation conditions. According to the tasks set in the work, the calculation part was separated into three components. In the first part, a well-known mathematical model is used for the movement simulation of the descent vehicle in the atmosphere of the planet with different input angles along the ballistic trajectory. The data obtained while calculations served as an initial data for the second stage, namely, computing and selecting parameters of the centrifugal test bench to perform tests at quasi-static-oscillating loading with natural oscillations of the system. At this stage of the test simulation, the result represented the analysis and selection of the design parameters of the test bench, and the mode of testing under given conditions of functioning and operation of the product. At the third stage, based on the compiled algorithm, the calculation of the centrifugal drive power was performed, with account for the operating limitations for the selected stand operation mode.

With the result of the performed work based on mathematical models and computational algorithms, a software package was developed using MATLAB, allowing obtain at various initial data operational and energy parameters of the test bench for certain testing modes.

Kudinov I. A., Kholopov I. K., Khramov M. Y. Multispectral panoramic video images forming technology for aviation optical-electronic vision systems. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article considers the video image forming technology according to the information from distributed multi-spectral cameras of the aviation panoramic optical-electronic vision system. It analyses the main problems of a panoramic frame stitching quality reduction while working with multi-spectral cameras. The article presents the geometric formulation of the problem and main analytical expressions describing the spherical panorama forming procedure without evaluating the point features of the scene, and searching matches between them using descriptors. A robust to shooting conditions algorithm for panorama image forming according to the results of preliminary photometric calibration of multispectral cameras with the special test-object and information on the angle orientation of the reference camera, obtained from the inertial micro-electromechanical sensor, was developed. One of the possible variants of the universal test-object realization for the multi-spectral cameras calibration is presented. The main operation modes of a panoramic vision system prototype with television and thermal cameras developed by the authors are considered including vision improving functions such as blending and contrasting according to Multiscale retinex algorithm, as well as information integration from the technical vision channels operating in various spectral areas. The article shows that computations parallelization using CUDA technology allows realizing vision improvement functions including information integration from multispectral sensors and overlapping additional signographic information for two independently controlled 1024 x 768 pixels regions of interest with a frequency not less than 30 Hz. The results of semi-natural experiments on the window of user interest display in the “transparent cabin” mode are presented.

Display of video information in the region of interest in accordance with the concept of “transparent cab” are presented.

Voskoboynikov M. A., Podstrigaev A. S., Davydov V. V. Modelling and evaluation of wind impacts on parachuted radio monitoring module. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article presents the development and examples of the mathematical model application, which allows estimate the wind impact on the parachuted radio-monitoring module. The antenna beam direction of the radio-monitoring module depends on the parachute and carrier design, wind forces and atmosphere parameters. The developed model allows obtain the time dependences of angular deviation of the antenna beam from the vertical (Θ angle) at various wind impacts, as well as parachute and carrier parameters. These dependences allow estimate the view area of the radio monitoring module on the ground. The mathematical model assumes high rigidity of the parachute slings and canopy. This allows applying the Newton’s second law for rotational motion to prepare mathematical expressions. Simulation based on the obtained formulas was realized in MATLAB Simulink. The main advantage of MATLAB Simulink when solving this problem is the possibility of changing variable coefficients while integrating differential equations. The wind speed in the MATLAB Simulink model is set by signal generators. This allows obtaining the time dependences of the angle for a variety of wind impacts. As a result of modeling in MATLAB Simulink, the dependences of maximum and average deviation angles for the specified parachute and carrier parameters on the wind speed at various altitudes were obtained. Simulation results allowed estimating stability of the zone of vision position of the small-sized radio-monitoring module.

Chigrinets E. G., Verchenko A. V. CAD/CAM/CAE systems, OMV technologies and neural network based data analysis algorithms at the aviation industry enterprises. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

In modern tough competition, aviation enterprises seek to maximize the capabilities computers application for products designing and manufacturing. To automatize these tasks, digital technologies such as CAD/CAM/CAE systems can be employed.

A technique for a 3D model of a helicopter dustproof device developing in the CAD system based on the coordinate measurement with account for real manufacturing deviations is presented.

The overview of milling technology of a helicopter part with the uneven hardness was performed. Optimization method of machining technology based on the finite element method with CAE implementation for the engineering analysis system is proposed. Computation results of unwanted deviations of the non-rigid thin-walled elements under the impact of the load direction were processed.

The problem of performing adaptive machining to program the milling of the detail contours on the CNC machine in case of virtual workpiece location was solved. The CNC-program correction by measuring the workpiece actual position on the machine table is proposed. The control program correction can be implemented as the result of solving the task of minimax, while searching such state of its position in space, so that the maximum allowance on the machined contour would be minimal. A mathematical model is developed, that unambiguously identifies the workpiece position on the machine table according to the measured coordinates of the three points. The developed algorithms of automatic search for the of the CNC-program correction to implement the principle of adaptive machining solution of the minimax problem. The program was created, and the method for the CNC-program designing for virtual workpiece locating on the CNC machine is developed. Experimental testing has confirmed efficiency of the developed technique

Manufacturing of the new aircrafts requires development and improvement of new materials and technologies, imposing ever-increasing demands for quality and operation reliability. Most carrying aircraft structures made of polymeric composites are machined to ensure the high quality holes providing reliable fixation and assembly of the composite structure (e.g., spars of the main and tail helicopter rotors blades). Delamination, which can reduce the structural integrity of the material, is the important technological problem occurring while fiber reinforced composite materials drilling. The tool geometry and machining conditions are the most important factors affecting the quality of the processed holes.

Using a series of experimental data that include the delamination sizes depending on the machining conditions, the database for the further modeling has been developed in a matrix form. The first attempt to build an empirical description of the sizes of delamination that depends on two design variables (cutting speed and drilling feed) was unsuccessful, probably, due to the nonlinearity, which is generic for the drilling process.

To overcome this difficulty we proposed and tested an approach, which is based on the the artificial neural networks (ANN) employing to predict the quality of the holes drilled in the titanium foil reinforced glass fiber epoxy-based plastics. ANN training was being conducted using an errors back-propagation algorithm. Testing of the prediction accuracy was shown that ANN can provide quality of size prediction that exceeds 97%.

The obtained results allow recommend the artificial neural network application to predict the size of the drilling holes delamination in GFRP. In the process of statistics accumulation the ANN are able to perform the self-training to produce the results based on the newly obtained information, thus, adequately predicting the quality of the machined holes.

Karpenko O. N., Kostin P. S. Method for dive characteristics evaluation of the attack aircraft. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article considers the isssue of determining the aircraft dive characteristics based on simulation. To achieve the goal of the study, a software-modeling complex was developed, which allows evaluate the characteristics of a dive attack aircraft. To achieve the goal of the study, a software-modeling complex was developed, which allows evaluate the characteristics of a dive attack aircraft. All models and most of the blocks are implemented in the Matlab@Simulink software package.

With a view of performing simulation of the attack aircraft dive and pullout the aircraft control laws were developed. These control laws were formed in accordance with the requirements of the guidelines for the attack aircraft flight operation.

The time of the pullout time and altitude change while the pullout were determined by the simulation results at various flight modes. The simulation was performed with pitch angles from – 20 to – 60° with an interval of 10° and at velocities from 600 to 900 km / h with an interval of 50 km / h.°

A nomogram for determining the altitude loss while the pullout as a dependence from the values of airspeed, dive angle and normal overload at the end of pullout was plotted based on the simulation results.

The presented method of dive characteristics estimating allows reduce the time, financial and labor costs for the relevant tests of an aircraft.

Balakirev N. E., Nguyen H. D. Tonality recognition specifics in a speech flow. Trudy MAI, 2019, no 104,

The article discusses one of the possible approaches to solving the problem of recognizing specific speech aspects related to tonality, which occupies an important place in human communication. The degree of a particular state of tension is, above all, reflected not in the content of words, but in the way they are pronounced, which sometimes carries a different meaning regarding the content of words. Solution of such problem can be used in aviation technology, in particular, for automatic recognition of the emotional state onboard, for highlighting the emotional segments of speech in the records of flight recorders, as well as the speech of passengers of local and international flights. Tonality is of special key importance in the tonal languages of Southeast Asia, although it is of no little importance for European languages also, reflecting the character of the spoken phrase and introducing additional meaning into the content of the words and sentences being recognized. Anyhow, the tonality itself manifests itself identically, but in has its specifics in relation to the information content of a phoneme or a word. And it relates in the first place to the consideration of an object itself, bearing information about the tone. In contrast to the solution of the word sequence recognition problem, where the set of frequencies is a guide, the tonality recognition problem cannot rely on the generally accepted mathematical methods of wave processing and recognition. Considering the tonality recognition issues is, as a rule, beyond the scope of wide discussion in these methods, and the sphere suggestions for algorithmic solutions of this problem is considerably confined. Thus, the tonal component of the phoneme, that can be obtained by the special methods different from the conventional methods, is considered by the examples in the first place. The authors suggest the methods based on setting relations between the characteristic points and representation of these relations configuration in the form of matrix model.

In fact, such model is a qualitative tonality characteristic that does not depend on the amplitudes value, which allows compare different manifestations of tonality expressed in the loudness of pronunciation. The comparison itself assumes the presence of a qualitative measure, which allows reflecting the degree of difference of the considered phonemes in the speech flow.

Popov V. V., Sorokin F. D., Ivannikov V. V. Finite element of a flexible rod with separate storage of accumulated and additional rotations for the problems of nonlinear dynamics of aerial vehicles structures. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

Dynamical behavior of various aircraft parts, such as wing spars, fuselage stringers, propeller blades etc. [1–4], can be accurately described by a flexible rod model, as though these structures may undergo large displacements and rotations, while their strains remain small. A large set of numerical techniques is available for flexible rods dynamics analysis. However, FEM is the most appropriate in the present context.

A number of finite elements has been developed for solving flexible rods nonlinear dynamics problem. Reference [5] is one of the pioneering work in this area. Treating a rod as a three dimensional body, which dimensions and kinematics are specifically constrained, the author proposes a powerful model, where both displacements and strains can be arbitrarily large. This contribution gave rise to an entire family of the so-called geometrically exact approaches for statics and dynamics analysis of flexible beams [6, 7].

Another popular alternative to constructing geometrically nonlinear beam models is the so-called corotational approach [8]. A simple corotational finite element based on the small strain hypothesis was proposed in [9]. Being quite simple to derive and implement, this model suffers fr om a serious issue, namely, the total Lagrangian formulation is chosen for storing both displacements and rotations. For the latter, it leads to numerical problems when approaching the rotation angle of 2π value. The model from [10], which in fact combines the two aforementioned fundamental approaches, eliminates this limitation introducing the updated reference configuration, though the underlying math is much more complicated as nonlinear elasticity theory is applied. The similar incremental description of rotations is also used in [11] in the context of constructing a specific rod finite element adapted for multi-body dynamics problems. However, the obtained tangent stiffness matrix revealed to be non-symmetric even for the simple conservative loading cases. This, obviously, restricts the selection of linear solvers to be used in association with this model, and, thus, compromises the overall performance of the numerical solution.

The Absolute Nodal Coordinates [12, 13] formulation is another reliable technique for building nonlinear rod finite elements based on the choice of high order interpolation functions for the rod geometry and deformation description.

The majority of existing approaches (along with the currently presented) employ the Euler vector for rotations description. But alternative quantities, such as the Rodrigues vector [14], can be introduced as well. A particular attention to exact conservation of momentum and total energy is given in this article. This aspect was carefully studied also in [15] in the context of nonlinear of rods dynamics.

The present contribution is the continuation of the authors’ previous work [16], wh ere a flexible rod finite element for static analysis has been proposed. The nonlinear rod FE, which large motion kinematics is based on the updated Lagrangian formulation for the rotations increments, is currently adapted for transient dynamics problems. The rotations data is separated into two parts. The accumulated rotation is stored as the rotation matrix, while the incremental part is described by the Euler vector [17]. Unlike the existing approaches, the design of the developed element is beyond the scope of the well-known stiffness and mass matrices of the conventional rod FE that significantly simplifies the derivations. This allows embed practically any linear rod model, whether it is of Timoshenko or Euler-Bernoulli type.

The article presents the closed-form expressions for the element generalized mass and gyroscopic matrices, and for the right hand side inertia loads vector. Owing to the underlying update Lagrangian formulation for rotations description, the proposed element does not exhibit any numerical instability related issues for any rotation magnitudes during the structure evolution. Besides, as the total rotation matrix is updated after each Newton-Raphson iteration [18], nearly quadratic convergence has been achieved.

To demonstrate the element workability and robustness two numerical examples were analyzed. The results were compared with the existing reference data [19, 20, 21] and with the third party FEM packages.

Marchukov E. Y., Kulalaev V. V., Vovk M. Y. Calculation method for dynamic target destruction by laser beam within the specified range. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The near and far space exploration is impossible without creating modern technologies of constructional assembly welding employing laser radiation when the structural surface can be considered as a conditional target. At the same time, the calculation method development of laser beam thermal effect is one of prior scientific tasks, which solution is obtained in this paper based on the variation method [1-20]. The advantage of the variation method [1-3] consists in the possibility of solving nonlinear problems of the heat and mass transfer when the coefficient of thermal conductivity is a tensor quantity in non-isotropic mediums [3-8]. Such situation is implemented completely at impact of the powerful laser beam on physical environments of various targets while their destruction at a specified variable range. In these initial conditions of thermal impact of the powerful laser beam the thermal problem solution of target environment destruction using the variation method [4, 7] becomes significantly simpler. In this case the solution is reduced to searching some function, describing the formation of caverne mobile walls with some temperature gradient on the surface of liquid-alloy. The solution of the specified task herewith is performed for the benefit of the wide class of various industrial technological processes, including technologies of near and far space exploration.

The presented method is based on the solution of the non-stationary problem of the powerful laser beam installed on the mobile platform effect on the dynamic target firm surface – the structure for variable range. The thermal spot sizes are determined by the output aperture of the focusing laser optics. Under the impact of thermal gradients on the target surface depending on time of laser beam influence the mobile borders destruction of the target body occurs in the form of a melting cavern and material boiling. If the conditional target represents the sheet of metal with the specified thickness, the formed cavern can form through smelting rate of metal that is not admissible. The cavern borders movement is described in the paper as the corresponding mathematical model of an unknown quasi-stationary temperature field formation, which is formed by large concentration of heat energy on the limited area of the thermal spot at the set influence period. The application example of the cavern formation calculation method in industrial laser welding processes is given.

The results of this work can be employed for the benefit of creating and optimizing industrial technological processes of temperature processing, various materials cutting and welding by laser machines in different physical environments.

Morozov D. V., Chermoshentsev S. F. Fault localization model in the unmanned aerial vehicle control system equipment employing a flexible in-flight functioning algorithm. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The authors developed a model of fault localization of the onboard test and control equipment of the unmanned aerial vehicle control system while its self-control. The model is represented in a graph form. The graph is a polytochomic decision tree. The graph vertices reflect the functional composition of combinatorial subsets of elements (KPI) in elementary self-tests, in controlled and suspicious situations, PDA and efficiency. KPIs and their taken decisions are based on the results of inspections and the functional KPI membership. Arcs are the probability of the states and events transition. Such graph structure allows solve the problems associated with carrying out the appropriate self-calibration (ES), in case of failure localization in the on-board control-checking equipment.

Expressions for the false rejection probability and the on-board checkout equipment false failure detection probability are obtained. They allow solve the problem of determining the optimum depth of failure localization, with account for elementary self-tests intersection and applying a flexible operation algorithm in-flight, and solve the final task of intended application. The analytical equations obtained in general form for the corresponding decisions account for states of functional components, such as on-board checkout equipment, self-monitoring systems, the fault suspected area of elements, the controlled area of the elements, and the controlled area of the elements changing process.

While the next elementary self-test performing employing a mathematical model, a loss matrix is constructed, and the false rejection of the remaining elementary self-tests from the suspected region of elements is estimated. As a loss we consider the probability of false rejection by the onboard control and checking equipment of an unmanned aerial vehicle by the elementary self-test performed, selected from the elementary self-tests area, covering the suspected fault region of elements combinatorial subsets.

Pokrovskiy A. N., Dadashov C. M. Some specifics of Blasius problem solutions. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The presented work performed numerical study of solutions behavior of laminar incompressible boundary layer on a flat plate (Blasiumo problem). It is common knowledge that Blasius proposed a statement of the problem as applied to a flat plate, except for the leading and trailing edges, allowing obtain the plate resistance with an adequate degree of accuracy. In this article, the authors outline four typical types of plates to refine the statement of the problem, and eliminate some inaccuracies being assumed in the previous statements of the problem.

In this paper, the authors conclude that new advanced methods serve the purposes of ensuring an aircraft optimal design and upgrading its performance characteristics. To this effect, it is necessary to improve conventional and develop new methods for aerodynamic characteristics computing with improved accuracy by accounting for viscous effects significantly affecting the aircraft characteristics and dynamics of its motion.

The authors tackle such issues, as a plate’s nose meltback commencing at supersonic flight speeds due to the impossibility of removing of large heat quantity, released in a flow, through the plate nose. In this respect, the authors analyze the succession of the problem statement on triangle strip flow-around by a supersonic airflow, from an idealized infinitely small to really blunted one.

Four approaches to employing various models for the problem solution on resistance of the plates and blunted wedge were examined. Two characteristic plates’ types, namely geometric and physical, are examined.

A method for computing resistance of the plates and blunted wedge, applying programs, was proposed. To compute the plate resistance, the authors show the necessity to compute the friction coefficient with LAYER-2 program, as well as resistance of the cylinder contamination and bottom pressure. Cxpl is computed for both laminar and turbulent layers with account for the friction resistance coefficient Cxfr , coefficient of cylinder blunting resistance Cxbl and bottom pressure coefficient Cxbot :

Сxpl = Cxfr + Cxbl + Cxbot

In conclusion, it is noted that LAYER-2 program application enabled computing resistance of these plates with improved accuracy, including all components of total resistance:


Сwклина = Cxзат + Cxтр + Cxдон + Cxклина


Konyukhov I. K. Analysis of “flying wing” scheme application at unmanned aerial vehicles of “air-to-surface” class. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The article describes some ways and hardships of a “flying wing” scheme application while developing long-range cruise missiles of “air-to-surface” class. Advantages and disadvantages of “flying wing” arrangementh and history of its development are briefly touched. An attempt to classify the “flying wing” type in applications to the particular structures of aircraft was made. A number of problems, occurred while these aerial vehicles development, were described. One of them is еру wing parameters selection (airfoil type, warps, sweep angle etc.) to ensure maximum aerodynamic quality over the whole flight path. This problem is not simple due to the low wing loading, specific to the arrangement under discussion, which is not optimal at low flight altitudes required for effective overcoming the enemy air defenses. Another crucial problem is an internal arrangement of wing-hull since it does not fully fit for locating all necessary elements of an aerial vehicle, such, in the first place, as the power plant, warhead and large-size radio-electronic devices. The presented work focuses mainly at the cruise missiles of a “flying wing” type allocation in the internal bays of a carrier (external arrangement). Several design options of the exterior, capable of solving this problem, were highlighted. They are as follows: accommodation by stack across the weapon bay, the wing folding, and a concept with the developed center wing-hull. Merits and demerits of these options were considered. Height-to-width aspect ratios of the weapon bay necessary for the most effective allocation of a cruise missile of the “flying wing” type was studied. These ratios differ greatly from those of attack aircraft of the traditional arrangement, but they fit perfectly the arrangement inside the next generation strategic bombers (B-21, PAK DA, H-20) under development at present.

Krutov A. A., Pigusov E. A., Chernavskih Y. N., Chernousov V. I. Conceptual design of next generation heavy transport aircraft. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The lion share of Russian transport aviation profits accrues to transportation of oversized and heavy cargoes by wharf aircraft An-124 and Il-76. The significant share of these cargoes accrues to An-124 due to its higher weight-lift ability and the size of the cargo cabin. The intensive exploitation of An-124 aircraft by the Aerospace Forces of the Russian Federation and civil air cargo carriage will eventually lead to the airframe service life wear-out (even with account for its prolongation). At the same time, the An-124 production recommencement is impossible due to the current geopolitical situation. It is also worth mentioning, that An-124 effectiveness while containers and pallets transportation (constituting the biggest part of freight traffics) is rather low compared to cargo modifications of wide-body passenger aircraft

Thus, there are prerequisites for developing new heavy transport aircraft employing modern achievements in the field of design, aero dynamics, strength, material science, control systems etc.

The perspective heavy transport aircraft should become the adequate replacement of An-214 for Russian military transport aviation, and, at the same time, be attractive to civil cargo airlines, i.e. possess the economy of General cargos transportation, comparable to cargo modifications of passenger aircraft.

The technical concept of the prospective heavy transport aircraft “Elephant” (HTA “Elephant”) meant for carry the wide range of cargoes, including heavy and oversized cargoes, was developed within the framework of Government Contract with the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation in Central Aero-hydrodynamic Institute.

Selection of the major parameters of the aircraft was performed. The draft aerodynamic characteristics and weight reports of the developed arrangement options were determined. Computation of HTA “Elephant” performance and take-off and landing characteristics was performed. The selected geometry and weight parameters ensure transportation of 150 tons of payload at a distance of 7000 km with basing on a runway 3000 m long. With maximum payload of 180 tons, the practical flight range is 4900 km. The takeoff weight limitations while basing on a runway 2500 m long are also determined.

The obtained results will be applied as a ground for the studies continuation of a prospective heavy transport aircraft.

Bagrov A. V., Dmitriev A. O., Leonov V. A., Mitkin A. S., Moscatinev I. V., Sysoev V. K., Shirshakov A. E. Global Lunar optical navigation system. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The lunar surface exploration and the future construction of lunar bases should be based on a high-precision objects positioning system on the Moon, such as lunar-ships and manned vehicles. The similar-by-purpose global positioning systems operate successfully on the Earth, allowing users to determine their position anytime with an accuracy less than 5 meters. The wish to replicate the worked-out global positioning system also on the Moon seems quite natural.

Being the full analogue of the Earth version of the global satellite positioning system, the lunar global positioning system is rather very complex and expensive. It stems from the fact that operation of the whole system consisting of 8 to 18 spacecraft is required to serve even one customer.

The goal of the work consists in developing a lunar navigation system based on new principles. Such a system can be created based on optical-electronic surveillance systems and light laser beacons.

An optical navigation system including lunar reference points, a SPACECRAFT at the Lagrange point and an auxiliary SPACECRAFT on the lunar is to be developed.

This goal achieving is realized due to the main components, including the scientific novelty of the project:

  1. Creating the frame of the selenodetic coordinate system with the axes reference to point reference points (light laser beacons) on the Moon (included in the “Luna-global” and “Luna-Resource” programs).

  2. Installing the new control light laser beacons with retroreflectors in the explored areas of the Moon (3-5 PCs or more, depending on the place of operation). It is necessary, that of the control beacons positions would be consistently affixed to the LRO lunar images, to obtain a topographic map of the Moon.

  3. Accommodation of the Lagrange points of opto-electronic instruments for continuous monitoring of the spacecraft on the lunar surface.

  4. Periodic control of the frame selenocentric coordinate system in its current state on a running light laser beacons (while polar-orbiting lunar satellites operation).

The objects global positioning system on the Moon surface, employing the frame selenocentric coordinate system, can provide measurements in real time, if the optional azimuth tool is placed in the libration points.

Remshev E. Y., Danilin G. A., Titov A. V., Ermolenkov P. A. Ensuring technological and performance characteristics of products from titanium alloys by method of acoustical emission. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The article analyses the possibility of employing a method of acoustical emission for revealing external and internal defects in metal parts, and predicting relaxational properties of mechanisms’ elastic elements while static, dynamic and cyclic loading in the course of long-term operation.

Method of acoustic emission (AE) is the most promising non-destructive method for disk spring quality control. It allows detecting various defects in the products under the workload and predict stability (or instability) of performance indicators, including propensity to relaxation.

Elastic elements and springs of different purpose are widely used in various mechanisms, such as shock absorbers, energy storage devices and actuators, operating under complex cyclic conditions under dynamic and conditionally static loading. The VT23 titanium alloy microstructure evaluation criteria based on the level of acoustic emission signals were established either.

The regularities of acoustic emission signals level changing depending on the defects presence and development, relaxational withstandability and microstructure of disk springs made of spring steel and titanium alloy at the stage of their fabrication and pre-operational testing were established based on the experimental studies. The VT23 titanium alloy microstructure evaluation criteria based on the level of acoustic emission signals were established as well.

Two-factor mathematical prediction model for relaxation disk springs (made of 60S2A steel or VT23 titanium alloy) stability prediction depending on the level of acoustic emission signals level at the stage of gripping in the course of long-term operation was constructed.

Recommendations on practical application of the research findings were developed, and scientifically substantiated method for disk springs of steel and titanium alloys relaxational strength predicting was designed based on the established regularities.

Bogdanovich A. B., Polyakov V. A., Volkov E. N. The study of hydraulic characteristics of a model gel-like substance based on carbohydrates. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

In this article, an experimental study of the flow of a model gel-like substance consisting of hydrocarbons is carried out. The gel-like substance is used in the supply systems of advanced aircraft. The main task of the study is obtaining dependence volumetric flow rate of the model gel-like substance fr om a supply pressure and a temperature.

The dynamic viscosity of the model gel-like substance is 100 Pa·s at the temperature of + 5ºС.

The main equipments for an experiment are a displacement device of piston-type and a universal testing machine. Experiments were carried out with the model gel-like substance in the temperature range of + 3ºС... + 35ºС.

The graphs of the dependence volumetric flow rate of the gel-like substance from the supply pressure were based on the experimental data obtained.

Empirical dependences of the volumetric flow rate on the supply pressure and the temperature of the model gel-like substance were obtained.

The volumetric flow rate of the model gel-like substance is described by a power-law:

QD = kT ⋅ µ ⋅ Fnz ⋅ (ρD/98066,5)n,

wh ere kТ = f (TН) – is an empirical coefficient that takes into account the dependence of the viscosity of the model gel-like substance on the temperature, m / s;

m – a consumption coefficient of the throttle, –;

Fnz – a minimum area of an orifice throttle, m2;

pD – the supply pressure, Pa;

n – an exponent, –.

As a result of the work methodological approach was proposed and a methodology for the calculation and experimental determination of the flow characteristics of the model gel-like substance that imitate the viscosity and a composition of gel-like fuels was developed. The error in determining flow characteristics of gel-like substances does not exceed 1%.

Empirical dependences of the volumetric flow rate from the supply pressure for the model gel-like substance were defined in the temperature range from + 3ºС to + 35ºС and the supply pressure from 0.02 MPa to 6 MPa. A discrepancy of experimental and empirical dependences is not higher than 6%.

The dependence of the volumetric flow rate on the supply pressure is a power-law. The nature of equation changes depending on the viscosity of the substance.

Ezrokhi Y. A., Drygin A. S., Kizeev I. S., Selivanov O. D., Fokin D. B. Prospects of a three-flow technology application in conditions of supersonic flight. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The article presents the results of the third loop application possibility estimating to enhance the engine and power plant characteristics in the range of the large supersonic flight speeds. The authors consider various possible options of three-flow turbojet engine schemes with combustion chamber, as well as tackle the issues of the third loop control.

In the course of this work, a new critical unit of the three-flow turbojet engine was revealed. This is a three-flow mixer. The coefficient of total pressure additional losses while mixing was computed for one of its possible designs.

Computations of the two-flow turbojet engine with afterburner with take-off thrust of 98 kN, assumed as a basic, and its possible modification, employing the third loop technology, were performed. Due to the additional losses while mixing significant effect on the characteristics being obtained, computations of a three-flow turbojet engine were performed with the values of the above said losses of 0 and 7%.

Comparative evaluations of characteristics of power plants options with the two-flow and three-flow turbojet engines as parts of a supersonic aircraft were performed. The aircraft take-off weight variation was accounted for in association with the engine weight increase while the rest components remained the same. While meeting the requirements to the equal take-off thrust-to-weight ratio, the computations with various additional losses level in the combustion chamber were performed.

The obtained results demonstrate that application of the third contour technology with all three contours’ streams mixing prior to the combustion chamber potentially allows increase the engine thrust in flight modes with large supersonic speeds (М = 2,2–2,8) and, accordingly, the maximum altitude (ceiling) and flight speed, thereby considerably expand an application range of the gas turbine engine.

Moung H. O., Kyaw Z. L., Prihod'ko S. J. Developing an algorithm for aerodynamic coefficients identification accuracy increase based on harmonic input signals. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The presented article deals with the problem of algorithm for aircraft aerodynamic coefficients accuracy increase on flight experiments data. All the signals employed while coefficients identification contain measurement noises, approximated by normally distributed random values with zero average and specified dispersions. A method of harmonic signals decomposition was considered to improve the identification accuracy.

As a rule, the flight modes, when control signals are being set by the pilot, are employed for identification. It is evident, that the high-accuracy reproduction of the signal wwaveform is impossible with manual control. Thus, the precise a priori knowledge of a test signal in this case is impossible, which determines the strong dependence from measuring errors. Therefore, the authors suggest apply a hardware-generated test signal, such as combination of two sine waves with different frequencies. For linear object, such double-frequency signal creates responses at the same two frequencies. Since we know now the exact shapes of the input and output signals, we can represent them as a composition of the four linearly independent harmonic components. The multiple regression method should be applied to obtain the coefficients. In this case it is highly efficient since reference harmonics are precisely known. Thus,

Thus, the basic regression analysis requirements are fulfilled, ensuring unbiased estimates of coefficients in the presence of the object signals’ measurement noise. Further, employing the decomposition coefficients, we reconstruct the signals, which are now to a high degree free from noise.

The article presents the results, demonstrating the high accuracy of coefficients identification at high levels of measurement noise.

Borisov A. E., Leont'ev V. A., Rubinshteyn M. A., Rusakov I. V. The new TsAGI research helicopter simulator VPS-5 . Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

This article describes briefly the new research helicopter simulator at TsAGI intended to conducting researches in helicopter flight dynamics. The simulator uses the helicopter flight dynamics model developed in TsAGI and has several significant features distinct from that of other research simulators in Russia.

Its 8-channel projective visualizing system has semi-spherical screen up with viewing angles up to 200 degrees along horizon, 50 degrees above horizon and 60 degrees below the horizon with side view. The latter is very important to research take-off and landing operations from small area surfaces.

The simulator has fixed one-seat pilot cabin with interactive displays imitating cabin gauges and indicators, and realistic pilot controls identical to controls of civil helicopter Mi-8.

The Moog’s 4-channel digital electro-mechanic control loading system (CLS) is attached to cyclic pitch stick, collective pitch stick and pedals. Characteristics of CLS can be adjusted either by reconfiguring the generic software application model or by developing new software application model using development libraries and environment integrated with Matlab/Simulink. CLS allows the simulator to be reconfigured to different kind of helicopter flight control systems.

The simulator is equipped with software applications that broaden the research area. ‘MFD Editor’ application allows creation of virtual indicators and control panels. ‘Local weather’ application allows to model in simulator’s world both standing and moving atmospheric areas with local weather peculiarities. There is a wide library of standing and moving virtual objects such as buildings, offshore platforms, ships allowing research of marine flight operations. The simulator can be combined with another helicopter flight simulator in TsAGI in the single virtual world.

The advanced features of new helicopter simulator allow researching a wider range of flight dynamics issues of existing and developing helicopters.

Vereshchikov D. V., Voloshin V. A., Ivashkov S. S., Vasil'ev D. V. Applying fuzzy logic for developing simulation model of pilot's control actions. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

Wide application of mathematical and in-line simulation modelling became vital and almost uncontested method of modern aircraft developing and trial. It allows reduce the amount of test flights and increase the informativity of conditions, as well as reduce degree of risk of flight experiment. Thus, one of primal problems is security of the obtained results adequacy. Adequacy of the simulation modelling results is ensured by application of Authentic mathematical models of aerial vehicles and Participation of the pilot-operator, as a obligatory link in the system “Pilot-Control system-aircraft” with its intrinsic behavior. However, the problems occur when it becomes necessary to perform a set of a target problem modelling of piloting to obtain statistically authentic results. As a result, the statistical data obtaining becomes a rather labor-consuming problem, requiring considerable amount of resources and time. Solution of this problem consists in developing authentic “pilot-operator” model.

At present, many works on creation of models of the pilot’s operations with subsequent simulation modelling are fulfilled. With up-to-date approaches to such models development it is possible to refer to:

− quasilinear models;

− theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic;

− artificial neural webs;

− genetic algorithms.

Any quasi-linear model is understood as a model in which the relation between the input and output signals retains linear properties. Such model allows solving only single-loop single-channel problem. Thus, it is successfully employed, mainly, for the analysis of control systems. However, in real flight the pilot solves a multiple-loop multi-channel problem, and his responses to an input perturbing signal are of non-linear character, and, besides, apart from a linear component, “trail” component is also present among the pilot’s operations. Thus, the quasi-linear model is not capable to describe precisely enough the character of pilot’s operations, and it can be employed only for a narrow circle of problems. Artificial neural websnetworks and genetic algorithms are devoid of these shortages. However, in turn, they are complicated enough in the realization.

Mironenko V. V., Matsuro E. A. To the question of optimization and design of parts, produced by cavity elastic forming, with the use of reconstruction. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

Using the example of a classic shape for a box-type part, optimization of the cavity elastic forming process using a cover with guaranteed clearance is considered, as well as classical optimization of a part based on modeling and optimization based on the technology of “technological reconstruction”. Schemes of classical cavity elastic forming process and cavity elastic forming process with guaranteed clearance are presented. The main aspects of using NURBS technology for restoring the shape of a part fr om a finite element mesh are described. The problems arising in the case of classical optimization using simulation and the ways of their solution using “technological reconstruction” are shown. The results of calculation in the form of gradients are presented: plastic deformations; thickness and quality zones based on the Keller-Goodwin lim it strain curve.

The purpose of the article is to improve the existing technological process for the production of “box” parts, which relate to sheet metal forming production. The following problems are solved in the article:

– replacement is not a progressive and non-stable method of shaping, to a newer method;

– elimination of local loss of stability (wrinkles) along the flange;

– elimination of thinning in radius transitions and bottom separation;

– search for the most rational technology for optimizing the geometric shape of a part in the region of radius.

As a result, the technology of “technological reconstruction” has been developed that allows rationally optimizing the shape of a part taking into account the way it is formed. The technology is versatile and it is possible to use it in various aircraft-engineering enterprises.

Chernodarov A. V., Ivanov S. A. Identification of models and adaptive filtering of inertial sensors noises. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

This article is devoted to the problem of reliability increasing of of inertial measurement units (IMU) error estimation by an extended Kalman filter (EKF). This problem is associated with the noise models of inertial sensors and real processes inadequacy. Gyroscopes and accelerometers are considered as inertial sensors. It is known, that the models inaccuracy and other causes of methodical and instrumental character result in the EKF divergence. The EKF divergence manifests itself in the fact that the actual estimation errors considerably differ from their predicted mean square values obtained while solving the Riccati equation for the covariance matrix. It should be noted, that the actual estimation errors come to light only at the stage of mathematical simulation. In the known works the models inadequacy is compensated by the corresponding EKF parameters adjustment over the renovative sequence. This renovative sequence is the difference between actual and predicted observations. The predicted observations are formed by estimating the IMU errors. However, in real operating conditions, due to the errors of external measuring tools or lack thereof, such adjustment is not always possible. In addition, there are approaches to estimation of statistical characteristics of inertial sensors by the Allan method. This method allows estimate the stability of errors on the moving intervals of averaging. However, such approaches do not associate with the EKF parameters tuning. Thus, their application does not ensure the EKF adaptation in real operating conditions. The scientific originality of the proposed work is associated with the addition of procedures for the noise models of inertial sensors tuning to the known EKF adaptation algorithms. The authors propose to perform the adjustment of models based on structural-parametric identification by of correlation processing of the sensors error estimates. Such processing can be performed both in real time, and according to the data of onboard recording devices. The developed algorithms allow take account for the change in accuracy and dynamic characteristics of inertial sensors through the corresponding coefficients of the IMU errors. To implement the proposed identification technology, the errors of inertial sensors should be included in the estimated parameters vector. The performed studies revealed that when the EKF is included in the IMU error estimation circuit, it is necessary to perform not only the factory bench calibration of inertial sensors, but also the identification of their noise models. The article presents the results of experiments confirming the expediency of noises identifying models of inertial sensors while operation.

Dyachenko S. A. Synthesized vision system model developing for perspective civil aircraft. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

Following the increase of safety requirements for flights of modern aircrafts and significant growth of their avionics functionality a relevant task is the development and implementation in civil avionics systems a number of additional systems which could provide situational awareness of crew of rather cockpit external situation and reducing probability of a human mistake to a minimum in case of a catastrophic situation.

The technical vision systems (TVS) provide the crew with necessary information of the aircraft orientation and cockpit external situation in the visualized form convenient for the human.

Among the existing types of aviation class TVS (from the view point of integration into avionics structure) the synthetic vision system (SVS) is the most preferable due to the absence of the need to install any additional equipment on the aircraft.

SVS is the hardware and software solution based on onboard computers and flight indicators providing the real-time three-dimensional view of a cockpit external situation.

The purpose of this work consists in developing the SVS model with application according to the concept of the integrated modular avionics (IMA) for the future civil aircraft of transport category.

The following results of the SSV developing and modeling of are presented in this article:

– analysis of the existing types of aviation TVS;

– analysis of the corresponding standards requirements for development of the civil aircraft equipment imposed to SVS;

– the new SVS architecture with application of the IMA concept;

– the proposed SVS hardware structure;

– the program and algorithmic of the SVS to synthesize 3D images of the land surface topographical sites with high degree of informational content;

– the results of the proposed SVS testing, which proved its suitability for the designated tasks.

The developed SVS prototype complies with the basic documents for the development of modern civil aircrafts.

Assessment of the computing time of the developed algorithms based on series of tests with various examples of the land surface confirmed the validity of the DO-315 requirements in the part of frequency updating.

Mironov A. N., Flowers K. Y., Kovalsky A. A., Palgunov V. Y. A technique for possibility and conditions vindication for specified lifespan indicators prolongation of antennae systems of a spaceport measuring complex ground stations. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The article deals with the issues of developing a technique for possibility and conditions vindication for the specified lifespan indicators prolongation of antennae systems (AS) of a spaceport measuring complex (SMC) ground stations (GS).

The standard SMC facility is an GS containing antenna system, which, in its turn, includes mission-critical components, such as antenna rotary mechanism, mirror system (antenna array) and radio frequency equipment set. For this reason, the object of research is AS GS SMC, and the subject of research are the processes and scientific methodological vindication of the possibility and conditions for the specified lifespan indicators prolongation of AS GS SMC.

The purpose of the studies consists in developing scientific and methodical provision for vindication of the possibility and conditions for the specified lifespan indicators prolongation of AS GS SMC based on actual state with account for the limited volume of initial data on reliability of the element base and capabilities of failure recovery.

The authors performed system analysis of the approaches to assessment of technical condition and forecasting AS GS SMC residual resource, developed mathematical model of the AS GS SMC limit state achievement, and an algorithm for forecasting the AS GS SMC residual resource (service life).

The following basic methodological principles constitute the ground for the technique under development:

– Prolongation of the AS GS SMC assigned lifespan indicators should be performed within the limits of the predicted residual lifespan;

– Forecasting of the AS GS SMC residual lifespan should be performed with account for the element base reliability variation in time, and possibility of the equipment maintenance at failures;

– An acceptable fidelity of the AS GS SMC residual lifespan predictive estimate in conditions of restricted statistical data volume should be provided by the sound selection of the predictive model dimension, and employing extra expert information on the element base reliability and operability restoration capability while failures;

– In case of mismatch of the planned term and the actual AS GS SMC residual lifespan , the list of additional measures, allowing increase the actual AS GS SMC lifespan to the required values with minimum material and financial costs should be determined

Application of the scientific and methodical apparatus proposed in article will allow increase the validity of decisions on AS GS SMC operation management, and ensure their reliable and safe functioning under material and financial costs saving.

Kuzmin R. E. Phase locked loop of satellite communication systems receiving channels. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The article considers the receiving channels phase synchronization method of a satellite subscriber terminal with two receiving antennas. Such a method allows us to solve the problem of raising the signal level in the subscriber system against the background of noise. For the possibility of in-phase addition of signals of two channels before demodulation, it is necessary to eliminate the phase difference between them, which arises due to the spacing of the antenna pair elements by at least a quarter of the wavelength. It guarantees the independence from noise in each of them. To eliminate the phase difference, a phase-locked loop (PLL) system of receiving channels with a quadrature modulator is employed. Such scheme is a full-fledged substitute for the phase-shifter or digital phase rotation algorithm. While working with the system model, an imitation model was constructed from two receiving channels of a satellite communication system with phase-locked auto-tuning. It is shown that the system allows increase the level of the valid output signal by implementing the PLL ring. The effect of the low-pass filter band on the system speed was studied, and the dependence of the phase error at the output from the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained. In the long term, this system can ensure the operation of both the receiving and transmitting parts of the communication module with the antenna array of several elements.

Talaev A. D., Borodin V. V. LPWAN standards for mobile nodes' group interaction. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The rapid development of IOT requires creation of group interaction networks. For large sensor networks creation, LPWAN networks (NB-IoT, LoRa, Bluetooth mesh, ZigBee) may be employed. Thus, a flexible adaptive structure of these standards can ensure enhanced reliability by additional nodes and alternative routes.

Group interaction allows the sensors to perform a distributed task solution.

The networks of group interaction possesses the following features:

– High-speed adaptive mechanisms;

– Sufficient distance to ensure the connectivity of the sensor network to each other and Peer-to-peer structure;

– Reduced power consumption due to limited resources of a node and sensors ability to transmit data for a long time without loss, as it is important for successful group processing.

Promising is application of standards such as LoRa, Bluetooth mesh and ZigBee for those operating on unlicensed frequencies.

Standards LoRa allows deploying large networks with the star topology, which is convenient for providers. On the other hand, the standard Bluetooth mesh allows building distributed Peer-to-peer networks and providing distributed processing of sensors data.

It is necessary to account for the possible movement of nodes in the network and their speed. For ZigBee, the time necessary for a node to enter the network may be several seconds. A restriction on the number of hops in the network exists as well.

The use of existing Wi-Fi standards or cellular systems does not allow deployment of sensors networks of group interaction with sufficient energy efficiency and relatively low costs as LPWAN networks.

Evdokimenkov V. N., Kim R. V., Popov S. S., Galenkov A. A. Software for probabilistic-guaranteed estimation of aerial vehicle onboard equipment condition. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The article considers the purpose, functionality and architecture of the aircraft systems condition post-flight monitoring software. The program was developed for calculating the probabilistic estimates of aircraft systems technical condition and decision making on further aircraft safe operation. The program employsflight recorders data as primary information for analysis and relational database to accumulate pre-processed flight data, but it allows processing data stored in .xls and .txt files as well. Methods and algorithms used in the software under consideration are based on conception of the aircraft system reference pattern, which presumes the system representation by the reference set of points in the state space of parameters. The reference patterns are to be formed for each flight phase of the exact aircraft. Using the points appropriate to normal aircraft system operation, the reference patterns can be represented by the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the Mahalanobis distance from the center of the pattern to each point of the reference set. The program allows select a set of flights and the flight phase to create the etalon set of points and calculate Mahalanobis distance CDF. To make a decision on the current condition of the exact system the probabilistic criterion (quantile) is computed after each flight using Mahalanobis distance CDF. The program package architecture is based on the «Layers» software pattern and includes three layers: presentation layer, business layer and database layer. The considered software may be useful as an additional tool for maintenance specialists during the whole aircraft operation period.

Vasil’eva S. N., Kan Y. S. On linearization of perturbed motion model in the problem of ballistic trajectories scattering probabilistic analysis. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The article considers the probabilistic analysis problem of ballistic impacts scattering at spherical Earth surface. The starting point of the trajectory is also located on the earth’s surface. Trajectories scattering is caused by a random perturbation of the initial velocity vector. The circular probable deviation is employed as a scattering characteristic. It represents the circle radius length, the probability of hitting which equals to 1/2, i.e. it concurs with quantile of 1/2 level for the norm of a random vector, characterizing the trajectory impact deflection from the nominal one. These vector components are computed using the equations of Keplerian theory of elliptic motion in the central gravitational field. They depend nonlinearly on the velocity perturbation vector. In this respect, the analytical obtaining of the quantile from the norm of this vector is impossible.

The velocity perturbations are assumed to be small compared to its nominal absolute value. The vector of small random parameters of velocity perturbation is modeled as an componentwise product of a small deterministic parameter and a vector of random parameters. It is assumed that the random parameters vector has a standard normal distribution with independent components. The article suggests the linearization method consisting in approximation of the above said non-linear dependence by the linear model, which is obtained by deviation vector Tailor expansion along the velocity perturbation vector. It is being proved, that the error occurring while such substitution is of the order of a small deterministic parameter.

As a model example, The authors consider the flight of a material point to a specified distance at the known values of nominal initial velocity, departure angle and azimuth. The computation results of the circular probable error by the Monte Carlo and linearization methods for a wide range of initial values are presented. Calculations of linearization method relative error compared to Monte Carlo method are also given. This error does not exceed 1.5%, which was confirmed by theoretical accuracy estimates of the linearization method, proposed in the article.

Bortakovsky A. S., Shchelchkov K. A. A group time-optimal tasks of aerial vehicles. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The goal of the study consists in developing methods for forming the time optimal control laws for groups of objects. The problems of group performance find practical application in the field of controlling the groups of manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. There are also applications in biology and robotics. In the theory of optimal control such problems are new and insufficiently explored. The article considers four group performance problems. They are the task of simultaneous achieving one goal by a group of objects, the task of managing a group with its leader selection, the task of achieving several goals with a single or multiple sequential separation of active control objects from the carrier. The solution of these rather simple academic tasks allows developing and testing methods for optimal position control synthesis, which can be implemented in complex applied problems.

Optimal positional control developing is based on the method of dynamic programming, consisting in finding the price function (the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman function). In the problems under consideration, the centralized management of a group is based on the optimal decentralized positional control of individual mobile objects. The price function is formed from auxiliary functions, i.e. partial price functions for individual objects of the group.

The result of this work is the solution of the assigned group time-optimal problems, as well as the methods of constructing the price function and optimal positional control. The developed methods can be employed in the aerospace field while planning the aircraft groups’ application.

For theoretical studies in the field of optimal control of the groups of mobile objects, the solved problems can be employed as testing ones. The developed methods of the price function constructing can be employed for solving other more complex problems. Given that even in academic examples the solution is being found numerically, the application of the proposed methods of synthesis indissolubly related to the development of the appropriate approximate algorithms, as well as programs for the numerical implementation of these algorithms.

Shchelykalin M. Y., Formatorov S. O. Analysis of incoming correspondence processing changing of a space industry enterprise while Redmine projects management system implementation. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

The article considers an improvement of the spacecraft onboard software development by correspondence workflow automation. The analysis of existing in MEDB «MARS» letters workflow was performed to identify the stage where the introduction of information technology would reduce the development time and increase quality. It was decided that the automation of the maximum number of steps is the the basic method to improve the existing process. The conclusion was made on the reason of information system creation to automate process of letters registration and control. The system requirements were formulated. Based on this requirements and terms of implementation, the decision was made to create the system based on Redmine project management system.

The Redmine system was set up and extended with some plugins to meet the standard tasks of letters registration and control process. The following plugins were created:

  • Automatic letters linking

  • Access authorization for observers

  • Provision of a customizable list of employees with the ability to control letters.

Plugins development process was supported by functional automatic tests. The tests were performed with Selenium automation browser tool.

The proposed solution has been successfully introduced into the production process and employed while the development of several spacecraft control systems, including KazSat-2, Electro-L, Elektro-L № 2, Elektro-L № 3, Spektr-R, Spektr-RG.

Zamolotskikh O. A., Nikolaev A. V., Nikolaev A. V. Ballistic characteristics computing technique for identical models in conditions of a carrier aerodynamic interference. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

One of the most important tasks of aircraft employing is the delivery of goods discharged from external suspension devices in a strictly designated area. However, while suspension and subsequent discharge of identical goods under the same conditions, but with different external components of the carrier aircraft suspension, significant deviations of the drop of goods from the calculated occur. To determine the causes leading to high values of the drift, simulation of the process of flow around the aircraft when loads were located at various external points of the suspension was performed in the ANSYS software complex. According to the simulation results, the conclusion was made that the main reason, leading to discrepancies in the results of discharges from different external points of the suspension, is aerodynamic interference (AI) from the carrier, which represented an additional aerodynamic forces and moments, leading to a change in the aerodynamic qualities of ballistic bodies. Thus, the problem of accounting for the changes in the aerodynamic qualities of loads, depending on the location in the mathematical model of the movement of the ballistic body, arises. The article presents method for accounting for the aerodynamic interference characteristics, as well as the development of a technique for the ballistic characteristics computing of the goods located on the external suspension devices in the conditions of aerodynamic interference.

The following conclusions can be drawn from the results:

1. The phenomenon of aerodynamic interference significantly distorts the aerodynamic characteristics accepted and used in the onboard complexes.

2. The quantitative change of aerodynamic qualities of the model induced by the AI should be accounted for in the function containing the cargo ballistic properties , i.e. ballistic characteristics.

3. The developed technique allows accounting for the individual specifics of the cargo geometry and ballistic properties and obtain ballistic characteristics, reflecting the real process more fully.

4. Since AI manifests itself briefly, it is necessary to develop an accounting method of the characteristics of AI in the onboard ballistic algorithm, which envisages both movement in the interference and unperturbed field of the atmosphere.

Rusakov D. Y., Chernushin V. A. Defects imitation in multilayer honeycomb structure from polymer composite materials by honeycomb filler underrating method. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

Nondestructive control is utterly weak part of composite materials quality control. The most general non destructive control method of composite honeycomb structures is acoustic impedance method. To adjust defectoscope control parameters the sample with defects imitation is required.

The article compares the honeycomb underrating method for defects imitation and flat-bottom holes method. Advantages and disadvantages of both methods were analyzed.

The most general defects imitation method is flat-bottom holes method. However, this imitation method has a disadvantage. The defect area on sample larger becomes every time, than the defect area obtained from the mathematical model of this sample. With a honeycomb cell of a big size (the side length of 5 mm or more) this effect becomes rather crucial.

Another problem while applying imitation by flat-bottom holes method consists in impossibility of double-sided sample control. Thus, imitation of both sides is required, that makes the sample size much bigger.

Control of the sample while performing this this operation is realized by ID-91M acoustic impedance defectoscope. Extra control of the sample is performed via radiographic control.

A sample with two types of defect imitation was fabricated especially for this work. All in all, there were four defect imitators by flat-bottom holes method and four by honeycomb underrating method. The area of both pairs of imitators was equal in theory. Nevertheless, results of tests revealed that these areas are not equal. The area of imitators made by honeycomb underrating method was closer to the theoretical area of the defect.

As result of this work, we obtained data, confirming the advantage of the honeycomb underrating method compared to the flat-bottom holes method.

Likhachev V. P., Sidorenko S. V. Noise immunity of images autofocusing algorithm by entropy minimum at complex background situation. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

Modern SAR ensure a longer range, compared to optical systems, a faster (within a few seconds) radar image of a large land area receiving with a sub-meter resolution, as well as independence of the images quality from weather conditions and natural illumination state of the scenery.

Comparatively small weight-size indices of modern SAR allowed install them on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) of small class, which application reduces significantly the operation costs and maintenance of a carrier. However, application of such UAVs as SAR carriers is associated with significant instabilities in the trajectory and flight speed due to atmospheric turbulence.

To form a high-quality radar image with given resolution in time scale close to the real one, it is necessary to obtain accurate information on the carrier motion parameters and, primarily, its flight speed.

Placing a high-precision inertial navigation system on a small class UAV is impossible, and application of navigation receivers under interference conditions does not ensure the required accuracy in estimating the SAR carrier speed while the radar image formation. To compensate the speed estimation error, various radar image autofocusing algorithms are employed, such as the radar image autofocusing with regard to the minimum entropy function. It does not require the presence of powerful point-like reflectors in the field of vision. However, to evaluate the efficiency, for example, in solving the problems of correcting navigation errors by the radar image in conditions of a large noise / signal ratio q, additional investigations are required.

The relevance of the article is determined by the need to form a radar image with a specified resolution in a time scale close to the real one, by a small SAR installed on the UAV, which lacks the capability to compensate for trajectory instabilities from information from the inertial navigation system, etc. In the presence of noise-masking interference and background reflections, it is necessary to determine the boundaries of the stable radar image autofocus algorithm functioning at minimum entropy.

The article deals with the operation of a radar station with digital SAR with the RLI autofocusing for a minimum of the entropy function in conditions of noise-masking interference and complex background situation.

Usachov A. E., Mazo A. B., Kalinin E. I., Isayev S. A., Baranov P. A., Semilet N. A. Efficiency increasing of numerical modeling of turbulent flows by application of hybrid meshes with structured multi-scaled blocks and unstructured insertions. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

Method of hybrid meshes was developed for the stationary and non-stationary internal turbulent incompressible flows numerical modeling. Numerical modeling of the internal turbulent flow in a flat parallel duct with cylindrical cavern located on its lower wall was performed to validate accuracy and stability of the method. The goal of the studies consisted in verifying the proposed methodologies realized in VP 2/3 code [6] (based on the hybrid mesh technology [7] and turbulence differential models) on various meshes. Three kinds of meshes such as a coarse hybrid mesh, a refined hybrid mesh with non-structured block and non-structured triangular mesh were analyzed.

An experimental setup to study 2D plane flow in parallel channel with circular cave was built in the Institute of Mechanics, Moscow State University [3]. Viscid incompressible flow was studied in a flat parallel duct with cylindrical cavern located inside one of the duct walls. The Reynolds number was 1.3 × 105.

The modelling methodology and numerical approaches are based on solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for incompressible fluid and hybrid grids concept. While quantization of the convective flows through the control volume facets, the counter-flow schemes of a second order accuracy were applied [11].

The pressure was computed by semi-implicit methods (SIMPLEC), based on the SIMPLE procedure proposed by Patankar [10]. The VP2/3 bundled software, which is successfully employed for numerical modelling of various heat and mass exchange problems with viscous fluid and gas flows was developed based on this technique. Computations with different hybrid meshes are compared to the experimentally measured values of the velocity horizontal component in the center of the cavern and static pressure on the lower wall of the duct.

The verification and validation of numerical modelling of a flow in the duct with cylindrical cavern were performed with the differential model of Menter’s SST turbulence. Computed and experimental data demonstrated a close agreement.

Markushin A. N., Baklanov A. V. Test results of washing-out of coked atomizers of NK family combustion chambers by mixture of kerosene with technical detergent. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 99,

Ensuring reliable and failure-free performance of a gas turbine is the most foreground task for aeronautical engineering manufacturer. The combustion chamber is the most thermo-stressed part of the gas turbine with a great number of complicated gas-dynamic and thermodynamic process. Thus, the reliability of a gas turbine in many respects depends on a combustion chamber reliability. While aviation gas turbine with a multi-atomizer combustion chamber operation the combustion chamber fuel supply lines are subjected to coking due to low thermal stability of the supplied the fuel. It leads to premature engine removal. For this reason, the article presents the results of works on washing-out the partially coked atomizer by various of kerosene-technical detergent mixtures to define the more efficient of this mixture composition. The method of washing have been chosen due to the addition an antioxidant additive to fuel, or periodical combustion chamber washing-out by kerosene in mixture with active agents allowing decompose a carbon formation and a resinous depositing, as well as remove them together with fuel. The article describes the structure of the test bench and single-atomizer combustion chamber section, which was employed for testing eight partially coked nozzles. The article presents also the tests operation modes.

The results of the study revealed that the fuel mixture with technical detergent effectively removes deposits of thermal fuel decomposition from the coked atomizers. The maximum efficiency of carbon removing was obtained with the mixture of kerosene with 10-15% of technical detergent.

It follows, that this method is effective for realizing an atomizer channels cleaning channels, and may be recommended for application while the routine maintenance of gas turbine operating on liquid hydrocarbon fuel such as kerosene or diesel oil.

Panev A. S. On motion of a rigid body with mobile internal mass on a horizontal plane in a viscous medium. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

We consider a movement of a solid body carrying sliding single mass point. A body of M mass is situated on a horizontal plane, and a single mass point of m mass is moving inside it over circumference of R radius, which center coincides with the center of mass of the body, counterclock-wise. The forces of dry and viscous friction act between the body and the horizontal surface. Moreover, the angular velocity of the points’ circulatory movement is constant. We assume that at the initial instant the body stays at rest, and the moving mass occupies its lowest position

This work aims is complete qualitative investigation of all possible modes of motion body without the horizontal plane liftoff.

In addition to theoretical interest, the study of mechanical systems of this type can have an applied value, for example, as the creation of vibrating robots moving due to the forces of inertia that arise when moving internal masses. The advantage of such devices is that they do not require special propulsion (wheels, tracks, legs, and so forth.) And can be performed in an enclosure, the latter fact makes them resistant to attack by the external environment and allows to apply, on solid surfaces, and in liquids. Such devices are promising for the modern space industry. In particular, they can be useful for the study of celestial objects: asteroids, planets, solar systems and their satellites.

Based on the analytical and numerical studies made in this work we obtained the following conclusions. Three possible modes of motion were found, the conditions for their existence depend on the parameters of the problem: κ is the coefficient of dry friction,ν is the coefficient of viscous friction, and 

  1. The body performs a periodical reciprocating motion with a period equal to the period of a full turn of the point along the circle. The body moves during equal intervals of time in positive and negative directions. These time intervals of movements interlace with quiescence intervals of the body on horizontal plane.

  2. The body moves with periodic velocity. With that, during one cycle the body shifts in positive direction, changing twice the direction of its movement. Time intervals of motion in negative direction are separated from those in positive direction by quiescence intervals.

  3. The body moves non-periodically. The motion is of asymptotic nature, i.e., it approaches a certain limiting periodic mode of motion. In this limiting mode, the body moves in positive direction.

Kuroedov A. A., Borisov D. M., Semyonov P. A. Determining combustion zone acoustic admittance of non-metal and metalized energy condensed systems. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The work is devoted to the experimental study of combustion zone dynamic characteristics for metallized and non-metallized solid propellants. The goal of the study consists in developing a device to determine acoustic admittance and the pressure-response function of solid propellant combustion zone at various pressure pulsation frequencies and operation pressure.

The pulsed T-burner consisting of a classical T-burner and two auxiliary pressure pulsation generation (AG) chambers is proposed. Changing the T-chamber sections number allows varying frequency of created longitudinal vibrations combustion products, making it possible to measure acoustic admittance of the combustion zone in a wide frequency range. Nozzle design envisages the possibility of changing the throat diameter before launching by replacing the molybdenum liner. A pyrotechnic compound placed in the AG free space ensures the tearing up of metal diaphragm, clamped in the channel, connecting AG and T-burner.

To determine the solid propellant acoustic admittance a series of firings is being performed. For each firing cylindrical charges with a channel are prepared and glued to T-chamber cover. During the T-chamber firing without AG the installation, the operation time necessary for the right setting of time delay of triggering pyrotechnic compositions in AGs for the next firings is determined. Further firings are performed with AG, in which the decay constants of the two pressure pulses, created at the main operation segment, and at the end after both charges burning out are being fixed. Acoustic admittance of the solid propellant combustion zone and a function of combustion zone pressure-coupled response are calculated according to the obtained coefficients.

The acoustic admittances of a non-metallized solid propellant (AP / low-molecular rubber) and metallized propellant (AP / butyl-rubber /Al) were measured at frequencies in the range 150 to 850 Hz. Comparison of the obtained results to the published data indicates the perspective of the proposed installation implementation. A significant relative error of acoustic admittancehav and pressure-coupled response function determination requires more close attention to the technique of pulse pressure forming in the T-chamber.

The obtained acoustic admittance values can be used as boundary condition for solid fuel power plants acoustic stability calculation while employing various numeric methods.

Sysoev O. E., Dobryshkin A. Y., Nein S. N. Analytical and experimental investigation of free oscillations of open shells from alloy D19 carrying a system of attached masses. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Experimental studies have been carried out to determine the influence of the system of attached masses on the natural oscillations of shallow cylindrical shells of aluminum alloys, the results of which have been compared with theoretical calculations. The purpose of the experiment is to measure the free oscillations of an open, sloping cylindrical shell for various variations of the attached masses. Oscillations of an open, slender, thin-walled cylindrical shell, rectangular in plan, were measured using induction accelerometers. The theoretical calculation of the shell was carried out on the basis of the equations of motion of the theory of shallow shells, using the Bubnov-Galerkin method. A significant splitting of the flexural frequency spectrum is found, influenced not only by the systems of attached masses, but also by the values of the wave formation parameters, which depend on the relative geometric dimensions of the shell. The correspondence of analytical and experimental data is found, using the example of an open shell of alloy D19, which allows us to speak about the high quality of the study. A qualitative new analytical solution of the problem of determining the magnitude of the oscillation frequency of a shell carrying a system of attached masses is shown. For calculations, a hinged-supported open-shell model is used. The solution is based on the general equation of shell vibrations, a system of two differential equations describing small bending vibrations of the shell. On the basis of the general equation of oscillations of the shell (plate), an experimentally discrete nonlinear model of oscillations of a shallow shell bearing a system of attached masses with two degrees of freedom was obtained and confirmed experimentally. The experiment was carried out on a thin-walled cylindrical sloping open-shell model. The material of the sample is an aluminum alloy of the D-19 grade. Geometrical characteristics of the sample: R = 318 mm, L = 800 mm, H = 93 mm., δ = 0.4 mm. The shell is installed in a stand made in the laboratory of building structures. Experimental studies confirm theoretical studies. These studies can be used in the design of swimming machines, aircraft and other shells that have an attached mass. Carrying out of experimental studies has shown the validity of the obtained mathematical model, namely: the presence of a system of attached masses in an open cylindrical shell leads to splitting of the bending frequency spectrum of oscillations and the smaller of the split natural frequencies decreases at the same time.

Chernomorskii A. I., Kuris E. D., Mel'nikov V. E. Control program for translational and rotational motion of Uniaxial Wheeled Module. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Uniaxial wheeled module (UWM) is one of the most perspective types of unmanned ground vehicle for environmental monitoring tasks, particularly aerodrome. This vehicle is capable of both carrying equipment, and managing angular orientation of the platform, on which it is mounted. Simple algorithms for forming control moments, developed by the UWM wheels’ drive motors, were obtained. These moments provide a quasi-optimal in time UWM movement from the starting position on the horizontal underlying surface to the final position at the given UWM orientation in these points of its stationary positions. Non-holonomic vehicle model was obtained on the assumption of the absence of wheels slippage relative to the underlying surface, and insignificance of the effect of the platform angular movement around wheel axis on the linear movement of the center of UWM wheel axis. Adequacy of this model was confirmed by the results of experimental studies of UWM developed in MAI. Two types of its trajectories of simple configuration, predetermining the minor time of the UWM’s movement realization. It was demonstrated analytically, that it was impossible to transfer the UWM from the starting stationary position to the final one with the given in this position course angle within a single switching of the moments signs. Thus, the first trajectory was split into two stages, and the second into three ones. In each stage, the moments are formed based on maximum principle of Pontryagin in the form of constant in modulus (at each stage) maximum possible values, using at the stages only one simultaneous switching of these moments’ signs.

Travelling times’ comparative evaluation for UWM moving along the two selected trajectories was performed, based on the developed algorithms for forming control moments of wheels’ drive motors. It revealed the dependency of these times from both azimuth angle and course angle of the UWM final position


Kulikov S. V., Shcerbakova V. M., Frolov A. V., Vikulova Y. M. Definition of a matrix idling cut open a non-uniform line when you change the deduction in one of the poles. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Determination of properties of inhomogeneous lines for use in various filters.
Is the rationale for the method of determining the matrix of idling and the equivalent circuit for an inhomogeneous segment of a line obtained from the uniform by deducting in one of the poles to study the properties of the current segment.
The equivalent circuit for the input resistance of this chetyrehpolozyj in idle in forward and reverse directions will represent the series connection of the cut of the uniform line length and paralelnogo circuit without losses. The appearance in the equivalent circuit with a negative capacitance and inductance from the physical point of view can be explained by considering a transition from segment a heterogeneous line to infinite to length non-uniform line and back.
Since all the resulting contain, as the longitudinal elements parallel to the contours without loss, we can assume that such segments inhomogeneous lines have filtering properties.Oscillations with a frequency close to ωП(in the vicinity of which is the «outrage» spectra), the load did not arrive, and for large misalignment from the resonant frequency pass through without isogeny, i.e. those segments of the inhomogeneous lines have the properties of band-limiting filters, and with a single locking strip in the vicinity of the resonance frequency with no spurious rejection bands; at multiple frequencies.
Thus, to build a narrow-band band-band-stop filter with a single band locking can be used approach to the calculation of resonator filters – the inclusion of heterogeneous cut lines on the passage, in which the formation of the desired characteristics of the working attenuation is due local reflections resulting from impedance changes in the coordinate.

Kuli-zade M. E., Reshetnikova O. F., Skorokhod E. P. The development of kinetic models of the moving plasma. The Einstein coefficients for ion xenon.. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The study of the flows of a moving plasma, both experimental and theoretical, as well as the fundamental issues of plasmomechanics currently belong to the rapidly developing fields of science, which are used in solving the problems of engine building, rocket and space industry. In particular, the modeling of physicochemical processes is necessary for multilevel kinetics, low-temperature plasma spectroscopy, and optical diagnostics of plasma flows.

Einstein’s coefficients of spontaneous radiative transitions are the main terms of numerous kinetic equations, they are used to construct the state vectors of the plasma under investigation in the processing of spectra.

To compile the kinetic equations themselves, we need a scheme of levels and (what is fundamentally) their grouping, both for the XeI atom and for the XeII ion. The schemes compiled and supplemented in the quantum-defect approximation for the XeI atom and for the XeII ion make it possible to calculate the transitions that are absent in the reference edition [12].

In works from the list cited in [1, 2], on the study of the xenon plasma of the Hollow engine, little attention has been paid to the question: what levels and configurations should be taken into account in calculations. Usually in foreign publications, the averaged blocks are considered using the experimentally obtained constants, the kinetics for the atom, separately for the ion, is separately written. A joint model of the kinetics of excitations of an atom and an ion is not considered.

Calculations of the Einstein coefficients were carried out in the Coulomb approximation. The radial integrals were calculated using the Bates-Damgaard method. The angular dependences of the xenon ion are recorded in the LS – relationship. The values of the oscillator strengths and the probabilities of ~ 1000 radiative transitions of the xenon ion are given.

The averaging of the radiation constants is associated with the determination of the matrix element factor [11] (by adding the moments of dipole transitions). Recommendations are given on the use of tabular data of XeII in accordance with the chosen scheme of levels and configurations taken into account.

Fedotov D. A., Skvortsov K. G. Investigation of the strength of puncture holes. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The object of the present study is holes obtained by piercing the uncured polymer-fiber material of the structure. Puncture is carried out with the help of a pointed rod – indenter. The force field of the reinforcing fibers is not interrupted. The wall of the hole is thickened due to the increased content of fibers.

The aim of the study is to develop a hole punching technology, thread cutting by puncture, and also experimental study of the holes obtained.

Tensile tests carried out on multi-layered woven glass fiber-reinforced plastic samples with a hole of 8 mm showed a reduction in tensile strength in comparison with solid samples by 31.7% and 4.2%, respectively, for drilled and molded holes.

A special device was developed to pierce holes of various diameters in GRP plates up to 30 mm thick, as well as piercing elements for smooth holes and threaded holes.

Initially, the tensile test was carried out. Tests were made on samples cut from prefabricated plates in the size of 350×350 mm. To fabricate plates, T-13P cloth (100) was chosen, impregnated with binder EP-5122. The plates were made on a special device. The layers of fabric were stacked by alternating warp and weft. Such a technique made it possible to obtain characteristics of plate material, which are the same in all reinforcement directions. In the center of each plate we punctured holes.

18 plates with punctured holes in the center with a diameter of holes 6; 9; 13; 16; 18 and 20 mm were made. We made 3 plates for each diameter. We cut out of them the following samples: 1 sample with a punctured hole, 2 samples with holes drilled and 2 samples without holes. The width of the samples was equal to 3 hole diameters. Samples with holes of 20 mm were 50 mm wide. All samples were stretched to failure.

Based on the results of the tests, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. For a T-13P fabric (100), a 20 mm hole is the limiting size when it is punctured. This required a significant load for the puncture. There was a snacking of the tissue between the piercing element and the edge of the hole at the bushing. This situation is caused by the impossibility of further compression of the filaments perpendicular to them and it becomes impossible to further expand the hole. When puncturing a hole 18 mm in diameter, all these troubles were absent. Thus, a hole with a diameter of 20 mm was prohibitive, therefore, we can confirm that the limiting value of the hole for puncturing is in the range of 18 to 20 mm.

  2. For a T-13P (100) fabric, holes of 6 mm or less do not create a stress concentration near the holes in the fiberglass material.

  3. The structures with punctured holes are about one and a half times stronger than those with holes drilled.

  4.  As the diameter of the pierced hole increases, the stress concentration increases.

Further, the samples were subjected to cut tests. For the testing, 5 plates with punctured holes were made. Samples for testing were cut from the same slabs. In this case we had one sample with a punctured hole, and two with drilled holes. In the holes the bushings were inserted, through which the sample was loaded. On the one hand, the load was applied to the sample, and on the other hand it was applied to the pin. In such tests, the pin cuts the sample material along two planes.

Analysis of the test results showed that the breaking stresses on the cut in samples with punctured holes are 2-3 times larger than in the samples with drilled holes. This result can be explained by the fact that in the first case the threads of the reinforcing material near the hole are not cut, and the drilling cuts them.

Also we carried out tests to cut the thread obtained in the prepreg by the puncture method. For the production of plates with threaded holes, we made piercing elements which had a thread cut on the cylindrical part. We produced five such plates with different hole diameters. To test the thread in the holes we screwed rods with a corresponding thread into these holes. A tearing force was applied to the bolt until the thread was broken.

As a result of the tests, the following conclusion was drawn: the stresses on the cutting edge of the GRP thread have a value equal to the cutting strength of the GRP material. Thus puncture of the threaded hole allows to achieve the maximum value of the strength characteristics.

Duong D. T. Model wing inviscid flow-around computation by finite element method of high accuracy in conditions of thin ice formation. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The article presents the model wing inviscid flow-around computation by finite element method of high accuracy in conditions of the thin ice formation. The goal of the article consists in solving the problem of flow-around MS(1)-317 profile and NACA 64A008 wing by non-viscous gas water suspension. The system of equations of water content in the framework of Euler approach is described. The system in itself is not hyperbolic, and regions of “vacuum”, where water content ρ tends to zero, appear. To eliminate the said problem the system regularizing was performed to make the system hyperbolic. The new primary variable r = lg ρ was introduced. The resulting modified water content equation system was solved by Galerkin method with discontinuous basis functions (RMG). Orthogonal polynomials are used as basis functions in RMG. Initial and boundary conditions were formulated. At the initial instant the aqueous dispersion mixture is considered moving together with the gas. Parameters on the solid surface were computed in a special way.

The problem solution is split into two stages. At the first stage, the inviscid dry gas flow-around the wing is computed. Then, the obtained field is used as the basic field, and the finely-dispersed aqueous mixture flow around the wing is calculated. The water suspension droplet, sticking to the wing surface (capture coefficient β), defines the probability of the thin ice appearance.

As an example, calcolations for two typical problems were performed: the flow around the MS(1)-317 profile and the NACA 64A008 wing. The obtained results were compared to the experimental data. It is shown, that in the case of moderate incidence angles, the RMG scheme of the third accuracy order ensures the calculation accuracy of the water droplet capture coefficient on the wing about the 5% order. It is acceptable in practice.

Kalyagin M. Y. Modeling of aerial vehicles instrument bays by porous-composite impactors. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The article presents the model for parameters computation of an aerial vehicle’s (AV) instrument bay interaction with impediments (reinforced panels). The AV’s instrument bays are presented as porous-composite bodies, approaching the impediments at various angles. The viscoplastic flow in the panel material emerges under action of the highly intensive loads. Based on Renkin-Hugoniot theory, the author obtained the equations, describing the shock wave velocity in porous bodies. Computation results obtained employing these equations accord well with the laboratory tests results. The article presents the criterion of the beginning of viscoplastic flow progress in the panel under the action of impactor.

The proposed model of shock interaction allows obtain the laws of panel’s flexing and velocities alterations as a function of coordinates and time, as well as the distribution of stress and temperature.

Computaion resuts revealed that:

– The area of the intense viscoplastic flow was localized in a narrow region near the impactor contour;

– The destruction of the panel occurs at the stresses significantly exceeding the yield strength of the panel material;

– The effect of temperature growth on the physico-mechanical characteristics of the panel material in a first approximation can be ignored.

Calculations were performed for velocities of 300–900 m/s, panel thickness of 20 mm, and angles of interaction of 90° and 60°. The destruction of the panel occurs in the region where shear deformation reaches the limit value of p/4.

The results of the study can be used while solving problems of various bodies’ interaction.

Alekseeva M. M. Solid fuel ramjet aircraft volumetric-mass configuration formation technique. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The process of the volumetric-mass configuration formation (VMC) is one of the main stages a product shape formation. With the purpose of preliminary formation of the aircraft VMC, a complex mathematical model (CMM) and software to form shape of the system “Aircraft – power unit – fuel” were developed. Unlike earlier created, this CMM represents the uniform program complex intended for formation of a technical shape of aircraft and its power unit (PU) at stages of preliminary design. It allows compute not only thrust-economic and mass-size characteristics of an aircraft, but also geometric, aerodynamic, mass-volume characteristics and trajectory parameters of an aircraft movement by standard flight programs (profiles), as well as the effect of the properties of employed fuel on them.

The distinctive feature of this model its multidisciplinary approach and adaptedness to the optimization setting of the study. It allows optimize any airplane, engine and fuel parameters and their characteristics to form an optimal technical shape of the “Aircraft – power unit – fuel” system according to the selected effectiveness criteria. It gives the possibility to form a 3D model after configuring the project of a product to obtain more detailed information on aerodynamic characteristics (ADC), mass convergence of airframe and PU, computing of the center of masses and inertia moments of a product, preparing for 3D numerical modeling using the programs of 3D gas dynamic computation etc. The built-in universal model for computing equilibration thermodynamic characteristics of any gas mixture with account for K-phase allows evaluate effectiveness of application of this or that fuel for the given system. It expands greatly the abilities of both parametric and at optimization studies at various criteria. Dialog interface allows making changes in the project data and view the results in real time mode. It also provides availability of databases on starting and cruise solid fuels, structural materials and thermal-protective coating materials, ADC and characteristics of air-intake device which are updated daily and can be employed for the VMC formation.

Realization was performed by modern programming languages Fortran-95, Delphi and Win 32 API, using dynamic DLL technology. Verification of CMM is based on verification of the system model elements and on comparing the system criteria to real samples. With the help of this CMM, a number studies was performed to shape the “Aircraft–power unit–fuel” system.

Proshkin V. Y., Kurmazenko E. A. Global criteria of efficiency and their hierarchy for life support systems for space stations crews. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The authors suggest employ three global criteria of efficiency (GCE) to analyze life support systems (LSS) for space stations crews and planetary bases. These GCE integrate a number of LSS’s partial criteria (PC) such as survivability (G) (integrating such PCs as resource, reliability etc.); cost value (integrating PCs such as energy consumption, weight, servicing time, material cost etc), and comfort F (including such PCs as habitat, interaction with crew and other systems, layout, operation modes etc.).

The GCE hierarchy (significance) relative to each other depends on the type and characteristics of the LSS, its complexity and availability of means for reprocessing the source substances into final product within the system. Survivability is of most significance for regenerative LSS (RLSS), the cost value – for LSS on consumable components (LSS-C), and comfort – for emergency life support systems (LSS-E).

G > C > F. RLSS with a long operating time (several years), operating constantly, without maintenance.

G > F > C. RLSS, which operates periodically and for a short time (hours), with maintenance.

C > F > G. LSS-C with simple structure and processes.

C > G > F. LSS-C with more complex structure and processes (more probability of abnormal situations effecting the crew occurrence).

F > C > G. Emergency stock of consumables.

F > G > C. LSS-E for operation in abnormal situations on board.

G ≈ F ≈ C. Biotechnical LSS of future planetary bases, which will have a more significant cost value (high consumption of mass and energy) and comfort (specific requirements for greenhouses LSS).

While performing analysis, influence coefficients on three GCT kG , kC , kF are being determined for each parameter. The total coefficient is kΣ = a1 kG + a2 kC + a3 kF .

Weight coefficients a1 , a2 , a3 have their own values for each LSS and relative to each other correspond to the GCE hierarchy. For example, on board of International space station for Russian “Elektron-VM” system (О2 generation by water electrolysis): a1 = 9, a2 = 3, a3 = 1.

Application of this analysis in relation to existing and LSS being developed allows identify parameters and components with higher coefficients of influence and gives directions for constructional and operational modernization.

Zareckiy M. V., Sidorenko A. S. Dynamic state of aviation products structures with weld junctions. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The reliability of aviation products structures depends on vibration intensity acting while joint flight of the product with carrier aeroplane and causing significant stress levels. The highest stress level is observed in the zones of structural irregularities (junctions and abrupt changes of cross-sections). Thus, the problem of credible determining of vibration characteristics in the product structure in the zones of irregularity under operation conditions is topical. At the same time, experimental studies of vibrations in the zones of jointing and irregularities are rather labor consuming and costly.

The article presents the methodology and results of numerical models development and calculated estimation data of vibration characteristics of an aviation product structure containing continuous weld junctions. Modeling of dynamic state of an aviation product was performed employing the system of solid-state modeling and complex structures design SolidWorks. Models developed employing solid finite elements allow account for structural irregularity, and estimate characteristics of components of spatial local deformation.

Based on the developed models, dynamic characteristics of a product structure and vibration acceleration characteristics at random kinematic loading for various variants of weld junctions were determined. Spectral densities and accelerations distribution dispersion in various points of the structure were plotted. Zones of maximum accelerations levels were determined corresponding to the conditions of joint flight with a carrier airplane. Significant effect of weld joint characteristics on the vibration acceleration levels of the product structure was registered.

The developed methodology can be applied to estimate characteristics of dynamic state of frames and structural components of aviation products suspensions at various weld joint characteristics and specified conditions of random loading.

Isaev A. I., Skorobogatov S. V. Methodological aspects of burning process experimental research in combustion chambers of gas-turbine engines. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Air-fuel mixture burning is a complex physical-chemical process, which can conventionally considered as fuel spraying, its evaporation, mixing with air, and air-fuel mixture ignition and burning, where all these processes occur simultaneously for the most part. With this, for the most part all these processes occur simultaneously, and until now there is no universal technique allowing account for all details of the phenomena under study while their mathematical modeling. Besides, apart from physical-chemical processes, the phenomena associated with streams gas dynamics are of great importance for the analysis. While spraying, liquid fuel is crushed into small droplets. The average diameter of these droplets stipulate the surface area, affecting thereby the liquid heating and its subsequent evaporation and mixing with air. The fuel combustion efficiency in its turn is determined by the composition of the fuel-air mixture, as well as organization of ignition and combustion of this mixture in the combustion chamber. With regard to the complexity of these processes and their interaction with each other, full-scale experiment is still an integral part of combustion chambers designing.

The goal of this article is to study the methodological aspects of modelling the processes in real combustion chamber, which occur in one and the same time interval. At the stage of full-scale experiments on the combustion process study, a number of difficulties associated with the nature of the phenomena under study occur. So, while a fuel-air mixture burning in the combustion chamber, the boundary between the combustion and mixing zones is of rather conditional character. Thereby, it makes it impossible to consider the processes occurring in these zones separately one from each other.

The authors proposed the design of the chamber’s test bench, allowing split the combustion and the mixing zones. Also the technique for overcoming limitations of measuring equipment while fuel-air mixture reached stoichiometric composition was considered.

Stepanov R. N., Kozhevnikov I. A. Upgrade of monitoring instruments for aircraft liquid systems condition by industrial purity parameters. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Solution to the problem of ensuring industrial cleanliness of the aircraft fluid systems’ and components’ working cavity allows significantly reduce the consumption of liquids; improve the reliability and service life of onboard equipment in aircraft operation; reduce the time spent on aircraft maintenance and repair, as well as the complexity of the production, repair and maintenance. This presents a significant gap in the implementation of the control of the contamination level of the working cavity side of the liquid systems.

For complex spatial geometry of the internal cavities of the aircraft liquid systems, relevant regulations stipulate the implementation of indirect control of pollution by changing the concentration of the contaminants resulting from the controlled VSA of the liquid. In these conditions, the procedure for fluid sampling for subsequent system analysis is of special importance.

Simulation results confirmed experimental studies demonstrating the unpredictability of the contaminant particle distribution over the cross section of the pipeline at various points in time with the same specified initial conditions. It indicates the impossibility of guaranteeing the reliability of the liquid sample at its point or slot selection.

To improve reliability of the fluid sample technical solutions for sampling devices that implement two methods of selecting a volume and a point of fluid sampling were developed:

– the full flow sampling device provides volumetric sampling, maximally identical to the analytical control, from which it was originated, designed for ground maintenance of an aircraft,

– the sampling device of a needle-type point ensures isokinetic sampling, constructively, with minimal weight and size parameters in a normalized embedded rebar elements of aircraft pipeline systems, intended for placement directly in on-board systems.

Kudryavtsev S. I. Studying the safe flight termination ballistic scheme of manned transport spacecraft engine module . Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The problem of safe flight termination organization for engine module (EM) of a prospective manned transport spacecraft (MTS) in the case of descent from the Earth’s artificial satellite orbit and high-precision landing of reentry module (RM) on Russian territory is considered. In MTS project the reboost of EM after its separation from RM after MTS deorbitation is planned in order to provide its orbital life-time on several orbits. Then EM will be deboosted for drowning its unburned elements of structure (UES) in desert area in the South of Pacific. Such a scenario of MTS descent will eliminate the possibility of damage for the population and objects of ground infrastructure near RM landing site. The features of EM reboost maneuver to ensure UES drowning in permitted region are studied. As a result elliptic pre-descent EM orbit has a very adverse position of perigee relatively the target drowning area. So, additional fuel consumption for reliable EM UES srowning will be required. The features of EM descent from elliptic pre-descent orbit are also analyzed. Dependence of longitudinal size of UES drowning points dispersion area (SPDA) vs deorbiting delta-V value is given. The purpose of trajectory design consists in selecting minimum delta-V then SPDA is still inside of permitted area borders. Elliptic profile of EM pre-descent orbit causes a specific effect of some disturbances such as engine thrust uncertainty to the total SPDA size. This study permits to determine the way to decrease SPDA size for the same fuel consumption. Fuel consumption for EM safe flight termination including fuel for EM reboost and final deorbiting is estimated. Scenarios of MTS descent for the cases of RM landing in various regions of Russia are given.

Kozyaychev A. N. Studying algorithm of bank angle limitation near the Earth surface employing test bench. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The relevance of the problem of runway surface contacting with a wing or a nacelle for the modern airliners (wing or nacelle strike) is presented in the article. To solve of this problem the author suggests limit the maximal bank angle near a runway surface. It is suggested to employ the dependence of maximal bank angle on flight altitude. The description of the bank angle protection algorithm near ground is based on the principle of switching between a control signal from the pilot and a signal for stabilization of the set maximal bank angle in case of its surpassing. To demonstrate functioning and performing simulator studies, the of bank angle protection near ground algorithm was included in a flight control system algorithms of the perspective medium-range airliner.

The results of the studies of the of bank angle protection near ground algorithm obtained at the TsAGI flight simulator with participation of test pilots are presented. Various options of roll control at take-off, landing and maneuvering on roll near ground including landings with a crosswind and with a gust of crosswind were considered. In th course of the studies at flight simulator of the of bank angle protection near ground the algorithm was modified based on proposal of test pilots. The modified bank angle protection near ground algorithm was highly appreciated by pilots as the function increasing comfort of operation, especially in cross wind when maneuvering on a roll near ground. In addition, this algorithm was recommended by test pilots for including in algorithms of a flight control system of perspective airliners.

Ulybyshev S. Y. Launching a group of microsatellites employing intermediate orbit with synchronous precession. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The paper considers the task of launching a grouping of microsatellites employing intermediate orbits, possessing the property of synchronous precession of the ascending node longitude relative to the working orbit. As launch vehicle the article considers the “Soyuz-2.1 b” with launch block “Volga”, which after separation of the payload performs the inundation maneuver. The proposed scheme envisages separation of satellites from launch vehicles in the intermediate orbit. Then they are independently translated into the working orbit. This allows increase the mass delivered payload and reduce deployment time segment of the satellite system (SS) with installation of microsatellites in specified positions on the working orbit to 1.5 days. It reduces the required cost of fuel on the injection module to the problem of inundating. The simultaneous launch the grouping microsatellite segment SS into orbit with synchronous precession allows employ it as the standby orbit and significantly reduce the time of recovery of SS in case of failure of one of the microsatellite in the working orbit. The costs of fuel herewith for shifting standby microsatellite to the working orbit will correspond to nominal values for other aggregates from the given segment of SS. The article presents the methodology for evaluating costs of fuel and characteristic velocity for operation of putting a microsatellites grouping into intermediate orbit, bringing them to the working orbit and performing inundation maneuver by the launching block.

Comparison on time and energy indicators with the traditional option of putting groups of microsatellites directly on the working orbit when after separation apparatuses are set in the desired operating position through re-phasing maneuvers. The revealed advantages in terms of increasing mass of a payload delivered to an intermediate orbit are substantially dependent on the magnitude of the orbital inclination and the mostly tangible for near-polar deviations from 75° to 105°. While putting microsatellite groupings into near-polar orbits the additional payload mass may be comparable to the mass of a microsatellite itself.

Alekseev A. V., Doroshin A. V., Yeromenko A. V., Krikunov M. M., Nedovesov M. O. Dynamics of a composite spacecraft with movable unit in three-axis gimbal. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The presented work is associated with modelling of angular motion of a variable configuration spacecraft caused by the presence of the additional movable rigid body inside the main carrier body fixed in the gimbal. The internal body is a movable unit of various functional purposes, such as antennae, telescope or operating component of a remote sensing system.

As a basis for considering a spacecraft in this problem, we can employ the model of double rotation of a spacecraft with movable longitudinal axis (on two transversal angles). In this case the presence of two additional degrees of freedom, allowing model the relative angular motion of the body-rotor relative to the carrier body, the mechanical structure of a spacecraft with double rotation is substantially enriched in the sense of functionality and dynamics.

The 3D relative motion of the internal body with respect to the main body of the spacecraft can be realized by means of a triaxial gimbal suspension. Then the considered mechanical system will have six degrees of freedom and allow ensure the necessary spatial orientation of the internal body, as well as fulfill the technical task of the spacecraft in its functional purpose.

For example, such mechanical systems and corresponding structural schemes can be employed for allocation of mobile equipment in a spacecraft, and orientating/redirecting/correcting its angular position by dint of internal drives fixed in the main body of a spacecraft.

As such equipment one can indicate, for example, massive manipulators, antennas, telescopes, movable nozzles of propulsion systems, structural elements of space tether systems, etc.

The mathematical model of angular motion of the considered system was obtained employing dynamical theorems and Lagrange’s formalism.

Equations of angular motion of a spacecraft with variable configuration without any constraints on relative rotation angles of the internal body/unit were obtained in this work. The authors performed numerical modeling of dynamics of movement without a spacecraft torque in case of internal control moments nonexistence.

The topicality of the work and its practical significance are characterized by the current intensification of the development of new modern platforms of nano-satellites, containing multifunctional mobile elements.

Liang Q. ., Litvinenko Y. A., Stepanov O. A. Analysis of Attitude Reference System Accuracy versus Rotation Angle Sensor Errors. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

At present, various methods of compensation for errors in orientation systems and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) based on the rotation modulation technique are widely used. This method can enhance the autonomy of orientation system and navigation system and allows the system to operate for a long time even on relatively coarse sensors.

The data processing problem of attitude and heading reference system based on rotation modulation technique is studied in this article. A novel orientation system consisting of two micromechanical IMUs mounted on two separate rotary platforms with orthogonal axes is proposed. It can improve attitude system performance while reducing requirements for external sensors. This structure allows estimate errors of angular rate sensors without dynamic motion model of the object and any other external information. Though, in this case, the accuracy of the orientation system under consideration depends not only on the IMU measurement errors, but also on the encoder measurement errors of the angular positions of the platforms.

The error of the angle sensor consists of two components: constant and random error. Based on covariance analysis, the accuracy of the gyroscope errors was estimated employing various error level of angle sensors. It has been proved that the constant error component of the angle sensor has the same effect as misalignment angles, and the random error component affects the accuracy of the orientation system in the way similar to gyro measurement noise. The resulting data is very useful for designing the attitude and heading reference system based on two units of micromechanical gyroscopes, especially for selecting the type of micromechanical gyroscopes and angle measurement sensors.

Gusenitsa Y. N., Dorozhko I. V., Kochanov I. A., Petukhov A. B. Scientific-methods approach to evaluating readiness of complex technical systems with account for metrological assurance. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Substantiated evaluation of metrological assurance procedures effect on readiness for application is necessary while complex technical systems design and maintenance of their life cycle. It requires development of new complex models, connecting reliability figures with indices of technical condition.

The proposed approach and models are based on fundamental concepts and equations of the reliability theory of technical systems. The model proposed in the article is based on well-known and well-tested apparatus of Markov random processes, and analytical dependences obtained from the solution of systems of equations of Kolmogorov-Chapman, describing the developed model.

Mathematical models binding the coefficient of readiness, control reliability and the probability of metrological activities successful implementation of complex technical systems were developed. The analytical dependence linking the indicators of reliability of complex technical complex and the performance of the process control and metrological procedures was obtained. The proposed network model for obtaining the probability of successful implementation on metrological support of complex technical systems was suggested. The article presents a calculated example of the evaluation of the effect of metrological assurance procedures on the maintenance of readiness to apply complex technical systems. Analysis of the results allows draw inferences on the metrological assurance procedures degree of effect on the maintenance of readiness to use complex technical systems.

The proposed scientific and methodical approach can be employed while complex technical systems development, as well as justifying the composition and characteristics of technical means of metrological assurance.

The obtained analytical relationship may present practical interest for military representatives, employees of bodies of state certification, industry representatives. It can be used also for formation and justification of reliability requirements, as well as requirements to metrological support in tactical and technical tasks for development (modernization) of complex technical systems, as well as to account for the effect of activities of metrological assurance on availability of complex technical systems at all stages of the life cycle.

Lunev E. M., Neretin E. S., Budkov A. S. Performing trajectory guidance algorithms testing at searching modeling bench. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Airspace is becoming increasingly saturated due to heavier traffic in specific dense areas. This necessitates a reduction in aircraft separation while maintaining the equivalent level of safety. It is clear that increasing airspace capacity, enhancing operational efficiency and fuel savings, while ensuring the best safety level of air traffic cannot be reached without combined employing of air and ground elements. New implementations being studied now require aircraft to maintain a specified level of accuracy and precision in the position update in all flight phases and in particular during aircraft landing. Recent navigation systems offer the required navigation performance to achieve these objectives, in conjunction with increased routing flexibility. Based on today’s forecast, some areas seem more appropriate for a new type of operation such as the so-called Area Navigation or RNAV, the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concept, the Future Air Navigation System (FANS A and B) enhancement concept and new approach and landing capabilities based on FMS (so-called FMS landing system) or FLS (Flight Management Landing System). RNAV involves the development of navigation procedures based on instrument flight (particularly important in adverse weather conditions), enabling aircraft to fly point-to-point without conventional ground-based radio navigation aids. It can be used en-route in association with the RNP concept, but also for terminal area navigation (approach phase) and for instrument approach procedures. RNP is a navigation element that is expected to affect current and future existing airspace structures. It concerns navigation performance accuracy that is essential to fly the aircraft in RNP airspace. Aircraft must meet or exceed these performance and precision requirements to fly in that airspace. RNAV and RNP are two key elements of a more global concept that is FANS. This new enhanced concept involves not only navigation (with RNAV and RNP), but also surveillance and communication areas through an air traffic management link. Surveillance will allow the Air Traffic Control (ATC) to receive the aircraft position and its planned route in order to reduce aircraft separation and communication will assist in the automatic sharing of real-time information and digital communication between pilots and ATC. For these reasons FANS can be seen as a chain linking a pilot and a traffic controller.

For this concept of navigation, trajectory guidance algorithms were developed and tested. Results of the test reveal that the accuracy of the developed algorithms is high enough to provide a new navigation concept.

Mikhailin D. A., Alliluyeva N. V., Rudenko E. M. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of genetic algorithms the routing of the flight, taking into account their different computational complexity and multicriteria tasks. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The paper presents results of the genetic algorithms research. This algorithm solves routing problem the aircraft executes the automatic flight on a pre-laid in memory of his computer flight mission. The cases of single- and multiobjective implementation of the genetic algorithm.

The multicriteria of routing tasks decision can be performed in two stages:

– finding a plurality of routes connecting a start and end point;

– verify the achievements in them the values of all criteria to select the best options.

Multiple routes selecting in a graph between two vertices can be carried out on the basis of minimizing the target function graph.

Estimated computational complexity of the described algorithm one criterion. It is shown, that when a large number of vertices and edges of a graph minimizing the objective function method the most beneficial in the development of preflight tasks.

In real conditions of planning the generated flight plan to meet a number of sometimes conflicting requirements of cost, flight duration, the total importance included in the plan of points. Their importance is uneven and variable, the timeliness of the observations according to the given schedule, etc. The essence of the alternative approach is that the full planned route is divided into several sections (blocks), each of which the dominant one private criteria. This method is suggested by the practice of observation, when one area important the timeliness, on the other – the economy. Thus, the objective functions of genetic algorithm are specified criteria. After the procedure, the formation of “elite” based on specify criteria starts the procedure of “crossing”. It is produced by blocks permutations of intermediate route points in the flight mission and provides a sufficient number of “descendants”. Then, inside all three blocks of the interblock points performs “mutation” that will be performed only between the boundary of points.

It is shown that due to the high performance of modern on-Board computers, implementing complex routing algorithms when observing terrestrial objects with a specified flight schedule does not cause difficulties.

On the basis of simulation results the performance of the algorithms a comparative analysis of their work effectiveness.

Krikov D. S. Frequency spectrum synthesizers in radio electronic systems. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Frequency synthesizers (FS) find wide application in modern radio electronic systems (RES), such as mobile communications, precision measuring devices, radar and radio navigation systems. The development of new and promising RES as well as the outdated radio engineering systems modernization requires more advanced, in terms of technical parameters, FSs. The article examines mobile devices, measuring equipment, radio direction-finders and transceiver modules. A structural diagram, technical data on the capabilities of the device and an analysis of its operation are presented for each type of devices. Based on the results of the analysis, conclusions are to be made on the method of frequency synthesis, FS quantitative and qualitative characteristics, and trends for their improvement. In the field of mobile communications, engineers are trying to reduce weight, size and power consumption of microcircuits being a part of mobile devices, including the FS chip. Qualitative development of measuring devices requires time reduction of frequency tuning of the FS to the microsecond-nanosecond range. Radar systems require not only high speed, but also low levels of spectral components and phase noise of the FS. For radar systems employing active phased array antennas the critical parameters of FS are weight, size, power consumption and cost. The current level of FS based on digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with integer or fractional frequency division factor, digital direct synthesis and hybrid structures does not allow achieving high values of certain FS parameters, without degrading the other.

Mikhaylov V. Y., Vitomsky E. V. Models for performance evaluation of a variant of fast search device over code sequence ensemble delay. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Considered are async-targeted and control-measurement aerospace systems using complex coded signals. This work is devoted to the creation of models for performance estimation of the processing method and delay acquisition devices based on fast conversions.

The use of a variety of simplified methods and search algorithms are limited when limited observation time and high requirements to synchronization reliability and accuracy. The solution based on principles and mathematical models developed by the authors: principle of the fast conversions in Galois fields, algebraic model and structure of the delay acquisition device of the subclass code sequences. Key features of the processing method are receiving “in General” in two stages and accumulation of the symbols of the set synchronized by the delay of short sequences, which generated by the samples of the initial code sequence. Usually adopted buffering the implementation phase detection not used in the present embodiment search schema, which is usually required when performing other fast transformations methods.

Two search schemes are considered: an optimal and two-stage quasi-optimal scheme with a detector in the first search stage. Two channel models for different modes of operation of the schemes are constructed. They are makes it possible to choose the detectors threshold. Event model for these schemes built to their performance estimation. Based on these models analytical estimates of loss time to search were obtained. The developed two-stage quasi-optimal scheme version slightly loses on time in relation to the optimal scheme. This allowed us to justify increases energy efficiency of two-stage quasi-optimal scheme with a detector in the first search stage.

Maslakov M. L. New methods of adaptive signal correction in aviation HF data transmission modem. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The importance and need for HF data transmission lines is increasing greatly with expanding of the aviation industry and innovation of requirements for air traffic services and airspace control over the Arctic region and ocean areas. Currently, the increased requirements to bit error rate and data transmission rate can be considered in the following areas:

– design of adaptive filtering algorithms;

– design of adaptive correction methods and principles;

– design of the new signal structures.

Recently, the author is working on all these areas. The article presents the following methods developed by the author:

– application of guard intervals;

– method of adaptive correction with guard intervals compensation;

– new algorithm of adaptive correction with decision feedback;

– methods of adaptive correction with quasi-coherent, weight quasi-coherent and in-phase quasi-coherent summation of test signals;

– method of non-test adaptive correction;

– algorithm of non-test adaptive correction with decision feedback.

The results of bit error rate numerical modeling obtained according to the methods considered in this article and algorithms of the adaptive signal correction are shown.

The presented methods can be used both in newly designed and in existing aviation HF data modems. These methods allow reduce a bit error rate and the probability of the information packet loss, as well as increase the data rate (up to 30%) in definite cases.

Some of the methods considered were implemented in a serial modem layout and tested on a real HF channel. All methods developed by the author were patented in Russian Federation.

Bulygin M. L., Markova A. S., Mullov K. D. Multi-channel ScanSAR mode realization in a space-based SAR. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

This paper discusses implementation of a space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) multi-channel ScanSAR mode. Employing the digital active electronically scanned array (AESA) allows forming a multi-beam pattern and implement high resolution multi-channel SAR modes. One option is implementation of the multi-channel ScanSAR mode.

Computation of imaging characteristics and SAR parameters are given for multi-channel ScanSAR mode. For example, using K = 4 antenna beams (channels) allows scanning M = 3 partial strips (total swath of 70.29 km, elevation angle of 40°) with a resolution of about 3.7 m. For single channel SAR system with aperture size 4 × 1.6 m resolution is 8 m.

SAR digital AESA was realized as a multi-segment antenna. Each segment is completely autonomous and allows form, transmit, receive and process signals. This architecture requires an exact synchronization of the segments with each other. Synchronous operation and management of all segments is ensured by the on-board processor.

Intersegmental time synchronization is realized as follows. For transmition synchronization in the samples of the linear frequency modulation probe signal, a linear phase shift is added. At the receiving point, delay filters are used to synchronize signals in each segment. These approaches allow increasing the synchronization accuracy by 20 times.

The presented synchronization methods are implemented employing high-speed field-programmable gate array. To create a fault-tolerant firmware realizing high-speed signal processing, it is necessary to account for the specific conditions of the on-board SAR equipment in space functioning. This requires selecting the appropriate hardware in the design of the SAR system.

Thus, the multichannel scanning mode employing allows improve significantly the radar imaging characteristics. Implementation of this mode requires solving the problem of an intersegmental synchronization of on-board equipment. At the same time, the on-board equipment and its firmware must meet the requirements of fault tolerance in space.

Ronzhin A. L., Nguen V. V., Solenaya O. Y. Analysis of the problems of unmanned flying manipulators development and UAV physical interaction with ground objects. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

The ability of aerial unmanned vehicles to manipulate or carry over surrounding objects, expands greatly the types of missions and application areas, enhancing the operator's ability to perform dirty, dangerous or monotonous operations. To date, employing of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for direct interaction with the environment is still limited due to its instability. Adding an onboard manipulation system to a UAV significantly complicates functioning algorithms, structure and leads to an increase in overall dimensions. The physical interaction of the manipulator with objects affects the UAV instability, which in turn leads to difficulties in the UAV positioning and reduces the accuracy of gripper guidance. In addition, the physical interaction of the manipulator with objects requires UAV's higher power resources. The article analyzes modern research of UAVs with a manipulator, including flight control problems, avoidance of contact with the earth, surrounding space, as well as manipulations with the captured object. Developing mobile manipulator of unmanned aerial vehicle (MM-UAV) is accompanied by a much greater number of difficulties than the creating traditional ground-based robots, performing the tasks of movement together with manipulation. The most difficult issue is the lack of a stable platform in the air. Ground vehicles can stop to perform operations and perform precise manipulations in a stable state, while MM-UAV in most cases does not have this capability. In fact, even employing robust flight stabilization systems, the MM-UAV airborne platform will be situated in a certain area of space, lacking herewith the precise fixed coordinates, especially while out-door operations. The lack of stability of the aerial platform can be partially compensated by manipulator control. The range of manipulator movements and the field of view of the sensors also depend on the side, with which the platform approaches the object. The body of the air platform itself is limiting the workspace of the manipulator. Thus, to increase it, in most cases the manipulator is mounted directly to the lower part of the platform. Still, experiments are performed on full-scale models rarely enough, mainly it is a computer or combined simulation, where the model of the manipulator is suspended in a special frame that simulates the UAV free movement. Based on the analysis, a list of new problems arising in the physical interaction of UAVs with objects through an embedded manipulator is formulated. The above said tasks and requirements allow defining the UAV hardware and software parameters necessary for manipulating and transporting ground objects, as well as interacting with ground-based service robotic platforms and other collaborative robots.

Makarenkova N. A. Controlling the kinetic moment of the solar sail by changing of the reflectivity of its surface. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

In the article, the management of a solar sail, which uses the pressure of sunlight to move, is considered. It is a promising spacecraft, since it does not require the consumption of rocket fuel. This is especially important in the case of long missions. To achieve the required orbits, it is necessary to periodically change the orientation of the sail according to the specified program. Therefore, the problem of controlling the spatial rotation of the solar sail without the expense of the working fluid is especially important and relevant. The solar sail, represented in the form of a thin rotating mirror film attached to a cylindrical rigid insert, is considered. The flywheel is introduced to compensate the kinetic moment of the system “rigid ins ert – film”. In this case, the reorientation of the spacecraft is possible due to a change in the angle between the vectors of the kinetic moments of the structural elements. The solar sail will rotate about an axis that coincides with the sum of these vectors. In this case, the design in which the kinetic moments of the flywheel and the system “rigid insert – film” are equal in absolute val ue, is most preferable. In this case, any desired turn can be reported to the solar sail for an arbitrarily small change in the angle between the vectors of the kinetic moments of the elements of the structure, and therefore for arbitrarily small energy expenditure. In this case, the instrument compartment can occupy a fixed spatial position after reorientation. The imbalance of the vectors of the flywheel kinetic moments and the “rigid insert–film” system will inevitably arise during the long-term operation of the solar sail in orbit. This will lead to unwanted rotation of the instrument compartment. It is proposed to use a change in the reflectivity of the film as an external control action. The algorithm for controlling the solar sail, which allows it to be reoriented to the required angle, has been developed. It is established that in comparison with the spatial rotation only due to the forces of sunlight pressure, the control time has decreased more than twice, and the energy consumption has decreased by 4.5 times. The algorithm that allows to eliminate the imbalance of the vectors of the kinetic moments of the “rigid insert–film” system and the flywheel, is also developed.

Rybnikov S. I., Nguyen T. S. Improving the accuracy of lateral movement control of the medium-haul aircraft using the Kalman observer of alternating wind disturbance. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Currently, many accidents are associated with bad weather. This is because the aircraft and crew control system does not accurately predict the impact of external factors of a complex meteorological conditions on the flight process. Therefore, the requirement to develop a system for an accurate assessment of the environmental impact on an airplane is very important. Factors of meteorological conditions include: wind, humidity, air density, temperature. Synthesis of the automatic lateral movement control system in the mode of turn in unfavorable weather conditions (presence of a side wind) is a complex task. This work considers the development of a system for assessing the influence of the side wind on the movement of the aircraft.

The purpose of this article is to improve the quality of the lateral movement control process of the medium-haul airplane by minimizing the static error of deviation from the specified track with the introduction of the signal f or estimating the angle of the side wind and the slip angle in the control law. The input signals (angle of the course, roll, angular velocities) are measured by the BINS.

To obtain an estimate of the slip angle, the angle of the side wind and the drift angle from the given path, a Kalman filter is used, constructed using a linear stationary mathematical model of lateral motion of the aircraft [1]. As a result of the work, Kalman’s discrete filter was created, which allows to provide accuracy of obtaining estimates of the angle of slip, wind angle and angle of drift, which are subsequently introduced into the control law.

The simulation results confirmed the hypothesized hypothesis that the introduction of additional estimated parameters for the motion of the medium-haul aircraft improved the characteristics of transients when working off the deviation from a given track line in the presence of a side wind. In particular, when one-sided and two-sided gusts are acting at a speed of up to 10 m / s, the error of position of the plane concerning the set trajectory of system compensation of indignation decreases approximately by 3 times. In this case, the smaller the step of the discrete Kalman Filter, the more accurate the perturbation estimate it performs.

Nguyen Viet H. N., Ha M. T. Formalization of the problem of optimal target information distribution from spacecraft to ground data processing stations. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Targeted operation of a space system includes a management of the targeted application of satellites, receiving information, processing and transmission to consumers.

At the same time, the question of the rational distribution of information obtained in an inhomogeneous ground infrastructure, places of its storage and further processing requires a more detailed study.

The solution to this problem should ensure, on the one hand, the maximum value of the information, and on the other, its economic attractiveness to the consumer.

The paper proposes a formalization of the problem of optimal distribution of the targeted information fr om satellites to ground data processing stations (GDPSs) and the methodical approach to its solution, which focuses on the creation of specialized software.

We assumed that the distribution destination information from the spacecraft to the ground data processing stations proceeds sequentially. The mathematical formulation of the problem includes models of physical resources; a query model; model assignment request; constraint model; model of residual available resources; model initial data; problem statement. At the same time, the task can be substantially simplified by conventionally dividing it into two subtasks.

Task 1 consists in constructing the optimal route for the passage of an application through ground stations with known intermediate stations for storing / reading information. The initial station can be a GDPS, wh ere the primary information is stored; a GDPS, which stores the intermediate results of processing previous applications that meet the requirements of the current processed. The end of the route is the consumer.

Task 2 involves determining the optimal allocation of the stored information with the statistics of the applications and their geographic information binding.

This task can also be considered as an optimization, for which:

  1.  The input data are the attributes of the applications, the characteristics of the flow of applications for each type of consumer (law of the distribution of time intervals between applications submitted).

  2.  As criteria for optimality, we can take the mathematical expectation of the execution time (service) of all applications, the total cost of servicing all applications.

  3. The restrictions are the value of available resources of the possible GDPS, the amount of RAM, the size of long-term memory, the load of the processor(s), the policy of allocating computing resources (a set of prohibitions and priorities for receiving, storing and issuing information to consumers), performance indicators like effective system performance, the aggregate information value of products.

For a small number of nodes and user requests, the optimal distribution problem can be solved by an enumeration method. Otherwise, one of the following methods can be used: the method of linear convolution of criteria, the Pareto method and its modifications, the method of successive concessions and limitations, the confident judgment method.

The conditions for the applicability of the proposed approach can be divided into several groups: the conditions for applying a methodical approach to solving the posed problem, the conditions for the adequacy of mathematical models of objects and processes, the conditions for the applicability of the initial data

Solovjeva I. A., Solovjev D. S., Litovka Y. V., Korobova I. L. Modification of analytic hierarchy process to enhance decisions made objectivity. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 98,

Units and components of aviation technology are subjected to corrosion processes while in service. Galvanic coatings are employed to repair parts, damaged by corrosion, and improve their protective and decorative characteristics.

The problems emerging while preparing electroplating industries relate to the class of weakly structured and multi-criteria problems, in a number of cases not subjected to formalization whatsoever. Thus, the solution of these problems can be obtained employing the intuition, experience and knowledge of the person making the decision. To solve these problems, decision support systems based on user and computer dialogue using artificial neural networks, production fuzzy models of knowledge and genetic algorithms are already being employed. In its turn, there are no works aimed at finding solutions to the emerging problems using methods of decision theory. The authors give preference to the analytic hierarchy process for solving the problems under consideration due to its universality. However, this method is not devoid of subjectivity in evaluating the alternatives in question when choosing a solution. The authors suggest a modification of the traditional analytic hierarchy process, which is aimed at reducing the share of experts participation in the decision making process. It is assumed, that some of the criteria by which alternatives are evaluated are given numerically. The authors suggest evaluate alternatives by such criteria as the ratio of their values, which allows get rid of the 9-point scale. When calculating weight factors, a function is introduced that returns 1 or —1, depending on the criterion minimization or maximization, to match the best alternative of the considered criterion to the maximum weighting factor. In this case, the calculations of the consistency index and the consistency relation become unnecessary. These innovations make allow exclude an expert when assessing a significant amount of quantitative data and, consequently, avoid variants of the estimates mismatch. This, in turn, makes the decision-making process more objective and fast. The effectiveness of the proposed modification of the analytic hierarchy process is compared by the example of decision-making on the selection of coating metal taking into account physical, mechanical, economic, environmental and technological factors. For the example under consideration, the expert was excluded from 180 comparisons.

Stetsenko N. S., Khokhlov A. V. Identification of Rabotnov nonlinear constitutive relationship on the data of polyethylene and polypropylene creep tests. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The paper presents calibration technique for the Rabotnov nonlinear (quasi-linear) constitutive equation is developed using a set of creep curves of the material under uni-axial loading. The constitutive equation describes rheonomic materials behavior and generalizes the linear integral relationship of viscoelasticity with an arbitrary creep function by introducing the second material function. We propose to construct isochronous creep curves by the test data, approximate them by a number of special families of functions depending on 4-7 parameters and sel ect the most suitable family (the one yielding the smallest value of the relative quadratic deviation from the experimental points). As a rule, such families of functions could be chosen, which permit the analytic inversion of the constitutive equation, which enable not to resort to an approximate treatment procedure and reduce the identification error. Next, a “basic” isochronous curve should be selected (its selection is related to the choice of the characteristic time scale for the test under study). A nonlinearity function is being found fr om it. Then, with account for the specific features of the experimental data, the type of the creep function approximation is selected, and its parameters are found (using the nonlinearity function obtained before). The advantages of the identification technique were considered compared to the conventional one. In particular, the procedure for quantitative estimation of the similarity condition fulfillment for experimental isochronous creep curves (the necessary condition for the relation applicability) was proposed.

The identification procedure was applied to polyethylene and polypropylene creep tests. High-density polyethylene is widely used for manufacturing of water and gas supply pipes and other products. Thus, the study of their mechanical characteristics and their behavior modeling is of great interest. Verification of the obtained material functions was performed using the creep curves, that were not used for the identification procedure, stress-strain curves with constant rate and multi-step creep tests. It was shown, that the technique developed herein describes the experimental data well.

Ovdienko M. A. Development of a calculation model for planing seaplane equipped with automatically operated interceptors. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The presented work is dedicated to the development of high-speed vessels equipped with automatically controlled hydrodynamic interceptors to improve their hydrodynamic characteristics and seaworthiness.

The hydrodynamic interceptor is a small plate, being mounted transversely to the flow, near the aft cut or planing step of the gliding vessel. Due to the flow deceleration afore them, the area of increased pressure formed created, which leads to the total lift force increase and the displacement of its application point towards the interceptor. Thus, the interceptor can operate as a hydrodynamic mechanization to control the trim and roll angles. The interceptor minimal effort is required to move the due to the orthogonal position of the plates’ direction extension and the forces acting on it. It allows developing high-frequency control systems based on interceptors.

The author proposes to install controlled hydrodynamic interceptors on stern of seaplane forebody hull. It is possible to achieve optimum trim angles, which ensure minimum resistance, by controlling interceptors. It is also possible to fend off the oscillations and overloads acting on the seaplane during the planing on waves by controlling interceptors in the automatic mode. To verify this proposal, a mathematical model of the seaplane planing in conditions of smooth water, as well as regular and irregular waves was developed. The mathematical model is based on the plane cross sections method and accounts for the presence of hydrodynamic interceptors. Besides, this model allows simulating the operation of an aerodynamic pitch-rate damper, which is used as an elevator.

Computations were performed for a seaplane with a take-off mass of 37 tons, the of forebody width near the stern of 2.1 m, and a take-off speed of 52 m/s. Computations of planing on calm water confirmed the assumption on the possibility of the effective trim angle control, and thus ensure a minimum drag force. It was found that uncontrolled interceptor could lead to self-oscillations, but the automatic control system introduction completely eliminated the possible instability. Thus, the automatically controlled hydrodynamic interceptors can be considered as a tool of the seaplane steady planing boundaries expansion.

The seaplane planing dynamics in conditions of regular waves were simulated at the wavelength of 50 m and a wave height of 0.8 m. The computation results revealed that the hydrodynamic interceptors control system allowed reducing by several times the amplitude of the seaplane oscillations in the trim angle and in the vertical plane. Automatically controlled interceptors are most effective while joint operation with aerodynamic pitch dampener.

The performed studies confirmed the assumption put forward. Automatically controlled hydrodynamic interceptors application can be recommended for hydrodynamic and seaworthiness characteristics enhancing of the conventional and prospective seaplanes.

Sorokin F. D., Zhang H. ., Popov V. V., Ivannikov V. V. Roller-bearing energy model experimental verification for aircraft engines supporting nodes modeling. Part 1. Roller-bearing loading by radial force and lateral moment on the special test bench, preventing the rings bending. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

A wide range of scientific contributions discloses various aspects of roller-bearings parts behavior and interaction [1-15]. De Mul [9] developed relatively simple but at the same time quite efficient model where each rolling element was discretized with a set of thin slices and the nonlinear static equations were constructed afterwards. The paper [10] significantly advances the de Mul’s ideas. It revealed that the use of energy conservation approach instead of equilibrium equations derivation was much more convenient. Once the deformation energy of the roller is constructed, the forces acting onto the rolling element (along with the corresponding tangent operators) are easily restored from the potential as the first order (or the second order for the tangent operators case) derivatives.

To verify the energy model of the roller bearing, a full-scale experiment was performed on the universal Zwick/Roell Z100 test machine. Roller bearing of the 12309KM type, fixed in a special device that secured the outer ring, was loaded by a radial force and bend moment through a rigid bar. Deformations of the parts, used for the bearing fastening and loading, were preliminary estimated by calculation using the FEM. The experimental data was processed by the of least squares method to approximate it by analytical relationships. Comparison of the experimental data with the numerical results obtained from the previously developed energy model revealed their good agreement. From the study, we can conclude that the energy model of the roller-bearing is rather accurate.

Firsanov V. V., Doan Q. H. The study of the stress-strain state of symmetrical rectangular plates of arbitrary geometry based on the refined theory. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The article presents a refined theory of the stress-strain state calculating of rectangular plates symmetric in respect to the plane and arbitrary geometry in the longitudinal direction. Equations of the plate state are described by the relationships in the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The required displacements of the plate are decomposed into two polynomials in a coordinate, normal to the plate surface, two degrees higher than that in the classical theory of the Kirghoff-Love type.

The system of basic equations of the refined theory and the corresponding boundary conditions were obtained by the variation Lagrange principle.

One of the distinguishing features of the proposed refined theory consists in employing direct integration of the equilibrium equations of the three-dimensional elasticity theory to determine the transverse normal and tangential stresses.

For isotropic rectangular plate of various thicknesses, a system of differential equations of equilibrium displacements with various coefficients, containing additional terms, accounting for the effect of a thickness change on the stress-strain state of the plate was obtained by the Levy method.

To solve this boundary value problem, the finite different method was employed. An example of the stress state computing of a rectangular plate with a thickness varying according to linear and parabolic laws was investigated. A comparison between the results obtained by the refined and classical theories was performed. It was established, that when studying the stress state in the zones of its distortion (joints, local stress zones, etc.), a refined theory should be used, since the additional corresponding stresses were of the same order as the values of the ground stress state.

In this article, the basic equations of the refined theory for the plate were obtained using the Lagrange variation principle and expansion of the desired displacements in thickness. This technique allows account for both the thin plates, and the plates with average thickness. As an example, the calculation of stress-strain state for a rectangular isotropic plate with variable thickness under the action of a distributed load is considered. The comparison of the strain-stress state of the plate computing according to the refined and classic theories is presented.

Zotov A. A., Kolpakov A. M., Volkov A. V. Algorithm for constructing a 3D model of a three-layer rotation shell with cone-shaped cells of the filler and variable shape forming. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

Assigned the task of designing and manufacturing three – layer rotation shells with filler from conical cells and variable forming. The long-term operating experience of various technical objects made with the use of three-layer bags has shown their high efficiency due to the fact that, with low weight, they have high specific strength and rigidity. Their disadvantages include: low impact strength, complexity with the removal of condensate, low shear strength, the complexity of manufacturing. Traditional techniques for combining filler with bearing layers in the form of gluing or spot welding have low reliability, it is difficult to control the quality of joints. New technologies for manufacturing these structures from high-strength reinforced composite materials (glass, carbon plastic) and wide possibilities for optimizing their geometrical parameters make it possible to achieve higher strength characteristics of the aggregate for transverse compression, longitudinal shear and bending. Nevertheless, the problems of condensate removal, reducing the complexity of manufacturing, ensuring the reliability of the connection of the aggregate with the support layers, as well as the complexity of the construction of structures with variable geometric configuration make us look for new solutions.

This one shows the possibilities of using three-layer structures with a filler in the form of staggered cone-shaped cells made using 3D printing, which, in our opinion, largely avoid the above disadvantages.

The proposed regular structure and form of the elements of the aggregate makes it possible to carry out in one operation the construction of a complex configuration, providing ways to remove condensate, reliability of connection with the outer layers, having high thermal and sound insulating properties. A mathematical model has been developed and a demonstration model manufacturing algorithm has been implemented. CAD – model built according to the results of the calculation of the parameters of the shell and its placeholder.

Samples are made by FDM-technology. The presented designs are offered for use in aviation, aerospace, automobile, engineering, as well as in the production of refrigeration and cryogenic devices.

Amiryants G. A., Malyutin V. A. On experimental determination of aircraft structures stiffness characteristics. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The competitive air materiel development is impossible without permanent improvement of methods for the aircraft stiffness characteristics studies, as well as their elastically similar and “rigid” aerodynamic models. The goal of the work consists in increasing the efficiency, informativity and precision of the stiffness characteristics study.

The article presents the results of studies aimed at improving the system of the stiffness characteristics experimental determination of full-scaled air materiel objects and their aeroelastic models. It presents a brief description of some basic elements of the system, in particular, the robotic test bench for determining stiffness characteristics, multi-channel data acquisition system, and automated loading system.

The results of experimental studies using the above said technical means are presented. For example, using the automated loading system and data acquisition system, the stiffness of fastening elements of the aerodynamic model in the wind tunnel working section was determined. The measured stiffness parameters were used in the computational scheme of the model in the ARGON software package, on which basis the aerodynamic loads were computed. The robotic test bench application for stiffness characteristics determination while determining the beam stiffness characteristics, and influence coefficients matrix allowed quickly and efficiently performing the stiffness tests of the elastically scaled model frame.

Some examples of ARAMIS stereophotogrammetrical system application for measuring spatial movements are presented. The abilities of this system are illustrated by its application in the international AFLoNext project of the Seventh Framework European programme. Quickly obtained data helped to compose a quantitative representation of the mutual movements of the engine nacelle, pylon and wing compartment. Another example of the ARAMIS application system is the of displacements measurement of the high aspect ratio wing in the wind tunnel flow.

The developed and improved system is one of the main elements of a multidisciplinary approach to the design of advanced air materiel, safe in terms of aeroelasticity and strength, and perfect in weight efficiency, aerodynamic and tactical-technical characteristics.

Azarov Y. A., Garifullin M. F., Chernovolov R. A. Evaluation of dynamic-scale models loading while buffeting study. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The presented work considers the specifics of the selection procedure of loads, acting on the dynamic-scale model (DSM), while testing in wind tunnels (WT) at various Mach and Reynolds numbers.

The article presents the procedure of aerodynamic loads refining, acting on DSM, based on “rigid” aerodynamic models’ WT testing. Based on dynamic pressure measurements in certain points of the rigid model, distributed aerodynamic loads for cross sections, normal to the DSM wing stiffness axis, can be determined. The information on linear and rotational forces, acting on cross sections is employed while the DSM design, ensuring the structural strength with the required safety coefficient.

Recommendations for computing distributed loads acting on the DSM and determining safety margins (the safety factor required for the testings equals to four) which fulfillment is necessary while th model design and fabrication, are given.

The stages which execution will allow perform the studies in WT are listed. The goals, objectives, features, problems and advantages of the DSM studies at natural Re numbers are formulated. The DSM design and manufacture specifics using various structural-power circuits made from modern materials and using modern technologies are demonstrated.

Some problems of ensuring the required Re numbers in studies of the phenomena of unsteady aeroelasticity in WT are considered. The difference between conducting an experiment with rigid aerodynamic models and DSM, as well as with full models and semi-models is shown.

Belyavskiy A. E., Sorokin A. E., Strogonova L. В., Shangin I. A. Heat accumulating processes selection for spacecraft thermal conditions ensuring systems. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

In some cases, it is possible to employ the reversible processes, accompanied by endothermic effects in phase or chemical transformations of working bodies, for heat absorption, released from the energy sources onboard the spacecraft.

With the cyclic energy sources long-term operation, the most effective trend is application of such reversible endothermic melting processes, which are accompanied by the heat absorption at the interface between the liquid and solid phases of the working substance.

The article considers the issues of heat accumulators’ application in the thermal conditions ensuring systems (TCES) to ensure a spacecraft rational thermal state, including habitable bays. It is necessary for the crew medico-technical life support, and the spacecraft TCES weight reduction while the radiator-emitter design on average integral rather than maximum thermal loading when the heat accumulator introduction into the system.

The given dependences of volume and heat-mass characteristics of different processes and concepts of heat storage allow evaluate them from the viewpoint of the efficiency of the heat accumulator application in the spacecraft. It is shown, that the most effective and rational in the thermal respect are the phase-transition melting-solidification processes, thermochemical reactions and sorption reactions.

The successful solution of the space exploration problems requires improvement of the conventional and development of new ways and means of absorbing and diverting the energy dissipated by the equipment. These include the heat storage materials and devices on their basis, absorbing the energy dissipated by consumers in cyclic switching modes

The article deals with the characteristics of heat storage devices and processes occurring while changing the aggregate state of working bodies, namely, the phase transition materials with the required temperature of solid-to-liquid transition and back, their difference from traditional systems. The choice of the type of phase-transition processes from the viewpoint of their prospects for application in the spacecraft the system for thermal regime is justified.

A new trend of the thermal accumulators improvement is indicated, namely, application of composite form-stable phase-transition heat-accumulating materials that retain their shape during the working fluid transition from the solid state to the liquid state and back. This type of heat accumulators do not require sealing of the volume of phase-transition heat-accumulating materials, but it is necessary to ensure reliable mechanical and thermal connection with the structure on which the energy sources are installed.

The required thermal conditions provision of the onboard equipment is a complex and important problem of creating effective thermal control systems. Largely, this is facilitated by the development of heat storage systems for application in complex thermal control systems for further development of the heat storage devices such as heat accumulators.

Erkov A. P., Dudchenko A. A. On the issue of variable stiffness plates stability. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The article considers the problem of stability of the three types of variable stiffness plates: with the thickness stepped changing, thickness continuous linear changing, and with thickness combined changing (with the areas of both constant and continuously variable thickness). The plates are loaded with a compressive force, uniformly distributed over the two opposite edges. The force is applied in the median plane of plates. The boundary conditions are as follows: hinged joints over all four sides of the plate. Plates from isotropic materials and from laminated composites were considered. Three types of plates from isotropic material, and the plate from laminated composite with the stepped thickness changing were considered.

To study the stability of plates of variable stiffness the Ritz method was used. Analytical calculations were performed with the Maple math package. It was assumed that before plates were buckled, the stresses were in the elastic zone and were not exposed to destruction.

The results of analytical calculations were compared with the results obtained by the finite element method (MSC.Nastran / MSC.Patran). For each type of plate, three geometry options were calculated, and for the plate made of laminated composite material, three options for layups were considered additionally. In the case of an isotropic material, the maximum error compared with the results obtained in MSC.Nastran / MSC.Patran was not more than 7%. In the case of laminated composite plate, the error was not more than 9%.

In general, the accuracy of the applied method depends on two main factors:

  1. The correctness of the approximating function of the deflection. The approximating function should satisfy the geometrical boundary conditions;

  2. The number of the series terms accounted for. The convergence of the problem, in most cases, is the better the more series terms are accounted for.

The results of the work can be employed in the design of thin-walled structures, namely, to evaluate the stability of the thin-walled plates in areas of varying thickness.

Bezuevskii A. V., Ishmuratov F. Z. Aero-strength studies of a large aspect ratio strut-braced wing. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

It is believed in many works that by now the aircraft classical scheme is almost brought to perfection, and the probability of new significant breakthroughs is minimal. However, today many other classes of the structures, inferior to the classical scheme by a number of parameters, have significantly larger range of possible basic and parametric improvements. One of these classes of structures is the aircraft with a large aspect ratio wing of a closed structure employing different struts options. The article provides an overview of publications on the study of of such constructions application. In particular, the authors consider the works with different variants of strut-braced wings, as well as the impact of the strut parameters on the aeroelasticity characteristics.

The effect of the strut on the aeroelasticity characteristics and weight efficiency for an aircraft with a large aspect ratio wing was studied. According to the parametric calculations results, the six flight cases of loading with positive and negative overload were found, which determined the strength of the wing. By the terms of strength, the wing box construction parameters for the aircraft without strut and with strut were determined in these calculated cases. The analysis of the obtained structures revealed that the wing box mass of the strut-braced wing is 11% less.

The comparative computational studies of the aeroelasticity characteristics of the obtained structures were performed. It is shown that the velocity head of the determining form of the flutter and the aileron reverse in roll control is 8% — 10% higher for the case of a wing with a strut.

Parametric studies of this model were performed. The optimal position of the strut on the wing chord is the trailing edge of the wing box. This allows win up to 2% of the wing box weight, and increase slightly the efficiency of the aileron and critical speed of the flutter. The wing kink is the most successful position of the strut in terms of the wingspan for this computational model. Also, it is worth noting note that the base stiffness of the strut 2 times increase would be optimal for this model. In this case, the structural weight of the wing box can be further reduced by 6%, and the aileron efficiency and the critical speed of the flutter slightly increased.

This approach application allowed reducing the model wing box weight by 17% without the aeroelasticity characteristics deterioration.

Kizeev I. S., Kozhemyako P. G., Ezrokhi Y. A. Computational and experimental study of air bleeding from the compressor intermediate stage effect on its characteristics. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

Recently in connection with the studies of three-stream schemes of adaptive cycle engines the fan with air bleeding is considered as a basic part of three-stream adaptive engines. The values of such bleedings herewith can reach 15-20 % and more. Under such conditions, this pressuring element representation as a set of two compressor stages (the first – from the inlet to the bleeding point, the second – from the bleeding point to the outlet), with their own characteristics independent from the bleeding value, may lead to significant errors in determining integral characteristics of a power plant with a three-stream engine. In this connection, the problem of adequate characteristics setting of such adaptive fan acquires considerable importance.

The article presents the results of a compressors characteristics behavior changing estimation as a result of the air bleeding from an intermediate stage. Physical bases of the air bleeding effect on vane machines characteristics are presented as well.

Two compressors with different numbers of stages are considered: the three-stage compressor with air bleeding of 0 to 15% from behind the first or second stage (relative to the air consumption at the compressor inlet), and the six-stage with compressor with air bleeding of 0 to 10% from behind the third stage.

The obtained results of numerical computation and experimental data revealed that the additional air bleeding at maximum frequencies did not lead to the pressure line shift of a group of stages to the bleeding point. However, the pressure lines of the stages beyond the bleeding point were being shifted to the right and downward with the increase in the bleed air. At the lower rotation frequencies, the additional air bleeding did not lead to the pressure line shift for the first group, but it led to the significant shift of the pressure line to the right and upward for the second group.

This stratification of the pressure lines of the second group, following the bleeding point, can be explained as follows. While tapping a part of propellant from the multistage compressor airflow duct the operating point shifts right and downward (or downward in case of vertical branch) on the pressure line of the characteristic of the first group of stages by the lower values of pressure ratio, ensuring lower temperature levels of the air fed to the inlet of the second group of stages. This leads to the operating point shift on characteristic of the second group towards the larger reduced values of air consumption. Besides, the impact of non-uniform field of parameters at the inlet of this group of stages, appeared due to the air bleeding at the peripheral area of the blades, leads to the operating point shift in the same direction.

Baklanov A. V., Makarova G. F., Vasil'ev A. A., Nuzhdin A. A. The flame tube head perforated cowl impact on the main characteristics of the gas turbine engine combustion chamber. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The combustion chamber main parameters are the pressure losses, the unevenness of the temperature field in the outlet, and ecological characteristics. While the combustion chamber refinement for specific parameters it is rational to introduce changes in the design, and impact thereby the processes occurred in it. Very often, to reduce the flame tube resistance the designers resort to installing the perforated cowl, which reduces the frontal impact and distributes the air to the outer and inner cavities between the hull and the flame tube, ensuring minimal pressure losses. The presented article considers the impact of the flame tube head perforated cowl installation on the changes of the indicated parameters. The design of the perforated cowl is considered and the apertures number and diameter as well as the cowl fillet radius are listed. The structure of the test bench installation, with which the combustion chamber section was tested, as well as regimes at which these tests were performed, are presented. The results were obtained for the section with the cowl and without it. The analysis was performed, which results allowed drawing inferences on the necessity of the flame tube head header cowl in the full-scale combustion chamber. The results of the experiments revealed also that the flame tube head header cowl installing did not deteriorate the hydraulic losses in the combustion chamber, but appeared to be highly effective in terms of temperature reduction in the flow core at the section outlet.

The cowl installation leads to the air redistribution in such a way that its consumption in the burning area increases and leads to the temperature reduction in the flow core. The temperature reduction in the burning zone was obligatory affected the nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction. The cowl did not affect the combustion efficiency, and the carbon oxides concentration in the combustion products increased herewith.

Gimavied A. G., Bukin V. A., Gareev A. M., Greshnyakov P. I., Kutuev S. S. Turboprop rotation frequency stabilization while its testing together with water brake. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

While a turboprop design and operation a necessity occurs to determine their developed power and compressor gas-dynamic stability margin. Depending on the engine power water brake, electric and other installations are employed. However, water brake which shaft was connected to the turbo-compressor shaft through the clutch, was traditionally employed for the powerful engines. Disturbances from the water brake side in the form of water pressure (consumption) oscillations often occur while the engine testing. These disturbances lead to its rotor rotation frequency oscillations, which do not allow accurate determining the engine power or the compressor stability margin. The available information on stability provision of the engine rotation frequency while its testing on hydraulic braking installation, is insufficient. The article presents results of theoretical and experimental studies of speed oscillations of the turboprop engine rotor connected with the water brake. It is shown that in the engine-water brake system, the torque oscillations are excited by the frequencies:

– rotary frequency of 140 Hz;

– resonance of the water brake frame with the engine of 14.5...15.5 Hz;

– fluctuations of water in the water brake supply pipes of 3...5 Hz;

– the processes in the water brake rotating disk cavities and the of the test bench hydro mechanical engine speed regulator functioning of 0.15 ... 0.30 Hz.

Oscillations of the engine rotor speed occur in the low frequency range of 0.15...0.30 Hz due to its inertia. From all measures of the engine rotor speed stabilization, the best result was achieved by employing hydraulic dampers for pressure fluctuations at the inlets of water brake throttle valves. It ensured the amplitude of the engine rotor rotation frequency oscillations at 15...25 rpm at maximum mode, and the joint point of operation of the engine with water brakes. However, when determining the compressor gas-dynamic stability margin, an oscillatory process is observed, slightly exceeding the permissible amplitude values. Further turboprop engine rotor speed stabilization at this water brake installation, at which the compressor gas-dynamic stability margin determining is possible, can be performed by improving its test bench system for engine speed automatic regulation.

Barkova M. E. The satellite for utilization of space debris in near-earth space. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The main problem of article is creation of the spacecraft project for space debris utilization.

The purpose of the presented work consists in developing the concept and design of spacecraft, which will allow space debris reprocessing into fuel.

The relevance of this work consists in the near-earth space clarification from space debris by their reprocessing into fuel.

The main shortcomings of the existing projects of technical devices are large space debris crushing that leads to the smaller fragments formation.

The article suggests employing the concept of pseudo-liquid fuel creation. Pseudo-liquid fuel is the fuel obtained from the fine metallized powder in the gas environment. The spacecraft consists of a trap for space debris gathering, and a system for its utilization by which the space debris are reprocessed into the pseudo-liquid fuel.

The obtained results can be applied while the spacecraft design and operation.

The author comes to a conclusion, that the space debris reprocessing into the pseudo-liquid fuel is the most expedient, since this type of space debris utilization is waste-free.

The author’s unconditional merit is creation of the invention named “The spacecraft for the space debris utilization”, as well as the spacecraft operation design.

The prospect of further developments in this area consists in upgrading the system for the space debris recycling to reduce costs for the project, the spacecraft anti-shock body and its fan-shaped solar collector refining to avoid damaging while space debris collecting and the spacecraft project improvement for future realization.

Larina E. V., Tsipenko A. V., Afanas’ev A. A., Kryukov I. A. Turbulent 3D simulation code application to the pressure “hysteresis” analysis in the gas ejector vacuum chamber. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

While studying operation of the supersonic gas ejector as a vacuum pump, special attention was paid to the so-called “hysteresis” observed in the dependence of the pressure in the vacuum chamber on the working gas pressure. The “hysteresis curve” occurs during the ejector start-stop, and oscillatory flow mode, undesirable at the unit operation, is observed herewith. In this regard, a series of numerical experiments on the oscillatory flow mode modelling was performed, and experimental data on the gas ejector operation was analyzed.

The simulation presented in the article was being performed employing the scheme of the increased order of accuracy and a three-parameter k-ε-μt turbulence model. Simulation of the flow with the uniform shear was performed in the simplified and 3D formulation. Collating with the other models was made.

Simulation of a plane submerged jet in the boundary layer approximation was made. A good agreement with experimental data on the averaged flow velocity was obtained.

A simulation of the supersonic overexpanded jet in a three-dimensional formulation was performed. The Pitot pressure at the jet axis was collated with the experiment and other models. The qualitative conformity with the experiment was obtained.

The numerical simulation using the k-ε-μt turbulence model dempnstrated that the “hysteresis” at the ejector start-stop is associated with a non-stationary parameter changes during the ejector start-stop. Thus, the ejector channel and the vacuum chamber parameters will be determined unambiguously under the steady-state boundary conditions. However, when real-life installations operation, the time required to reach the optimum mode at the smooth pressure increase is noticeably longer, than with a first sharp coming to overestimated parameters and then a small smooth throttling of the working gas pressure. The hysteresis loop reflects just this process.

The transient mode with low-frequency pulsations is necessary for the turbulence model verification. These mode predictions are important for the ejector optimal operation. Thus, a 1D self-excited oscillation model should be developed in future.

The work was financially supported by the RFBR grant No. 16-38-60185.

Us N. A., Avershin A. A. Mathematical model of the mono-bloсk ring gyroscope optical scheme Mathematical model of the optical scheme of the ring monoblock gyroscope. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

Creation of NINS is one of the priority trends of domestic and foreign instrument making. High requirements for accuracy, availability, continuity and functioning reliability at various operating modes of mobile objects are specified to them. Ensuring implementation of these requirements at the present stage of development of technology is possible through application of laser gyroscopes as sensitive elements of inertial navigation. The presented research considers the new segment of laser gyroscopes – a ring monoblock gyroscope with the semiconductor laser diode (RMG with SLD) incorporating the advantages of the known gas ring laser gyroscopes (RLG) and fiber-optical gyroscopes (FOG). Applications of the new sensor of angular speeds like RMG with SLD as the NINS sensitive element allows simplify the design, adjustment and production technology, as well as vary precision parameters of the object modifications due to the mono-block geometry scaling and controlling the radiation mode of the laser diode. All this makes the task of analysis of the structure and processes, occurring in RMG optical scheme with SLD, with intent for further reliability enhancement of the navigation system output characteristics. The article presents and studies mathematical models of the basic structural and technological RMG solution and a model with increased quality factor, differing by the inclusion of optical resonators with high quality factors of a Fabri-Perot type. Mathematical models were realized using vector-matrix apparatus, which base is the ABCD matrix law. The algorithm for quality factor computing of the RMG optical scheme with open optical channels was developed.

The modeling results of the triangular optical scheme of two structural and technological solutions for optical channels lengths of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mm were analyzed, and rational RMG design options were systematized.

Surovtsev P. Y., Suslin A. S. Correlation-difference algorithm for aerial objects detection observed against non-uniform sky background. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The aircraft optoelectronic target detection systems employ algorithms based on brightness analysis. The target detection criterion is the of brightness threshold surpassing But there is a problem of false alarm caused by these algorithms due to the complex (e.g. cloudy sky) background.

This problem is solved applying the algorithms based on the frame subtracting called the difference algorithms. The criterion of target detection in this algorithm is the difference image with a non-zero signal. The difference algorithm can not be implemented in aircraft optoelectronic system without modification.

Thus, the goal of this work consists in developing an improved difference algorithm for the airborne optoelectronic system. The article proposes a correlation-difference detection algorithm. This algorithm allows apply difference algorithm for such airborne optoelectronic systems as FLIR.

The algorithm consists of two parts:

  1. Analysis of the inter-frame shift and its compensation (correlation algorithm);

  2. Subtract frames and target detection (difference algorithm).

In this work a semi-natural simulation of an airborne electro-optical target detection system against a complex background was performed. For the simulation FLIR with 50 Hz work frequency and 90 degrees field of view was used.

Thus, the algorithm allowed detect the target against the cloudy background and with displacement of the line of sight between the two frames in elevation of 45″ and azimuth of 31″.

In summary:

– The semi-natural simulation experiment revealed that the proposed correlation-difference algorithm can detect a target against cloudy background without false alarm;

– The proposed algorithm can be applied for optoelectronic system jitter compensation caused by vibrations of moving / stationary vehicle.

Kolesnikov S. Y., Skornyakova N. M. Comparing various types of tracers in particle imaging velocimetry method. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The presented work is devoted to studying measurements dependence, obtained by the particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) on the type of the employed tracers. The PIV is used for velocity measuring in the selected stream 2D section or its 3D volume while hydro- or aerodynamic experiments.

The accuracy of the flow parameters determining depends on the reflective particles, serving as speed determining markers. Their images represent the reference points for particles migration computing. Certain requirements are imposed on markers: they should be rather large so that they could be distinguished on the image, and, at the same time, they should be small enough and light to follow a stream accurately.

Several types of the tracer particles are employed in PIV experiments. The experiment was performed with applying three types of tracers: polyamide particles, hollow glass spheres and aluminum particles. The stream under study was created by the laboratory chemical mixer rotation in a water volume to which the observing markers were added. The whirlwinds fields of speeds in liquid for a nozzle of the «cross» mixer type were built Velocity measurements were performed separately for each tracer type, and fields of displacement vectors were constructed for the same rotation mode of the mixer.

The results of the experiment were analyzed regarding compliance of fields of speeds to the data obtained in similar studies. Results of the work demonstrate that for this class of experiments the best results were obtained with polyamide particles.

Krylov A. A., Korniyuk D. V. Technological approaches to zero offset compensation in MEMS gyroscopes being a part of the inertial measurement unit. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The work describes one of the calibration algorithms for MEMS gyroscopes as part of a small-size IMU, and technological process of calibration data acquisition. The IMU consists of three mutually orthogonal angular velocity sensors and microcontroller. Microcontroller corrects the original data acquired from gyroscopes by compensation functions describing the known systematic errors with computed coefficients. The article declares physical specifics of zero offset origin. Resizing of silicon cells and electronic elements, which process data from capacitive sensors, induced by temperature variation, leads to the change of sensitive elements oscillations, and, as a result, to the deviation of original frequencies. The temperature change has also leads to the vacuum pressure change due getter properties variation. The article presents a method for zero offset dividing into components. The two main components are the initial offset and the temperature drift. The initial offset depends also on the environmental temperature, but it can be compensated by the initial calibration. It is shown that the drift behavior is correlated to the internal temperature rising. The article presents a review of the applicable zero drift compensation methods for micromechanical gyroscopes. Most of these methods do not account for the temperature variation. In this regard, a new algorithm of zero drift approximation is proposed. It contains piecewise linear functions with weights corresponding to temperature rising in segments. As another error, the zero drift has instability and, as a result, can be evaluated by systematic and stochastic components. Using several independent switch-on-switch-off cycles we can accumulate statistics and highlight systematic component by computing the arithmetic mean. The IMU can be calibrated by several temperature points in operating range. The article demonstrates case of algorithm working in random conditions (temperature point). The intermediate points values calculation is also performed in piecewise linear function. For automatiion purposes this method was realized programably with algorithm of automatic calibration points search. The algorithm is based on the drift function smoothing by low-frequency filtering. The filtered signal can be analyzed as a function with a number of the most noticeable inflections. These points can be found as pertaining to the most acute angle. The algorithm allows reducing the zero drift by 5-20 times compared to the values obtained without compensation. Compared to the polynomial approximation of the third and fourth power, the drift value for the piecewise linear approximation appeared to be 2-3 times less.

Matafonov D. E. Developing and Completion of a SpaceWire Router based on a Russian-Made Field Programmable Gate Array. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The growing popularity of small spacecraft and increasing requirements to the onboard control systems performance necessitate consideration of various variants of architectures. Classic bus solutions are approaching their performance limits due to the increasing number of connected modules, as well as introducing the risk to the system functioning in case of a line failure. Transition to a network architecture is proposed as one of the possible solutions to these problems.

The article considers the FPGA as a possible variant for the degree of integration enhancement to mass and size characteristics reduction, as well as productivity increase. Since domestic designs allow application of the Russian-produced components only, it was rather problematic to implement miscellaneous logics in FPGA, before the 5578TC094 chip appeared. Its research prototype was obtained by FSUE MEDB “Mars” in 2017.

The 5-port breadboard model of a SpaceWire router was fabricated to evaluate the functionality of this FPGA and integrated controller parameters. The built-in LVDS transceivers characteristics were measured, and the SpaceWire channel was tested at speeds of 100 Mbps and 150 Mbps. A “byte doubling” effect was discovered and eliminated at 150 Mbps, which is approaching maximum operating frequency of 160 MHz of the FPGA project. The occupied logic capacity estimation revealed that the router could be combined with the other functional parts in one chip. For example, it could be conjugated with the other interfaces or programmable processor core.

The obtained results suggest a possibility of significant productivity enhancing of the onboard control systems by increasing the rate of exchange, as well as reveal the necessity of further studies in the field of fault-tolerance in the conditions of ionizing radiation.

Philatov V. I., Borukaeva A. O., Berdikov P. G. Algorithm for analyzing the consistency of expert estimates of the parameters of the hardware and software complex of the automated workplace. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

This article tackles the issue of discordance of opinions of the experts and suggests a technique for the degree of compliance rate estimation. The concept of compliance estimation basis, namely, concord was considered. The algorithm for the experts’ opinions compliance analysis is described. The analysis on experts’ compliance estimation methods selection depending on quantitative and qualitative measuring scales usage, and measure of the degree of compliance was performed. The problem where

The problem in which there are many software and hardware workstations for aircrafts, having the same set of properties and properties in respect of each match quantitative evaluation experts group. The results of evaluations are presented in the form of a matrix. Described mathematical formalism concordance calculation coefficient – consent coefficient. It carries out a check of the algorithm as part of the expert survey, which resulted in peer reviews for all hardware and software complex of automated workplaces characteristics were obtained. These expert evaluations (expert group, consisting of 13 experts in the field of information systems) were tabulated. Using the data obtained was conducted analysis of variance in order study the characteristics of hardware and software of computer workstations. Created schematic block diagram describing the steps of parameters expert estimates the coherence algorithm APM compound hardware and software systems for aircraft. Calculated variance estimate and the concordance index (degree of coherence of software and hardware parameters workstations ratings people). As a result, estimated coefficient of concordance and relevance given the inequality which proves the validity of a good engine algorithms and to assess the consistency of expert APM AIC parameter estimates Connection program for aircraft.

The proposed method in this paper analyzes the consistency of expert opinion for all the characteristics of software and hardware of computer workstations is a hot topic that needs to be considered in the development of hardware and software for unmanned aerial vehicles.

Selvesyuk N. I., Veselov Y. G., Gaydenkov A. V., Ostrovsky A. S. Performance evaluation of objects detection and identification on an image from special optoelectronic systems for airfield observations. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The article considers the problem of determining the dependencies of detection and recognition characteristics of various objects in the airfield sector of observation from the equipment parameters and observation conditions. It describes the methods for determining a priori and posteriori estimates of image quality indicators obtained by optical-electronic observation systems. The article gives scientifically based recommendations on the image spatial-frequency characteristics reduction to the optimum values according to the criteria set by the operator performing visual analysis.

A posteriori assessment is based on the tests including the object of interest of a given class against the background of the underlying surface. The subject of the assessment is the image of the scene (object and background). Observation characteristics of the scene are determined by the evaluation of the geometric and contrasting characteristics of the image of the object of interest, the frame size and the problem solving time. The proposed a posteriori estimation method of the characteristics of observation of objects of interest allows estimate the probability of object detecting on digital images when conducting field tests with a minimum of computational costs and special equipment.

The a priori estimate is based on calculations including parameters of the optical-electronic system, with those obtained using special test equipment among them, as well as the required observation conditions. The article presents and describes in detail the a priori method for estimating the characteristics of observing objects of interest, proposed by the authors. The a priori assessment of the observation characteristics is based on the modulation transfer functions apparatus, as well as the threshold modulation characteristics. It consists in automatically estimating the resolution in the laboratory using experimentally obtained transfer characteristics based on test objects of various configurations. It is shown, that the proposed method provides the possibility of a reliable analytical evaluation of the observation characteristics for arbitrary ranges, sizes and contrasts of the object of interest, fields of view of the optical-electronic system and meteorological conditions.

The prospects for the development of methodological apparatus for determining the characteristics of objects detection and recognition are considered. The main attention is paid to the implementation of algorithm for the search function of the eye transfer function, the corresponding camera transfer function, as well as methods for characteristics assessing of the camera ringing.

Application of the method of reliable a priori evaluation of the observation characteristics reduces the material and time costs of conducting tests of video surveillance systems of airfield objects and is of great practical interest. However, the a priori assessment (and method) requires calibration and verification based on the a posteriori direct field test method.

The presented methodological apparatus can be used for the tasks of remote airfield control services using non-radar technical means of monitoring the situation on the airfield.

Karelin A. V., Skripachev V. O., Tumanov M. V., Zhukov A. O. Small spacecraft onboard scientific equipment configuration forming technique for the Earth radioactive contamination monitoring. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The article presents the technique for small geophysical spacecraft onboard scientific equipment forming for the Earth radioactive contamination monitoring. Monitoring of different hazards, including hydro-meteorological and geophysical phenomena, is possible with traditional space systems of remote Earth sensing. The number of potential sources of radioactive contamination increased with the beginning of industrial application of nuclear energy in developed countries, In the present economic situation in the country, the issue of minimizing costs of new space remote sensing spacecraft constellations creation is at the forefront. However, in view of limitations imposed on the configuration of a spacecraft onboard scientific payload (requirements for energy consumption, weight, size, etc.), the necessary onboard scientific payload implementation on a small spacecraft may present a difficult task. To justify the rational configuration of the onboard scientific payload, it is expedient to employ expert evaluation methods. The most promising methods based on determining physical effects occurring under the action of ionizing radiation have been determined to perform the remote radioactive contamination monitoring. Since the nomenclature of the on-board scientific payload is rather wide, we shall confine ourselves to the following types of instruments: a visible-range spectrometer, an infrared spectrometer, a microwave radiometer, an onboard ionosonde, and a radio frequency analyzer. We use the method of sequential comparisons to determine the utility of the on-board scientific payload. The present study shows the principal possibility of employing the method of successive comparisons to determine rational configuration of a small spacecraft for radioactive contamination monitoring. The developed technique can also be employed while developing the appearance of for various purposes small spacecraft.

Lyalin K. S., Khasanov M. K., Meleshin Y. M., Kuzmin I. A. Spectral method for ACF side lobes suppression for long pseudo-random binary sequences. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

Signals with internal modulation are employed in aviation and space remote sensing systems to obtain a high-quality radar image. This approach allows reaching high image resolution preserving the high signal to noise ratio. The main disadvantage of this approach is sufficient growth of side lobe level. This drawback occurs in a radar image as bright strips that spread out of point or group targets along the range axis. This effect degrades sufficiently the ability to sense the image by human eye and automatically process the image. A typical dynamic range of radar targets brightness is 90 dB, wherein the best side lobe level, which has been achieved in this work is −35 dB by using of phase-shift keying signal of base 2000 and with matched range filtering.

One way to suppress side lobes is unmatched or quasi-optimal filtering, in which the core of the matched filter is changed to achieve desired optimum characteristics, with some loss of effective signal energy. In this work, a method for obtaining the coefficients of a quasi-optimal filter is proposed. The filter allows completely suppress the side lobes in the survey band by pushing them out of the visible radar image range.

The method uses a simple approach of transforming the desired form of the signal response fr om time to frequency domain, wh ere it is possible to find the relation between the input and desired signals, performing the “reciprocal convolution” which corresponds to the quasi-optimal filter impulse response. The main issue here is the difference between the amount of points in the input and output signals, as the output has to be the bigger length of impulse response. We solve the issue by adding additional points to the input signal, which result in a noise-like signal at the output signal’s edges. By selecting the appropriate amount of the “dummy” points we are able to establish the sidelobe-clean region in the output signal.

The article presents theoretical details as well as simulated and practical results.

Alekseev V. V., Lakomov D. V. Analytical model for graphic images processing in the city life-support systems for objects damages detection. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The article studies the possibility of application of the updated Canny algorithm supplemented with Robinson operator for images objects recognition and integrity violation detection of construction and housing and municipal services objects by an unmanned aerial vehicle in automated mode. It also describes Gauss filter application for the image blur, as well as special cases of boundary conditions for image pixels. The impact of the standard deviation value when blurring images on the image itself is demonstrated. The article describes a mathematical model of image analysis, based on the Robinson operator, and other applicable mathematical operators for embedding gradient values in image pixels. The Robinson operator, by convolution of the original image in four directions, allows more accurate search for the contour, compared to the other operators (Roberts, Sobel, Pruitt, Gauss, Laplace), which use only two directions of convolution. The results of this method studies while processing images of various objects of housing and communal services in the IR range are presented. Typical images of various objects in the infrared range were taken: transformer substations, electrical cables and sockets, heating pipes, heating mains, factory pipe, heat pipe, distribution panel, communication lines, a general picture of the city from the drone. Inferences were drawn the advantages and disadvantages of this analytical model, as well as the features of this model while the analysis of both clear and blurred images and the main obstacles in the images analysis. Based on this study, recommendations on the algorithm parameters selection are given. The conclusions made in this article can be employed in technical vision systems, as well as in decision support systems used to identify the damage to the analyzed objects in the field of urban planning and housing and communal services, as well as in other areas (Geology, agriculture and many others).

Sheludyak T. B. The Model of Digital Television Information Receiving in Spacecraft Ground Based Control Complex. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

Television information is widely used for spaceflight control. Information plays an important role in daily management, dynamic operations performing and response to abnormal situations. Television systems upgrading to digital technology required some enhancements of the testing and monitoring features of digital television information of the ground based space flight control facility.

The article describes a computer simulation of the digital television information receiving system. The system was developed to analyze the processes of generation, coding, compression and transmission over the digital television information communication channels coming from the Russian Segment of the International Space Station, as well as cargo and manned spacecraft operating with the Space Station.

The simulation runs on a VMWare virtual server with the GNS3-simulated network structure. The proposed model allows simulate the main elements of a television system employed for the flight control. The model is applicable for the digital television information receiving system testing in various circumstances, or planning its performance in case of its modernization.

A system monitoring feature has been developed, based on simulation of the described ground based space flight control facility digital television information which was implemented with the PRTG software. It allowed simulate the following emergencies: communication channels interruption; hardware failure; various traffic loading in channels; hardware setup errors, and television signal source jamming.

The receiving system simulation functioning was verified along with digital television information test casts during the broadband satellite and fiber optic trunk channels deployment for ground based Russian Segment of the International Space Station control system.

Baghdasaryan G. Y., Mikilyan M. A., Vardanyan I. A., Panteleyev A. V. Closed cylindrical shell in a supersonic gas flow in the presence of a non-uniform temperature field. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The article considers the problem of stability of a closed cylindrical shell under the action of an inhomogeneous temperature field and a supersonic gas flow, flowing around the shell. The authors obtained stability conditions for the unperturbed state of the aerothermoelastic system under consideration. It is shown, that the combined action of the temperature field and the ambient flow can control the process of stability, and change significantly the value of the flutter critical velocity by means of the temperature field.

The study is based on the following well-known assumptions:

a) Kirchhoff-Love's hypothesis on undeformable normals;

b) “The law of flat sections” in determining the aerodynamic pressure;

c) The linear law of temperature variation over the thickness of the shell;

d) The Neumann hypothesis on the absence of the temperature changes.

For simplicity and clarity, it is assumed that the heat exchange with the environment from the shell front surfaces proceeds according to the Newton – Richman law (the temperature remains constant on the surfaces), and the side surfaces are thermally insulated.

Under the action of a stationary temperature field, non-uniform in thickness, the shell bulges (with deflection and longitudinal movement) and, as a result, the aeroelastic pressure occurs. The above said bulging state is presumed unperturbed, and its stability is being studied under the action of the temperature field and the pressure of the flowing gas flow. Stability regions are plotted, and the the critical velocity values are obtained. Numerical computations revealed that accounting for the effect of thermoelastic stresses of the unperturbed state on the stability region is essential. The computational results of the critical velocity for the combined effect of the temperature field parameters and various values of geometric parameters are presented.

Chepko I. N., Bogomolov D. V., Karpenko O. N. Managing the units and spare parts inventory for the State aviation equipment: the main problems and ways of solution. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The article considers the basic principles of the stocks management system. The uniqueness of the approach to the repaired units inventory management for operation of difficult products ensuring is proved. The purpose of the presented work consists in the analysis of the existing planning tools and inventory management. The analysis of the conventional technologies of inventory management application in the system of planning and inventory management of the repaired units to ensure operation of aircraft of the State aviation was performed. The history of the theory of inventory management was studied. Contradictions between the growing quantity of both complexity of the new problems of aircraft application, and old standard technology of planning and units inventory management are revealed. The fact that 60% of all airplanes stand idle in faulty condition due to the lack of spare parts is the vivid illustration to it. Application of probabilistic approach to the description of the processes of stock management of the repaired aircraft units was justified. Application of imitation modeling as an instrument of planning and managing the multinomenclature stocks of units for aircraft operation was proved as well. The article describes the two-level system for planning and inventory management of units for of aircraft operation as a part of association is described. The principles applied for the mathematical METRIC models description are used. The effective planning tool is simulation with application of real databases of statistical information. The necessity for modern technical developments application, in particular, in the field of information technologies when planning stock of units for aircraft operation of the State aviation is proved. Probabilistic approach application for description of the system of planning and inventory management of the repaired units is proved The functioning efficiency of the system for planning and inventory management of units is estimated by two parameters: the level of failures (service) elimination, and units shortage level. The authors suggest employing the marginal analysis technology to create the optimum plot of the units stock dependence on the amount of deficiencies. Imitation modeling application in the system for planning and inventory management of units is aimed at costs minimization on the product life cycle when ensuring the required parameters of the reliability, readiness, and maintainability of an aircraft of the State aviation.

Gusev P. Y. Planning automation of production process at aircraft building enterprise employing a digital replica. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

The problems of production processes planning of aircraft building enterprises are of particular relevance. There are many software products based on theoretical planning concepts, such as CRP, APS, MES to solve such problems. However, such software do not ensure adequate feedback with production, which does not allow respond promptly to deviations from the plan. The purpose of this work consists in searching for possible solutions to ensure the operational control of the production plan implementation and its optimization. To achieve this goal, a decision was taken to apply a digital production replica, based on a simulation model.

A working plan developing for a production unit employing a ready-made simulation model is not a time-consuming task. However, while application of such plan, a lot of difficulties occur. Primarily, there is the problem of shift daily tasks preparing. The second problem arises with the impossibility to fulfill the developed plan. To solve such problems, the author proposes to employ an automated planning system using a digital replica of production. The two software clients have been developed to ensure interaction of the digital replica with the planning department and manufacturing facility’s level of production. The software client of the planning department allows prepare plans automatically for the enterprise production processes. The software for manufacturing facility level can encompass all employees of the enterprise. The information terminals provide an automatic transmitting of the shift daily tasks to the manufacturing facility level.

The proposed automated planning system demonstrated high accuracy in complex application. For example, when planning production processes at a workshop for the parts production from polymer composite materials, the digital replica contained information on the entire production system. Thus, when developing a working plan for one of the sections, all possible paths of material flows intersection of the other sections were computed. Use of automated planning of production processes of the workshop for the production of parts from polymer composite materials has significantly improved the accuracy of calculating the timing of the finished product.

Privalov A. E., Dorozhko I. V., Zaharova E. A., Kopeyka A. L. Simulation model for assessing the availability of technical systems taking into account characteristics of the diagnostic process. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 103,

In the development of complex technical systems accompanied by their life cycle, it is necessary to maintain readiness for use, which requires the development of new complex models linking reliability indicators and technical condition diagnostics indicators.

The proposed approach and models are based on the basic concepts and relations of the theory of reliability of technical systems. The models proposed in the article are based on the well-known and approved apparatus of Markov random processes, analytical dependencies are obtained from solving systems of Kolmogorov-Chapman equations describing the developed models.

Mathematical models have been developed that relate the availability factor, the reliability of the control of a complex technical system. A simulation model has been developed that relates the reliability indicators of a complex technical system and indicators of the technical condition diagnosing process. Analysis of the results allows us to conclude about the degree of influence of the characteristics of the diagnostic process on the availability of a complex technical system.

The proposed scientific and methodological approach can be used in the development of a complex technical system, as well as to justify the approximate values ​​of the periodicity of monitoring and diagnosing CTS, as well as to form a sequence and composition of inspections in order to increase availability.

The obtained analytical dependence may be of practical interest for military representatives, employees of state certification of products, industry representatives and can be used in the formation and justification of reliability requirements in the tactical and technical tasks for the development (modernization) of a complex technical system, as well as to take into account the influence of process characteristics diagnosing the availability of a complex technical system at all stages of the life cycle.

Nizametdinov F. R., Sorokin F. D. Euler vector application specifics for large turns description while flying vehicles structural elements modeling on the example of a rod finite element. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

Structural elements in mechanic engineering are often may be reduced to a rod model, characterized by large generalized displacements with small deformations These elements are, for example, propeller blades, outer wing spars, etc. [1-4].

Many works have been devoted to the problem of describing the large displacements of structural elements represented by rod models. For example, a wide class of methods is based on the use of systems of differential equations [5-10]. At the very beginning of computational mechanics development, the method of representing elastic bodies by a set of solid elements was used, and the elastic properties of deformed bodies were modeled by elastic bonds [11-13]. Attempts were made to combine the solid-state modeling with the finite element method (FEM) [14]. According to this method, the total displacement is a sum of independent large rigid displacement and small elastic displacement due to deformations [15]. The next step was the method of successive approximations, which was modified to the method of the attached coordinate system. But this method was not widely used due to the appearance of more advanced approaches, such as the method of absolute nodal coordinates [16-18]. This formulation is the most complete, but at the same time is very complicated for performing out practical calculations [19]. In [20], the asymmetric Piola-Kirchhoff tensor is used. In [21], the position of the FE cross-sections is given by the radius vector and two ortas. Such approach increases the number of kinematic parameters, but allows avoiding singular points.

In [22], the FE is constructed using an independent description of displacements and rotations by Hermite polynomials, which leads to the problem of shear locking. In [23], the quadratic approximation of the tensor elements ro`tation is used. In [24], the vector-tensor theory of large rotations is used, but the magnitude of the rotations is restricted by the angle of 2π radians. In [19], the Craig-Bampton method is used.

A widespread approach to the geometrically nonlinear beam FE construction is the co-rotation approach [25]. In [26], a co-rotational FE is considered, in which the hypothesis of the relative strain smallness is built-in. The disadvantage of this element is the presence of singular points at the rotation angle of 2π. The model [27] had no such shortcoming due to introduction of an intermediate position. But it is considerably more complicated due to application of the nonlinear theory of elasticity apparatus. An incremental description of the rotations was also used in the element proposed in [28] in application to the problems of multi-body dynamics. Such a variety of approaches is explained by the presence of more than a dozen methods of large rotations describing [29-31].

The most common and natural way to describe finite rotations is the Euler vector [6, 32-34]. However, the Euler vector has a disadvantage, namely, critical value of the rotation angle (2π). At this value of the rotation angle, the tensors connecting small physical rotations with derivatives of the kinematic parameters become degenerate. The article considers two modifications to overcome this problem. These modifications allow describe infinitely large rotations. Their comparison is performed on the example of the rod FE. The features of both modifications are described in the paper. The tangential stiffness matrices and the node-force vector of the rod FE were obtained in a closed analytical form, with account for these features. The solution of test tasks by two approaches, analysis of the program code allowed reveal the advantages and disadvantages of both modifications.

The modification based on the adjustment of the Euler vector when the critical rotation value is reached is extremely simple for implementation, and correction is not required at every step of the solution. This modification can be integrated into the FEM package without significant changes in its architecture. Disadvantages of this modification are as follows: sudden change in the Euler vector when the critical value is reached, and asymmetric stiffness matrix.

The incremental way of description is not free from such shortcomings as the sudden change in the Euler vector, an asymmetric tangent stiffness matrix. But this modification is much more difficult for implementation and requires completely different system of storing the results. In addition, the architecture should provide the possibility of combining incremental and non-incremental elements.

Modifications are considered on the example of a rod element, but without significant changes they can be extended to other two-node FEs, such as FE farms, FE springs, FE rigid constraint, etc.

Pogosbekian M. Y., Sergievskaya A. L., Kroupnov A. A. Comparative modeling of N2 molecules dissociation in thermally non-equilibrium conditions. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

At strong shock waves in rarefied gases, chemical processes such as dissociation and exchange reactions occur in conditions of thermodynamic non-equilibrium, and the rate coefficients are the functions of both translational—rotational and vibrational temperatures.

The object of the study are chemical reaction models of the of N2 molecules dissociation occurring in thermally non-equilibrium conditions.

The goal of the work consists in comparative study of physico-chemical processes models on the example of dissociation of nitrogen molecules. For comparison, the well-known and frequently used theoretical dissociation models, representing the process in a single-temperature, two-temperature, and level approximation, were chosen. The article presents a detailed description of theoretical models allowing calculate the goal functions of the N2 molecule dissociation models in thermally non-equilibrium conditions, both in the two-temperature and in the level approximations. To perform a valid and reliable comparison, in addition to theoretical models, the results of molecular dynamics of N2 molecules modeling obtained by the classical trajectory method, as well as data from a physical experiment on a shock tube are used.

To simulate molecular dynamics, the computer “MD Trajectory” complex was used. Computational experiments with theoretical models were performed in the environment of the Internet Catalog of physical and chemical processes models.

A new functional, depending on the translational temperature and expression for the empirical parameter of the Marrone-Treanor model was proposed based on the comparison. The modified model application allows describe the results of trajectory calculations in a wide range of translational temperatures from 2000 to 10000°K.

Fedyushkin A. I., Puntus A. A. Nonlinear features of laminar liquid flows on Earth and in microgravity. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article presents the numerical modeling results of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer and discusses the non-linear features of laminar flows. It considers numerical simulation results of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer and discusses the laminar flows features at moderate Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers in the following problems:

  1. On the impact of natural-convective flow on formation of various stationary convective flow structures and occurrence of countercurrents to the main flow in long horizontal layers.

  2. The problem of the symmetry violation of a steady flow in a plane diffuser.

  3. The effect of controlled vibrations on heat and mass transfer in the melt, the shape of the crystallization front and the thickness of the boundary layers and on the shape of the crystallization front.

  4. Interface location changing under the impact of thermocapillary convection.

The results based on the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a viscous incompressible fluid for flow regimes studying in a flat diffuser with a small angle and opening are presented. Flow regimes transition in a diffuser from a symmetric stationary regime to asymmetric stationary one and then to asymmetric non-stationary regime in their dependence on the Reynolds number is demonstrated. The values of Reynolds number defining the ranges of a given regime existence are pointed out.

The impact of controlled vibrations on the heat-mass transfer and, in particular, on temperature boundary layers in the melt for crystal growth processes were studied. Analysis of the controlled vibrations effect on hydrodynamics and heat-mass transfer for the microgravity and normal gravity conditions was performed. The of numerical simulations results revealed that vibrations can enhance heat and mass transfer and mix the melt, as well as reduce dynamic, thermal and concentration boundary layers. Vibration can also increase the temperature gradient of the solidification front, which, in its turn, can increase the rate of crystal growth. The numerical simulations results demonstrated that vibrations can make the crystallization front shape flatter.

In zero gravity, while lateral heating of the two-layer system “air-liquid” in the volume with free walls, the interface due to thermo-capillary convection and small perturbations can be rotated by 90° and assume a stable position parallel to the heated wall.

Gravitational convection (even in the presence of thermocapillary convection) is a stabilizing factor for the horizontal position of the interface.

Krovjakov V. B., Korolenko V. V., Stepanov R. N., Greshnov A. S., Rachkov P. V. Problematic questions of unsteady liquid flows modes organizing while liquid systems cavities cleansing. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

While performing studies in the field of improving technologies and equipment to ensure the required level of LHC induction chambers working cavities, it was found that hydrodynamic methods are the most effective from the viewpoint of quality and economy, and among them the washing method employing the unsteady fluid flow modes organization with optimal for each purification facility modes of pumping . Its disadvantage consists in the dependence of the pressure intensity and velocity oscillations, and, consequently, cleansing efficiency from the purification object design features and its geometric parameters. As the cavity being cleansed moves away from the source of vibrations their intensity decreases.

The results of the performed study allowed develop technical solution on the hydro-pulse cleansing of the HHS working cavities technology consisting in the fact that according to conventional cleansing technology by pumping through the internal cavities of the cleansed object in the unsteady mode. This unsteady mode is being created by the fluid flow rate changing from 0 to the value determined by the fluid pressure, not exceeding the pressure for the part being cleansed. A periodic change in the fluid flow rate in the maximum possible range, determined by the specified pressure, corresponds to the periodic change of its speed in the maximal possible range also.

Thus, the maximum possible velocity oscillations amplitude is reached, determining the flow degree of turbulence, tangential frictional stresses magnitude on the surface being cleansed, and other factors affecting the of contaminants breaking-off and removal intensity. In the process of studies, technical solutions on the proposed technology implementation were also developed.

Due to the insignificantly small fluid compressibility, all manipulations with its volumetric feed (and thus with speed) at the inlet of the product to be cleaned undergo infinitesimal changes as they move along the cavity of the product up to the outlet from it (unlike the pressure oscillations created by the change in the areas of the passage section). Hence, the cleansing liquid unsteady mode retains its maximum cleansing ability in all areas of the cavity being cleaned.

Khatuntseva O. N. On the Occurrence Mechanism of of the Random Value with the “Heavy” Polynomial “Tails” in the Stochastic Processes of Gaussian Distributions. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

Most of the economic, biological, physical and other processes are adequately unpredictable. The lack of the determinism in such stochastic processes is related not only to probability distribution of the considered process possible realizations of the, but also with the possible unsteady behavior of the probability density. Stochastic process may gain the additional uncertainty if the probability density of the random value realization can be described at random fr om the set of the feasible functions describing it.

The article considers the problems related to the possible of the probability density non-uniqueness of the random value realization in stochastic processes. It shows that the method for the stochastic processes description for the systems with no selected equilibrium states allows find different probability densities for the stochastic process that may realize at random way the certain range of random values.

In this respect, the following conclusion based on the Lindeberg Central Limit Theorem can be made. The Gaussian distributions with “heavy tails” manifestation may be considered as the consequence of the hidden factors occurrence in the system, affecting the probability density dynamics when random value realization of the considered process causes the variation of the probability density of realization. It confirms the prognosing feasibility of natural and technogenic catastrophes based on the considered random values distributions analysis from the viewpoint of their deviation from the normal (Gaussian) law of distribution. In hydrodynamics, such deviation indicates the appearance of the coherent structures and the possibility for the transition form the laminar flow mode to the turbulent one.

The phase space dimensionality analysis allows determining both stable and unstable branches of the solution for the probability density in such random value realization domains, wh ere a unique solution may be realized.

Firsanov V. V., Vo A. H. The study of the longitudinally stiffened cylindrical shells under action of local load by the refined theory. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

At present, engineering calculations of ribbed shells are based on the results of the classical theory of Kirchhoff-Love and Timoshenko-Reissner type. The hypotheses adopted in this theory does not allow accounting for the shell transverse deformations, leading to the errors in the determining the stress-strain state (SSS). It forces to develop increasingly advanced methods for SSS calculating with account for the distortion zones, including those near the joints of structural elements, as well as local loading.

The purpose of this article consists in developing a refined version of the theory of the SSS calculating of longitudinally stiffened cylindrical shells under the impact of radial axisymmetric local load.

The shell displacements are approximated by high degree polynomials with respect to the classical theory of Kirchhoff-Love and Timoshenko-Reissner type. Basic equations and boundary conditions obtained by the minimum total energy of deformation principle are presented. The boundary value problem solution is performed by operational method based on the Laplace transform.

The results obtained in this article allowed establish that the with the ribbed shell calculation by the refined theory there were always rapidly damped additional edge stress states of the “interface” type. Near distortion zones of the stressed state, the transverse normal stresses, neglected in the classical theory, were obtained of the same order with the maximum values of the basic flexural stress. Moreover, for the thicker shells the transverse normal stresses contribution to the total SSS increases significantly.

Kuruliuk K. A. Videogrammetry system for contactless measurements of large-size objects deformation fields. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

Large-size engineering objects under operation are subjected to various stresses, leading to considerable deformations. Normal functioning, strength and safety of such objects is achieved through thorough studies and testing, in which methods and tools for measuring geometric motion and deformation parameters play an important role. Particularly, in recent years, the problems of deformations measuring of aircraft large-sized models and structural elements arose. One of the promising measuring methods for solving this type of problems is optical method of videogrammetry (VGM), combining modern means of optics, digital image recording, numerical image processing and mathematical analysis. High information value of the VGM method is stipulated by the fact that one image allows getting information on hundreds and thousands of points of an object simultaneously. At the same time, it was necessary to create a mobile measuring system which would not be associated with particular experimental installation or wind tunnel, and which could be quickly applied in different conditions to measure deformation of full-scale aircraft elements while their ground testsand in flight.

The purpose of this work consists in improving videogrammetry method and developing a mobile measuring videogrammetry system (VGM system) to ensure non-contact measurements and visualization of distributed deformations of large-size objects in engineering, as well as expanding this method’s application area. A step-by-step measuring technique employing one digital camera was stated and developed. A two-stage of a measuring system calibration technique was developed.

Control tests of mobile VGM system sample were carried out for measuring deformations of natural wing of a new transport aircraft sample under operating test bench conditions during industrial ground life tests. The maximum measurements distance was of 26 m. The root-mean-square error of normal deviations of points did not exceed 2.5 mm.

This work was performed within the framework of the “Development of mobile videogrammetry measuring system for operational non-contact measurements and visualization of distributed deformations” Project according to the Grant from Moscow Region Government in the fields of science, technology and innovation.

Vyatlev P. A., Goncharov K. A., Sigaev V. N., Sysoev V. K., Yudin A. D. Glass elements fabrication technology analysis for space elements thermo-optical covering. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

A spacecraft (SC) thermal conditions ensuring is associated with thermo controlling coating selection. The coating type of the «solar reflectors» class is intended for application on the radar surfaces, ensuring extra heat removing into surrounding outer space in conditions of these surfaces’ contemporaneous irradiation by the Sun. The K-208Cp thermoregulation coating represents the plates of optically transparent glass K-208 of 150 ± 20 microns thickness with sizes of 20×20 mm, 25×25 and 40×40 mm, with electrically conductive coating on one side and silver and stainless steel layers on the other side, successively applied in vacuum. These plates are glued to the hull by the metallized side. The article presents the system analysis of fabrication of the glass elements for this coating.

Glass elements require several stages of manufacturing technology. The article describes all stages of production. High demands are placed on the glass elements geometric parameters. They are the plate sizes, glass elements quality and flatness fault. Long-term studies helped to establish the optimal temperature regime at which the change the glass elements shape does not occur.

The cycle of manufacturing technology includes chemical hardening processes. The main problem of application of glasses is their weak mechanical strength. A simple and effective method of the glass plates hardening is the method of low-temperature ion exchange.

Zagidulin A. R., Podruzhin E. G., Levin V. E. Modeling a motion of a non-free system of rigid bodies in the case of calculating damping of the light aircraft landing gear. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article describes the mathematical model of the light aircraft landing gear using the method of modeling the motion of a system of rigid bodies with holonomic constraints based on Lagrange equations of the first kind. Traditionally, in design practices for calculating the landing gear damping, Lagrange equations of the second kind are used in generalized coordinates. The disadvantage of this technique is that for each kinematic scheme of landing gear it is necessary to make up its own system of equations, which is a very laborious process. To solve this problem, it is advisable to use a technique based on Lagrange equations of the first kind, which makes it possible to formalize the process of composing equations of motion of a non-free system of rigid bodies. This approach allows us to represent the aircraft landing gear model in the object form – as a set of objects: rigid bodies, power factors and mechanical constraints, which ensures the modularity and extensibility of models.

For the landing gear presented in the article, constraint equations in joints of the construction are written. Expressions are given for the determination of active forces: axial force in the shock absorber, the force of compression of the wheel’s pneumatic. Results of numerical simulation of landing impact are presented in the article.

The method used in calculating damping of the aircraft landing gear differs from methods of calculation previously used, primarily universality. When the system of rigid bodies changes, there is no need to rewrite the equations of motion in generalized coordinates, only the dimensionality of the system changes, and the form of equations is unchanged. Such a universal approach is more algorithmic and simple in numerical implementation.

Rebrov S. G., Golubev V. A., Golikov A. N., Morgunov A. E. Experimental studies of oxygen-hydrogen and oxygen-methane fuels laser ignition in the ignition device by a semiconductor laser. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article describes the results of experimental work on the laser ignition of oxygen-hydrogen and oxygen-methane fuels in the ignition device. In the course of the studies, a semiconductor laser with the fiber output of radiation, which main designation consisted in its utilization as a radiation source for solid-state laser pumping, based on active YAG: Nd medium, was employed as the ignition energy source. While experimenting, the fuel mixture ignition resulted from the optical breakdown spark when laser radiation was being focused near the target surface located in the ignition device reaction cavity.

The main task of the experimental work was determining the fundamental possibility of semiconductor lasers application for the studied fuel mixtures ignition. Positive results of the experiments on both oxygen-hydrogen and oxygen-methane mixtures ignition at the maximum output energy parameters of the laser employed allowed proceed to the second stage of the study on determining the impact of the laser source and the ignition device operating characteristics changes on the possibility of both fuel pairs ignition. As a result, the data was obtained on the operating ranges of the output energy and laser pulse-repetition frequency, as well as consumption and excess coefficient of the oxidizer for the studied fuels, determining stable laser ignition.

In the course of the work carried out, the possibility of rocket fuels laser ignition from a semiconductor laser with a fiber output was demonstrated, which application will reduce the requirements for thermal stabilization and facilitates the vibration isolation of the ignition system when placed on board a spacecraft.

Baklanov A. V., Vasil'ev A. A. Adaptive technologies application in the issue of studying the flow structure formed by the burners in the GTE combustion chamber. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

In conventional practice, ensuring the necessary parameters of combustion chambers is achieved by studying several options of swirl burners to obtain the optimal design, acceptable for the combustion chamber. The swirl burners’ production is a labor intensive and expensive process. Modern additive technology application for the parts manufacturing is actually the technology allowing produce shortly the burner with necessary design and test it, obtaining the parameters of interest to the developer.

The article presents the result of designing and producing combustion chamber burners of gas turbine engine by the prototyping method. Printing of burners was performed with 3D Picaso printer, which operates by the plastic extrusion technology. In other words, the burner model is fabricated by layer-by-layer applying of extra fine layers of molten plastic. These layers, becoming a virtual cross-section in CAD model, are united or fused together to form an object of the adjusted form. The ABS and PLA plastics, which allowed machining, polishing and painting, are used for printing. Several burners with different blade angles were produced. The article presents the equipment and materials being used for the burners producing, the design of test bench, which was used to study the flow pattern in outlet of the produced burners.

Based on the performed studies, it was discovered that the near placed burners with various swirl directions of blades formed the short structure of turbulent jet. It is explained by mutual penetration of turbulent layers directed towards each other As result, the vortex energy content scale of is decreased as the jets energy is spent for collided layers interaction. The authors conclude that in modern low-emission combustion chamber the short residence time of gases of about 7 ms is provided. It is necessary to reduce the level of nitrogen oxides formation in combustion products. Thus, organizing the opposite twist between the burners in the upper and lower stages is may be useful to ensure the low-emission combustion.

Khramin R. V., Kikot' N. V., Lebedev M. V., Burov M. N. Design procedure for heat dissipation of hybrid bearings with grease lubricant. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

Grease-lubricated bearings application is a promising trend for weight reduction and reliability increase of small-size engines, which allows eliminate the oil system utilization. Since the lubricant grease working temperature is, as a rule, lower than the temperature of conventional aviation oils, accurate assessment of the bearing thermal state is required. To reduce heat generation within the bearings under study, ceramic rolling elements, rather than traditionally used steel bodies, are used. The bearing lifespan is determined by the loads and thermal state of the bearing elements and grease. To determine the bearing thermal state, we are to know the values of heat flows affecting the bearing. Heat flows from the surrounding parts and air can be sufficiently determined by the verified commercial software products. To determine the heat flow generated by the grease-lubricated bearings, it is required to create and verify a design procedure, as there are no branch calculation methods for heat generation of grease-lubricated bearings. It will be impossible to justify performance of the engine, equipped with such bearings, before the certification body without the verified heat- generation calculation method for grease-lubricated bearings.

The article presents the design procedure for heat emission of hybrid grease-lubricated bearings with ceramic rolling elements. The computational experimental Demidovich’s method is used as the main criterion equation. The Demidovich’s method is distinguishes from the other bearing heat-emission computation methods by availability of the similarity theory elements, as the main criterion equation uses of the bearing geometry features. That is why the dependencies defined by this method represent flexibility for the studied bearing size. The experimental data for the design procedure verification were obtained during the tests of the angular ball bearing size 126308. The coefficients describing the experimental data with enough engineering accuracy were determined due to the analysis. The heat flow calculated in accordance with the presented design procedure can be automated and built in the bearing 3D-model together with the heat flows from the bearing environment.

Starovoitov E. I. Laser ranging systems characteristics for unmanned aerial vehicle strapdown inertial navigation system. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

Further development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) includes the onboard navigation systems improvement. It is associated with broadening the tasks, performed by advanced UAVs: increasing autonomy fr om the human operator, increase in speed, radius of action, flight time and altitude range

The article studies characteristics of laser ranging systems (LRS), intended for error correction of the strapdown inertial navigation system in the UAVs onboard navigation systems. The author considered the LRS structures based on 3D Flash Ladar-technology and optical-mechanical scanners (OMS) of conventional and hybrid types.

Either Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs), ordiode lasers and fiber lasers can be employed in LSR. Avalanche photodiodes (APD) and PIN photodiodes can be employed for the reflected signal receiving.

The article analyzes the OMS performance. The maximum UAV’s flight speed, on which the LRS with OMS operates, is determined of the ratio of the angular resolution to the angular size of the field of view. Maximum range of LRS measurements is primarily determined by scanning speed and laser pulses’ repetition frequency, and secondly by the power of laser pulses. To expand the speed range, wh ere the conventional type of OMS can be employed, it will be necessary to narrow its angular field of view. In the same flight range of altitudes, the maximum permissible flight speed for hybrid type of OMS will be higher by an order of magnitude.

APD and PIN photodiodes can be implemented in 3D Flash Ladar systems (in which case the maximum range of measurements is reduced by an order of magnitude, as well as increase in the receiving aperture is required).

Traditional type of OMS, based on fiber laser, can be applied for operation in the range of altitudes from 0.4 to 2.0 km (from 0.2 to 1.2 km when PIN photodiodes are used) and flight speeds to 850 km/h.

Hybrid type of OMS, based on fiber laser and APD, can be applied for operation in the range of altitudes from 0.2 to 1.0 km and flight speeds up to 1300 km/h.

Characteristics analysis of of all three LRS types revealed, that the most promising was LRS structure based on hybrid type of OMS, having the highest efficiency. This structure employs fiber laser and APD.

The results of this work can be used while developing the onboard navigation systems for advanced UAVs.

Agishev A. R., Kasatkin V. G. Corrections planning for a spacecraft Low-Thrust Geo-Transfer. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

After the spacecraft (SC) is put into geostationary orbit (GEO), its longitude may differ from the longitude of the stand point. The initial deviation of longitude may be of several tens of degrees, while the period deviation corresponds to the larger speeds of a SC drift along the orbit. The plan of deployment correction, including information on the initial time, corrective action duration and direction, that change the orbit period and eccentricity, is required to set the SC into stand point.

The purpose of the work consists in developing a high-speed algorithm for GEO transfer plan computing.

The existing methods of transfer employ complex control optimization methods, requiring extra memory and computational resources. Their application onboard the SC is not always possible due to the limited computing resources. Another group of methods uses analytical calculations of the correction plan, but their application is impossible in practice due to the actual space systems’ limitations.

In the proposed method, the correction plan is computed while simulation process. Computing is performed in a cycle by control intervals. One iteration contains testing of the simplest logical conditions and flight simulation at the current control interval. The control interval duration is equal or greater than 24 hours by the correction value by the current 24 hours.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is the optimal dependence between longitude and orbital period. If the spacecraft deviations match this dependence, the spacecraft would be set into nominal GEO longitude by these daily period corrections.

The algorithm workability was verified for 1000 GEO transfer computations from different initial orbits. The final deviations of the longitude after the maneuver are acceptable for spacecraft station-keeping.

The efficiency of the method was being checked by comparing deviations of longitude and period, as well as maneuver duration and the characteristic speed with the calculation by a well-known method using difficult, resource-intensive algorithm of GEO transfer. The comparison results revealed the proposed algorithm effectiveness, and the relative simplicity of calculations by the method and characteristics of the maneuver give it an advantage in the computations onboard of the spacecraft.

Us N. A., Zadorozhniy S. A. Model of noise and instability sources of a ring monoblock gyro. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

Various systems operating on different physical principles are applied as gyroscopic sensors of modern high-precision aircraft strapdown inertial navigation systems. The most widespread in the world are laser gyroscopes implementing the Sagnac effect and differing in design and technological versions. Commercially available inertial navigation systems employ two types of such gyroscopes: ring gas and fiber-optic. Relatively recently, a novel design, occupying an intermediate place between ring gas and fiber-optic gyroscopes, appeared in the group of laser gyroscopes. This unit was called a “ring monoblock gyroscope with the semiconductor laser diode”. The vital difference of this unit consists in the presence of the polyhedral optical monobloc with the triangular optical scheme with open channels, placed inside the unit. The problem of the bidirectional optical signal formation form the laser diode is solved by the original resonator-splitter design. With this, the semiconductor laser diode is placed inside the gyroscope optical scheme. The ring mode of the optical signal is realized by the mirror system. Information retrieval about the navigation object angular velocity is performed by dynamic interference pattern processing from the gyroscope output. The new design and technological solution of the gyroscopic sensor requires its error knowledge based on the corresponding generalized noise and error sources mathematical model. The article examines the triangular optical monoblock diagram of a laser gyro with high symmetry relative to the axis “resonator-beam splitter – interference mixer – photo detector” to evaluate potential noise and instabilities. This optical scheme was not analyzed earlier due to the fact that the ring gas laser gyroscopes were unclaimed. Estimates of the given design and technological solution potentialities as a sensitive element of the aircraft inertial navigation system were obtained. The article demonstrates that the optical system possesses the internal mutual phase modulation presence, and compensation of the internal temperature gradients of the object under study exists as well. The developed structure of the ring monoblock gyroscope is recommended as high precision, thermally stable ring monoblock gyroscope with laser semiconductor diode for the aircraft strapdown inertial navigation systems. The design and technological solution specifics of the sensor may be the basis while solving the problems on sensitive elements of the inertial navigation system backing-up.

Kondratenko V. S., Rogov A. Y., Kobysh A. N. A new approach to hydrocarbon liquids leakages control onboard an aircraft. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article considers a new approach to control of leakages from the aircraft fuel and hydraulic systems in flight, implemented based on sorption sensor cable sensitive to hydrocarbons. It shows that the traditional methods of aviation fuel leakage and hydraulic system working fluid (aviation oil) control, based on computational algorithms, have significant drawbacks, namely, a time delay of leakage detection and inability to determine quickly its location. The authors propose an alternative solution to these problems, i.e. gravity independent sorption cable hydrocarbons sensor (SCHS) highly sensitive to the hydrocarbon liquids. Sorption mechanism of interaction with the liquid leakage, ensuring its high sensitivity, allows placing the SCHS directly on the elements of the aircraft fuel and hydraulic so as to ensure the ingress of liquid on the sorption sheath of the cable regardless of the possible directions of leakage. If this condition is met, the liquid leakages detection can be performed at any aircraft position in space, including active maneuvering, which significantly expands the range of the aircraft with the SCHS leakages control application. The unique SCHS sensitivity and speed allow considering it as the basis for the onboard automated systems for early leakages detection in the aircraft fuel and hydraulic systems. While developing leakages detection systems for leakages locations determining, a zone method with assigning a separate cable for the controlled object, or reflectometry method while organizing control at extended object can be employed.

Arevshatyan E. S., Pavlova N. V. The first step of the automated training system. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article presents the students testing system model developed using the expansion and addition of the classical methods of knowledge assessment of the students. It is applicable for effectiveness analysis.

It is applicable for the effectiveness analysis of mastering of the passed through material, both by students and tutors. The system is realized based on the client-server architecture using basic web client templates and a server part of Apache. It is developed as the first step of automated information processing system with developing structure.

It was required to develop the first step of the developing automated system of the university training of the students mastering the program of disciplines for the specialties, associated with aircraft onboard equipment development. At this stage, the tasks of development of the program and algorithmic provision were set and solved. They allow:

  • Provide information on the studied course, both at the level of the simplest concepts, and in the form of methodical grants;

  • Store information on the contingent of students and their steps on mastering the discipline materials (with assessment of the progress);

  • Present results of work with system at users request according the level of access both to the students, and the tutor.

Due to the structure selection and used software the system is implemented as the developing automated system and intended for operation within the network using of client-server architecture, based on the JavaScript programming language and the Apache server, and MySQL databases

Method of written tests supplemented with further mastering of materials at the conceptual level is used in the first stage of system.

The results on the program development and algorithmic provision for the first stage of the developed automated training system are presented.

The system imitation model with two levels of data access (the teacher and students) and two levels of didactic material granting is developed both in the form of tests and in the form of the text.

It is advisable to consider also application of the kernel of the created system for developing various training systems for operators of commercial unmanned aerial vehicles.

Kovalsky A. A., Zinnurov S. H. Models and algorithms for a communication spacecraft dynamic radio resource backing-up while servicing non-stationary information streames with account for delay in control. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The goal of operative satellite repeater’s radio resource distribution (reservation)is set as the nonlinear programming problem, and the example of its solution while servicing a non-stationary message stream formed by the group of voice subscribers is given.

Modulated Markov process and its special case, called interrupted Poisson process are used as a model of non-stationary message stream formed by voice subscribers, with account for signal suppression during pauses. Modulated Markov process mathematical model of a servicing process with the time lag while of additional channels connection was developed as a three-dimensional Markov chain. Algorithm of this problem solution was developed, and the example for the case, when the ingress flow was being formed by only one subscriber, is presented.

The object of the study is channeling equipment of a ground station of a communication satellite, which employs a communication spacecraft for the channels radio resource organizing. An object of the study is a technology of backing-up a communication spacecraft radio resource. The research objective is directed to the capacity growth of the ground station of satellite communication, due to the choice of optimum value, the backed-up radio resource for each direction of communication.

The simulation model of dynamic back-up of a communication spacecraft radio resource, based on the software product recommended for performing scientific research in the field of mathematical and simulation modeling, namely Matlab/Simulink/SimEvents, together with the interactive building tool for complex Stateflow models was developed and described. The Stateflow software product based on the theory of finite state machines and queuing systems application is intended for logical queuing systems design.

The developed approach to managing of communication satellite’s limited resource distribution, allows achieve substantial advantage savings (about 30%) of the communication satellite radio resource, due to its dynamic redistribution between the radio communication directions.

Zanin K. A. Developing a model of space radar bistatic interferometer basic parameters. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article introduces a mathematical model of basic parameters of the bistatic space interferometer with two synthetic aperture radars. The space interferometric survey consists in obtaining a digital model of the terrain relief. Bistatic (tandem) interferometric survey implies simultaneous operation of the two spacecraft. In this mode, two synthetic aperture radars form interferometer defining the phase difference of the signal incoming from the Earth surface. However, high accuracy of defining space vehicles position and phase stability of the radio electronic path is required.

At present, several commercial digital relief models exist in the world. The most complete in coverage and best in accuracy is the DLR model obtained by “Terrasar-X” – “Tandem-X” spacecraft in bistatic mode of radar operation.

Relief height definition in bistatic interferometric mode requires minimum amount of a priori information, though it requires high accuracy of defining space vehicles position and phase stability of the radio electronic path.

The article analyses selection of the interferometer basic parameters with account for the requirements of the relief height determining accuracy. The impact of position determination errors of space vehicles in space on measurement errors is being evaluated. As an example, the analysis of the requirements to navigational and ballistic provision of interferometric tandem spacecraft “Terrasar-X” and “Tandem-X” is presented.

Khrustaliov M. M., Khalina A. S. Identifiers of reduced dimension in the problem of the unmanned aerial vehicle stabilization in perturbed atmosphere. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have taken their rightful place in modern activities. The UAV control processes improvement is undoubtedly actual and allows employing more and more unmanned robot-vehicles.

The article considers the problem of a small UAV horizontal flight stabilizing in the vertical plane with account for angular motion. Due to the UAV smallness, the wind should be taken into account, and the control system should ensure high stabilization quality while being simple enough.

Stochastic quasilinear system was selected as a model for the control process description with account for the wind, as accounting for the ongoing processes most adequately, but, at the same time accessible for the effective analysis. Vertical and horizontal components of the wind disturbance are set by the modified Dryden-type generating filters

The authors suggested to employ minimum number of measured motion parameters to simplify the stabilization system.

Since that it is not always possible to stabilize the system by a limited set of state vector components for control, it is conventional to use the state identifiers. However, there several problems exist herewith. The generally accepted in practice formulation the problem of optimal control synthesis is based on the separation theorem. According to this theorem, the optimal control consists of an optimal filter, forming an estimate of the state vector, and optimal regulator determining the control under the assumption that the state vector is known exactly. The result of this theorem is strictly proven for linear systems only. As for the quasi-linear systems, to which the considered system is referred to, the separation theorem is inapplicable.

The presented paper proposes a natural approach to the joint synthesis of the control srategy and the identifier. In this case, the authors propose selecting both the control strategy parameters and the identifier parameters from the condition of the general stabilization quality criterion minimum. The proposed method feature consists in the absence of control and observation synthesis problems separation.

The general method for solving problem of optimal quasilinear stochastic system synthesis to find optimal control strategy in the presence of incomplete information on the system state vector was used. This method was earlier developed by the authors. It includes the necessary optimality conditions and the numerical method of the gradient type.

Lisov A. A., Chernova T. A., Gorbunov M. S. System approach to the degradation processes in electrical devices. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The presented work considers a system approach to the electric devices reliability and operating efficiency enhancing, ensuring faultlessness by forming the information computer system for analysis, modeling and evaluation of electronic devices degradation state, as well as their diagnosing and forecasting theiremr residual resource forecasting according to the simulation results. It is especially actual in aviation using such devices.

The closest prototype in relation to the system of failure prevention in technical systems being developed are the already formed and recommended approaches based on methods for complex technical systems faultlessness provision. The closest prototype on analysis and faultlessness provision of electric motors are the developments on electric motors reliability by of O. Goldberg School.

The presented work suggests the degradation deviations of stator phases voltages, and functions of rotor mechanical oscillations in the run-down mode while power supply turning-off as characteristic parameters. Information content of the induction motor characteristics in the run-down mode while supply circuit turn-off was established relatively to the subject of research. Criteria of the induction motor stop and its removal from service were established.

The system approach to the degradation processes analysis of electric devices allows:

  1. Forming imitation recurrent approach to electric devices degradation processes studying and modeling;

  2. Developing mathematical models of nonlinear degradation processes and characteristics of electric devices;

  3. Performing estimation of electric devices fault free operation and their residual resource according to the change of degradation deflection of the characteristic parameter. Such estimate employing allows significantly simplify modeling and reduce the order of the system of equations.

  4. Forming comprehensive information while the power grid turn-off in the run-down process on the induction motor functional state, the degree of degradation wearout and duration of the residual resource.

The electric devices operation efficiency is determined by the “individual tracking” of each object from the industrial batch, operating in concrete conditions with its own “individual” modes history, ensuring optimal resource, intervals and terms of check test, excluding remove from service of the still fit products.

Nuriev M. G. Physical simulation of an unmanned aerial vehicle electronic means noise immunity. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

An important factor affecting the safety of unmanned aerial vehicles is the impact by the electromagnetic field of a remote lightning discharge. Powerful external electromagnetic fields may lead to the of noise immunity disturbance of on-board electronic systems. Particularly in recent years, a trend towards the unmanned aerial vehicles development with a fuselage made of nonmetallic materials with low efficiency indicators for electromagnetic fields shielding gains momentum. Based on the technique of physical modeling of electromagnetic interference in electronic communications lines under the impact of electromagnetic fields, the problem of predicting the noise immunity of an unmanned aerial vehicle electronic means under the impact of a remote lightning discharge is realized. Physical modeling is a method of experimental study of various physical phenomena, based on their physical similarity. Computation of all the stages of the method of physical simulation of electromagnetic interference was performed. The imitation and measurement equipment was chosen. A test bench and a model of the studied object were developed. The article presents an example of physical modeling of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems’ communication lines of an unmanned aerial vehicle under the impact of a remote lightning discharge. To predict the noise immunity of the onboard electronic systems of unmanned aerial vehicles, it is necessary to compare the parameters of electromagnetic interference in communication lines with critical values, leading to a temporary functioning disruption or sensitive elements damaging. The noise immunity forecasting of an unmanned aerial vehicle electronic elements under the impact of electromagnetic interference of a remote lightning discharge was performed. When detecting possible noise immunity failures of the onboard electronic systems, it is necessary to take already known as well as new measures to reduce the interference in advance.

Zinchenko A. A. Weight control organizing while aircraft engineering production. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The experience shows that theoretical weight calculation does not often match weighing results. This statement holds for parts and assembly units made by casting and die molding from rolled metal and composite materials. This includes also electrical equipment and harnesses which weight is about 9% of total aircraft weight. It is difficult to account for paint coating put on aircraft parts, as well as sealants ensuring junctions seal.

Untimely transfer of parts and assembly units weighing results to design bureaus is followed by organizational difficulties of internal weight control in production. The internal processes analysis of various organizations allowed creating a working model of weight control automated system at PJSC AAC “PROGRESS”. The company standard and “Weight control” software developed with C++ programming language and Oracle database is used as a basis for weight control automated system.

Putting weight control automated system into operation has significantly shortened searching and processing time for parts and assembly units weighing control and documents writing.

The weight control automated system developed at PJSC AAC “PROGRESS” is a significant move on the way to internal production processes automation. It possesses a high potential of further development. For example, the weight control system could be supported by the following:

– A server with the data field (cloud), accessible to all the participants, working with weight control;

– Calculation methodology of aircraft parts and assembly units at the design stage, which, for example, will include NeuroWorks [1] software developed on the principle of artificial neural network. The program uses exploratory-dependent formulas, therefore it might use weight control automated system’s weights database;

– Cooperating enterprises involvement into weight control automated system. This will accelerate data submission on parts and assembly units to aircraft designer;

– Parts and assembly units identification by their direct marking [2] (barcode numbering, FRID), this will allow tracking parts and assembly units throughout the aircraft life cycle in a better way;

– Modern weight control means allows entering information on parts and assembly units, such as weight, time, date, photo, overall dimensions, into the database;

– The terms for synchronizing weight control automated system and CAD, CAE systems . This will allow eliminate input of parts and assembly units points for aggregates center of mass determination of the whole aircraft and use actual values of distributed loads when estimating aircraft configuration in CAE systems;

– Accounting for the aircraft parts technological allowances. The allowance for the parts could be excluded fully or partly, or not removed at all. This value might be used for discrepancies analysis parts and assembly units, and as criteria for the technological production upgrade;

– Record keeping of non-ferrous and precious metals.

The software application for processing the aircraft levelling information affected by the mass/inertia loads on the fuselage might be a supplement for the weight control automated system.

Thus, the new model of weight control automated system will positively affect the aircraft design time, its serial production and enterprises cooperation even with partial implementation of the above-mentioned points. The weight control automated system will become a part of the life cycle informational support system article (CALS-technologies).

Nabatov A. N., Vedenyapin I. E., Mukhtarov A. R. Applying ontology approach to information system design. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article considers the problems of corporate information systems development, design, upgrade and operation. The process complexities that are needed to be overcome by the participants – customers, the owners of corporate information systems, executors – architects, designers, programmers, implementation specialists, as well as those who will operate the information system – administrators and users, are discussed. The well-known and new approaches to the information systems design are being studied. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are considered. A design approach associated with the known technologies combining is proposed. At the core of the proposal is sharing the ontological and entity-relationship modeling methods. An example of the information system design beginning for an ordinary manager is considered. The example describes the environment, both technical and information, as well as classification of tasks and resources necessary for the manager while performing his official duties. The example is given based on ontological approach. On this basis the state vectors, describing the manager’s workplace, as well as his tasks, are presented. The ontologies integration into a unified structure is shown, and a conclusion on the links complication between the combined ontology elements is made. This conclusion is also confirmed by the state vector. Similarly, a connection-based approach is simulated on the same example. A principal possibility of these approaches combining based on the basic subject area commonness is shown. Generality is ensured by a single glossary, applied in both approaches. This allows conducting a comparative analysis of the obtained models. The XML representation format as the consolidation platform is proposed. It is demonstrated that both the ontology and the entity-relationship models can be represented as an XML structure.

Nikolaev S. V., Barantsev S. M., Kolodezhnov V. N., Shatovkin R. R., Kupryashkin I. F. Motion dynamics modeling of objects of smooth ballistics while solving the problems of aircraft complexes flight tests. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article is dedicated to developing the mathematical model of the of aerial bombs movement smooth ballistics to determine the possibility of bombing. The mathematical model is based on the numerical solution of a system of differential equations, accounting for aerial bombs ballistic characteristics, as well as their kinematic and gravitational parameters. Ballistic characteristics determine the aerodynamic properties of air weapons, significantly affecting parameters of their trajectory, and is entered into the bombing sight while the sighting angle determining. Based on this mathematical model, a computer program meant for air weapons of smooth ballistics movement simulation after their discharge from the carrier aircraft was developed. The program is useful for scientific and methodological support of aircraft testing, flight tests planning, and movement parameters computing of the air weapons. The modeling results validity evaluation was performed by comparing he obtained results with ballistic tables. The obtained error within the limits not exceeding 5% allows recommend the developed software for assessing the combat capabilities of aircraft systems when attacking ground targets during flight tests. The obtained solutions are taken as a basis of the method for studying ballistic characteristics of air weapons and computational-experimental method for determining the combat capabilities of aircraft systems when attacking ground targets during flight tests.

Lyapin A. A. Algorithm for stochastic variations generation of a vector with specified constraints. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

Software for flight task analysis and control consists of a variety of interrelated components (program modules) [1]. A program module is a functionally completed software implementation of a specific task (algorithm) of a software for analysis and control of a flight task. To ensure quality and reliability, each program module should be debugged, verified and tested in autonomous mode [2, 3, 4].

The above-mentioned program modules are verified and tested using special software tools (program complex BTTesting [5, 6]).

The paper covers a method of automatic variations generation of a vector with specified constraints (imposed on the vector length and ranges of its components variation) while forming a computational grid for verification.

There are methods for constructing random vectors with dependent components [16], such as the method of conditional distributions, elimination method (von Neumann), etc. To apply the method of conditional distributions, it is necessary to determine the distribution density of the vector components, and the von Neumann method allows construct random variations of the vector components and restrictions on its length. The algorithm proposed in the article represents a simple mathematical formulation as well as easy software implementation.

An application program [17-22] integrated in the BTTesting program complex is designed based on the algorithm. The article presents user’s interface and an example of the algorithm utilization.

The presented algorithm allows to replace manual entering of initial vector parameters by their automatic generation while forming a computational grid for verification. This lowers labor efforts of a white-collar operator and prevents a human factor impact.

Le T. D., Nesterenko V. G. Study and optimization of the thermal state and acceptable level of stresses in the shroud of the turbine rotor blades of a gas generator of aviation high-temperature gas turbine engine. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article presents a technique for shrouds of gas generators’ turbine rotor blades designing for conventional and prospective high-temperature gas turbine engines to increase their efficiency, service life and reliability through their cyclic strength in particular. Based on the results of the design studies of temperature state and strength characteristics evaluation of the airfoil blades and their shroud shelves of various configurations, a technique allowing optimize their convective-film cooling was developed. With account for the increased strength characteristics of heat-resistant alloys with rhenium additives, this technique allows designing the shrouds of the high-temperature turbine blades of new generation, while maintaining the required level of allowable stresses and safety margins.

The purpose of the study consisted in identifying the critical areas of the shroud, as well as the airfoil blades requiring increased cooling intensity at reasonable costs of the cooling air. The shroud is usually calculated on bending under the centrifugal forces action, as a cantilever beam of variable cross-section, embedded into the section adjacent to the airfoil blade. A shroud cooling system, which ensures a temperature reduction of the blade of the high-pressure turbine, where the stress values in the shroud are maximum, has been developed. The parameters for the temperature and stress state calculation of the turbine blade shroud of a gas generator were selected to maximize the mode To simulate the viscous flow of incompressible gas in the turbines flow passage, the Navier-Stokes equation was used. In the flow passage domain, a tetra grid was used. On the gas domain surface, a thickening of the grid with 10th prismatic sub-layers was created.

The results of the conducted studies allowed obtain practically significant conclusions and recommendations, which also have a scientific novelty associated with the specification of the nature of the gas flow and the expedient employing of the convective or film cooling in different parts of the shroud and the airfoil blade.

Tran L. T., Tarlakovsky D. V. Moment Elastic Half-Plane under the Action of Surface Non-Stationary Normal Displacements. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 102,

The article discusses an elastic homogeneous isotropic half-plane filled with a Cosserat medium. At the initial moment of time and at infinity, there are no perturbations. On the border of a half-plane, non-stationary normal displacements are given. All components of the stress-strain state are limited. A complete system of equations of the asymmetric theory of elasticity is presented, which includes linear vector equations of motion in displacements, geometric and physical relations. Using the representation of fields of displacement in the form of potential and solenoidal parts, a system of equations of motion with respect to the scalar, vector displacement potentials and angle of rotation is written.

For the plane problem in question, a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system is used. The resolving system of equations includes three hyperbolic equations for the scalar potential, the nonzero component of the vector potential, and the rotation vector. The solution of the problem is sought in the form of convolutions of a given normal displacement with the corresponding surface Green functions. To construct the latter, we apply the Fourier transform with respect to the coordinate and the Laplace in time. The originals of the images are found using the joint inversion of the Fourier and Laplace transforms.

Examples of the action of various non-stationary loads on the border of a half-plane and examples of calculations for a granular composite of aluminum shot in an epoxy matrix are given.

As results of this article, an analytical solution is constructed for the problem of the propagation of non-stationary surface kinematic perturbations in the moment-elastic half-plane, which allows using quadratures to find stresses for any law of load variation. It is established that the corrections made to the solution, taking into account the moment properties of the medium, have the order of the coefficient relating the fields of displacement and rotation. It is shown that the surface Green’s functions in this case have an integrable singularity at the front of the shear wave.

Gerasimov K. V., Zobova A. A. Dynamics of a vehicle with omniwheels with massive rollers with account for a roller change contacting with supporting plane. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

We study the dynamics of a vehicle with omni-wheels moving along a horizontal plane. In this work, we consider dynamics of the rollers, and suggest the model for contact switching from one roller to another using impact theory. We consider behavior of the simplified model of the omni-wheel as a rigid disk with a non-holonomic sliding constraint (MassLess Rollers Model – MLRM).

Dynamics of a symmetrical vehicle with N omni-wheels, each carrying n rollers, moving along a fixed horizontal absolutely rough plane are considered under the following assumptions: the mass of each roller is nonzero, the plane and rollers are absolutely rigid, so the contact between a supporting roller and the plane occurs in one point. The slippage is allowed only at the instant just after the change of the rollers in contact (a tangent impact).

Between the impacts, the motion dynamics are governed by the equations in pseudovelocities. Compared to MLRM, the additional terms proportional to the rollers’ axial moment of inertia and depending on the angles of wheels’ rotation appear. For free motions (without control), we showed analytically the existence of the energy first integral, cyclic linear integral for the non-supporting rollers, and slow change of the MLRM first integral. It is shown that some MLRM motions disappear. All analytical results were confirmed by simulation. Comparison of the main types of motion for symmetric three-wheeled vehicle for MLRM and the whole model was performed.

For switching between rollers, an impact theory problem is posed and solved, impact forces and energy loss being obtained in assumption of non-elastic impact and ideal constraints. Right before the impact instant only holonomic constraints are imposed on the system. After the impact, a set of differential constraints are applied. The impact problem is then formulated as a system of algebraic equations. The system admits the unique solution. We consider the impact as non-elastic in the sense that it is equivalent to projection of the vector of generalized velocities onto the plane defined by constraints in the space of virtual displacements, orthogonal in the kinetic metric. Thus, the normal part of the generalized velocities vanishes, and the kinetic energy of the system decreases by the value of the kinetic energy of lost generalized velocities, in accordance to Carnot’s theorem. Then the solutions were obtained numerically combining both smooth parts of motion and impacts.

Korovaytseva E. A. On ensuring solution accuracy of model analysis problems. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

By the example of modal analysis problems formulation, introduction of three simplest canonical forms is suggested, allowing structuring the description of problems solution algorithms and reasonably minimize their spectrum. For the basic algorithm, supposing the method of initial parameters application, the use of integral approach to the problem solution is proposed.

This approach supposes orthogonality of normalized integral matrices of the initial and conjugate differential equation systems condition checking at each integration step at the problem preprocessing step and segmentation of integration interval at the points in which this condition is not met. This approach efficiency is illustrated by the examples of free oscillations of hinged beam and cylindrical shell problems solution analysis. It is shown, that tenth and higher natural frequencies of the hinged beam cannot be calculated correctly without using segmentation according to the approach suggested. The article compares several numerical integration methods combined with segmentation. They are Runge-Kutta method, realized in authorial program, and Runge-Kutta, Adams-Bashforth, Gear and trapezoids with free interpolation methods realized as built-in MATLAB functions. Runge-Kutta method realized in authorial program demonstrated the best accuracy and computational speed. Besides, comparison of Runge-Kutta method of the fourth and tenth orders of accuracy shows that the method of the higher order is less accurate.

Calculations of the first natural frequency and mode of cylindrical shell oscillations were performed according to the general moment theory with account for inertia in three directions. Godunov’s orthogonalization method was used. The numbers of orthogonalization and integration steps were calculated according to segmentation methodology suggested in the paper and common approximate methodology based on numerical experiments of the prior authors. The studies revealed that applying common approach to integration interval segmentation cold lead to wrong results of natural frequencies and modes calculation, while application of the approach suggested in the paper allows obtaining results with the required accuracy.

Egorov A. V. Bending deflection of a non-uniform bar at axial compression. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article considers a process of deformation of a hinged-mounted non-uniform bar at the axial compression. Numerical computation was performed with ANSYS and LS-DYNA software, using 3D finite elements in elastoplastic domain. The fact of stability loss was being established through the values of bending deflections being determined.

The bar non-uniformity was specified by the three elastic insertions with elasticity modulus differing from basic material of the bar. The insertions were located along the bar superficies non-symmetrically relative to its axis. A steel bar with elasticity modulus of
Ef = 200 GPa with two types of insertions, namely, hard with elasticity modulus of
Ef = 180 GPa, and soft with elasticity modulus of Ef = 1 kPa was considered.

The insertions were of a small volume: in total 0.8% relative to the bar volume.

Based on modal analysis, forms of oscillations and natural frequencies of the non-uniform bar were obtained with ANSYS software, which were compared to the shapes and frequencies of the uniform bar.

Lateral motions (bending deflections) of an axially compressed non-uniform bar were found by computing its stress and strain state with LS-DYNA software in dynamic setting, which allowed obtaining bending deflections as a function of time. For the first five forms of stability losses of the non-uniform bar corresponding loads were calculated.

Loading of the bar bending deflection over one half-wave (per the first form) was compared to Euler’s critical load. It was shown, that the obtained critical loading exceeded it by 21%. This loading can be considered as the upper estimation, since the insertions were of small volume.

With an assumption of the bar non-destructiveness, the process of shape changing, associated with large displacements was established with LS-DYNA software, and a time instant of ultimate strain reaching in the upper thin layer on the bumpy surface of the bended bar was indicated.

Golubev E. S., Mugla D. R., Barzov A. A., Sysoev N. N. Probabilistic analysis of ultra-jet hydro-physical technologies effectiveness. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article considers comparative effectiveness of various scientific and applied approaches to the study of ultra-jet hydro-physical technologies. The possibility of effective construction of a probabilistic simulation apparatus was demonstrated on a concrete example of determining an optimal length of a nozzle, forming the cutting abrasive-liquid jet. The results of this problem solving by simulation using Monte Carlo method, supplemented by direct experimental studies are presented. Prospects for the development of the proposed approach in the field of analysis of ultra-jet hydro-physical technologies are outlined.

The high labor-intensiveness and cost of the direct experimental analysis of the effectiveness of various operational ultra-jet technologies (UJT), as well as the search for optimal modes of their implementation in production conditions are the reasons for the need to develop the apparatus for theoretical study and mathematical modeling of the interaction of ultra-jet (UJ) and the material being processed. Besides, the task of creating appropriate engineering methods for express determination of rational conditions for ultra-jet treatment of materials and liquids, in particular, by the acoustic emission method is topical. In this regard, we formulate in short form the main options for analyzing and optimizing the physical and technological parameters of UJT designed to ensure their low-cost determination at the early stages of technological production preparation. We will herewith accoinput unt for interconnection of physically dominating UJT processes, in particular, fatigue-discrete US-erosion of the machined material or a solid-state target with input physical characteristics of various operational UJT and their output parameters.

Savitskiy D. V., Aksenov A. A., Zhluktov S. V. Numerical simulation of argon plasma interaction with carbon sample of thermal-protective coating. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

Real picture of physico-chemical processes around a hypersonic vehicle is extremely complex. While air deceleration in the head shock wave, almost all kinetic energy of the approach flow transforms into internal energy. This leads to the air heating up to high temperature (tens of thousands degrees) right behind the shock wave, which, further, subsides, while approaching the vehicle due to endothermic reactions of dissociation and ionization. As a result, the flow of multicomponent thermochemical non-equilibrium gas mixture forms in the shock layer. Interaction of the heated gas with the thermal heat shield of the vehicle initiates numerous additional interrelated processes. They are heterogeneous chemical reactions at the vehicle surface, homogeneous chemical reactions with participation of the heat shield destruction products, conjugate heat exchange between the gas and heat shield, non-stationary coating heating. The necessity to describe these processes leads to significant complication of mathematical model. The model of the hot gas interaction with the thermal shield is defined by the coating type.

The article presents a complex mathematical model describing the hot gas mixture flow near a hypersonic vehicle, mass entrainment from the vehicle surface, the ablation products effect on the processes proceeding in the gas phase, the heat shield heating, and the vehicle surface shape changing The model is not too complex. It was developed for systematic engineering calculations of the hypersonic flows near real vehicles.

The 3D flow of argon plasma around a carbon sample of a heat shield is simulated. The conditions are corresponding to the experiment performed at the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS. It is assumed, that sublimation is the main mechanism of the sample ablation. Calculations were performed with the FlowVision software. The article presents the simulation results. The numerical modeling results are compared with the experimental data. The difference between the computed and experimental values of the mass loss rate is found to be within the experimental error.

Konstantinov S. G. Numerical modeling of a solid sphere free fall into the water. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

A solid body motion trajectory depends significantly on its hydrodynamic characteristics. Thus, an important problem consists in determining aero-hydrodynamic forces and moments, impacting the body depending on its special position and media properties. Application of modern computing techniques, allowing accounting for complex physical pattern of the body flow-around in viscous turbulent flow of liquid and compressible gas, becomes highly relevant for determining dynamic characteristics of a solid body free falling and immersing into the water.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods, constructed on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, allow simulate the fluid and gas flows dynamics with account for the viscosity, compressibility and detachment phenomena effect.

The main problem while the CFD methods application is the simulation of turbulent flows. Until now, universal turbulence models, capable of accounting for all the scales of turbulence have not been developed. Thus, with regard to computing resources costs, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations closed by a particular turbulence model are widely employed. With this approach, the numerical experiment accuracy depends largely on the correct choice of the turbulence model.

To assess the validity of the RANS method, the aerodynamic characteristics of the sphere were computed using three most widely used turbulence models, i.e. Spalart-Allmaras, k-SST and k-e, realizable in the ANSYS FLUENT program.

Comparative testing of turbulence models based on aerodynamic characteristics computing of the sphere while airflow over a wide range of Reynolds numbers revealed that the computing results obtained from the Spalart-Allmaras and k-SST turbulence models are closest to the experimental data.

To determine the aero-hydrodynamic characteristics of a sphere free falling into water, as well as the trajectory of incidence and immersion, calculations were performed using the RANS method with the k-ω SST turbulence model and Volume of fluid (VOF) and Six degrees of freedom (6DOF) models contained in the program ANSYS FLUENT.

Based on computing results, the sphere hydrodynamic characteristics, trajectory and sinking speed were determined. The patterns of the total velocity in the calculated area were obtained, and visualization of the cavity formation process in the water while immersion of the sphere with hydrophobic properties was demonstrated. The numerical modeling results of the sphere immersion into the water were compared with the experimental data.

The results of sphere aero-hydrodynamic characteristics computing and numerical modeling of the sphere immersion into the water demonstrated satisfactory agreement with experimental data, which indicates the fidelity of the physico-mathematical model of the applied method.

The implemented method can be employed in the aircraft building industry to solve problems related to determination of the dynamic characteristics of seaplanes and helicopters capable of being driven and moving along the water surface with account for the impact of the incoming airflow, currents and free surface waves.

Khatuntseva O. N. On finding the critical Reynolds number of laminar-turbulent transition in Hagen-Poiseuille problem. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

In the previous article [1], two solutions for the Hagen-Poiseuille problem were analytically obtained based on the Navier-Stokes equations with account for the entropy producing caused by the stochastic perturbations. The first solution corresponds to the laminar mode, and the second relates to the turbulent flow mode. The solution related to the turbulent flow mode at the central part of the tube was specified by the logarithmic velocity profile with the multiplier inversely proportional to the von Karman constant analytically determined in [1]. The solutions corresponding to the laminar and turbulent modes differ slightly directly at the tube wall. In the present work, this circumstance allows determine the minimal Reynolds number at which the transition fr om the laminar to the turbulent flow mode is feasible. The method of “discontinuous” functions was employed for these purposes.

The method of “discontinuous” functions description was offered in [2]. It may be used to describe the processes subjected to jump-like transitions, applied to the physical processes that can be uniquely described by   functions in all domain of α, except the small subdomains, where these functions change their values (or values of derivatives). In such subdomains the functions may demonstrate random behavior (if tracking the argument variation many times). The task of the technique consists in searching for the relations linking the functions values and their derivatives at the subdomains boundaries with dimensions and positions of these subdomains relative to the considered domains of definition of α.

The laminar-turbulent transition completely satisfies for this model of “discontinuous” functions behavior. With small Reynolds number values only the laminar mode of a liquid flow can be realized, while with Reynolds number values exceeding certain critical value both laminar and turbulent flow modes can be realized. At that, with Reynolds number increasing the turbulent flow mode stability increases, while the laminar flow mode stability decreases. The laminar to turbulent mode transition at Reynolds numbers exceeding the critical occurs jump-like and randomly.

The critical Reynolds number found in the work is approximately 1970.

Glushkov T. D., Mitrofovich V. V. The impact of a fan inlet guide vane blades design effect on its characteristics. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

During the definition of one of the modern helos’ cooling fan system’s aerodynamic perfomance, it was estimated that its aerodynamic efficiency at the operation points is much lesser then pre-calculated meaning. When analyzing velocity distribution in blade passages of pre-seriesly-built fan prototype and its high-scale model, it was determined that the reason of prototype performance reduction is insufficient flow angle at inlet guide vane (IGV) outlet. As result negative rotor airfoil cascade angle of attack α leads to insufficient energy transfer from the rotor to the airflow and reduction of fan performance.

The pre-seriesly-built prototype of fan had certain deviations from the recommended shape of the input guide vane blades, in particular, great radial tips at hub and shroud, and through slot, presented at the IGV blades peripheria, that permits to hub and shroud tip leakage flows. Downwash of flow resulted in sufficient reduction of IGV outflow angle and cutting the full pressure ψ and power λ factors. Testing of same prototype with IGV radial gaps deleted, shown that radial gaps deletion sufficiently lessens the negative impact of vane design drawbacks.

Inlet guide vane blades stagger angles θIGV significantly impacts on size, angle and direction of downwash. When θIGV<95° IGV downwash direction is contrary to rotor rotation, as result rotor inflow angle if relative movement decreases, rises airfoil cascade angle of attack and energy transfer to the airflow. If θIGV~95° IGV outflow has axial direction, and velocity distribution at rotor inlet consists to expected. When θIGV>95° IGV downwash direction coincides to rotor rotation and fan performance decreases.

It was also shown that even minor deviations from the recommended vanes coronets’ shape significantly impact upon the overall aerodynamic and cinematic features of the fan installation.

Bolsunovskii A. L., Buzoverya N. P., Skomorokhov S. I., Chernyshev I. L. Computational and experimental studies of high-speed wings for advanced long-haul aircraft. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article presents the description of a design technique and results of the study of two high-speed wings of the long haul aircraft thematic models. Two values of the cruise Mach number were considered: quite mustered in the world practice M = 0.85, and near transonic one M = 0.9. The wing for M = 0.85 has a sweep of χ1/4 = 32.7° and average relative thickness of t/c=11.2%, while for the more high-speed wing the sweep was increased up to χ1/4=38.5°, and the relative thickness was reduced to `t/c =9.5%, which was comparable to the B-747 wing parameters.

The wings were being designed using the aerodynamic design technique developed by the authors, which employs direct and inverse methods of computational aerodynamics, as well as optimization procedures. The design is performed in three stages. At the first stage, the initial geometry of the wing is selected according to the available data from the prototypes. An the second stage, it is being modified by solving the inverse problem with a given favorable pressure distribution at the main cruise flight mode. The specified pressure distribution is selected by the designer so as to minimize the wave drag (to weaken or even eliminate the shock waves), profile drag (to weaken strong pressure gradients and eliminate flow separations) and induced drag (to provide close to the elliptical load distribution over the span). Finally, the third stage commences a multi-criterion optimization procedure intended to expand the range of flight modes with minimal drag losses.

The thematic models were tested in TSAGI’s transonic wind tunnel T-106M both at cruise speeds and at low Mach number M = 0.2. The tests confirmed that the developed wings indeed ensure the achieving of the design cruise Mach number of M = 0.85 and M = 0.9 correspondingly and may be recommended for prospective long haul aircraft layout developing.

Zharenov I. A., Kulesh V. P., Kuruliuk K. A. Measuring deformation fields of panels suffering impact damages with videogrammetry method. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

While operation the aircraft structures are subjected to mechanical, thermal, acoustic and other loadings, which lead to their forms changes, i.e. deformation. Normal functioning of such objects depends on adequate response of the structure to the external impacts. One of the most important factors affecting the strength, survivability and safety of aircraft engineering objects is the impact damage of the skin.

The processes associated with impact damage to the skin are of great interest in the studies of the aircraft of structural elements strength. The processes associated with the skin impact damage are of great interest while studying the strength of the aerial vehicle structure. To develop structures stable to the impact damages and forecasting possible changes of their functional and strength characteristics the studies based on computational methods are employed and new models are created. However, these models and techniques require experimental verification and confirmation. The impact damages peculiarity consists in significant three-dimensionality of the skin normal deformation. Thus, deformation distribution fields measuring with high point density is necessary for mathematical models correct verification. The optical method of videogrammetry (VGM) is one of the prospective methods for such measurements.

The presented article offers the application of the optical method of videogrammetry for non-contact measuring of the residuaal deformation fields of the skin while impact damages inflicting. A measuring technique employing a single digital camera was developed.

Testing of a series of panels of aircraft structures from aluminum alloy was performed. The root-mean-square error of measurements of normal deviations of points on the dents’ surface up to 7mm depth did not exceed 0.01 mm.

It was demonstrated, that the measurements with high points density by the VGM method opens possibility to determine the shape and volume of the dent, which allowed verify the finite element model of the impact damage more completely.

Trofimchuk M. V., Krovjakov V. B., Berezovsky D. V., Andreev M. V. Aircraft protecting unit from mechanical impact of hitting elements. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

Among the aircraft indices such as tactical, flight-performance, operational, economic, etc., the most important for a military aircraft is its combat survivability as an aircraft’s capability to continue the flight and task performing in conditions of hitting its separate units, systems and airframe by enemy’s means of destruction took place.

The experience of military conflicts reveals that the combat survivability of an aircraft is primarily determined by the protection of vital aggregates, which constitute less than 20% of the total aggregate of airframe and engine systems. Thus, to minimize the weight and size costs on ensuring the combat survivability of an aircraft, it becomes sufficient to ensure locally or strengthen protection with modern effective means only of its vital aggregates.

The disadvantages of existing methods and means of local protection of vital aircraft units are as follows:

– aerodynamic characteristics deterioration when placing the armored elements outside the fuselage;

– the aircraft useable volumeы reduction when placing the armored elements inside the fuselage;

– substantial increase in the aircraft weight characteristics.

As a result of the studies performed routinely by the specialists of Air Force Academy, a technical solution was developed of the device for aircraft protecting from the mechanical impact of the hitting elements. Its essence lies in the fact that along the perimeter of the aircraft skin section from its inner side, a flexible impediment is fixed in the zone of vital units’ location, and its area herewith exceeds the area of the protected skin area. Thus, the problem of fixing a flexible obstacle in the constructive state of “slack” (sagging) is solved, by which the effect of its resistance increasing to the impact of hitting elements is achieved. In this case the number of secondary fragments impacting the aggregates decreases by 95 to 97%. The energy of the damaging element itself decreases to a value sufficient only to form dents on vital aggregates that do not lead to their failure. The probability of accomplishing a combat mission by an aircraft increases by 15-18%.

The advantage of the developed technical solution is the possibility of its installation not only on newly designed, but also on the aircraft in operation without significant mass-size costs. The developed device can also be implemented to protect the other mobile and fixed technical facilities, including ground structures.

Andreev D. V. Analysis and control of technical risk levels at various lifecycle stages of helicopters. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article analyzes the problem of ensuring a helicopter flight safety at its design stage. As a criterion of the degree of safety estimation the notion “risk”, being spread on the functioning of a complex technical object is used. The author suggests solving the problem of flight safety provision using the “acceptable risk concept”. Unlike the existing risk assessment model bearing exceptionally statistical character, the proposed approach provides not only risk assessment, but also risk management through the implementation of special measures. These may include, for example, a limitation on the operating conditions of the helicopter and / or additional technical procedures during its operation.

The methodological basis for risk assessment is the fail-safe tolerance analysis, which shows the ability of the system (or helicopter as a whole) to ensure the safe completion of the flight in the expected operating conditions in the event of a failure onboard. It allows determine the reliability of systems and helicopter as a whole. In case of their inconsistency to the specified requirements, the analysis of fail-safe systems allows solve the problems of optimizing the architecture of the helicopter systems as far back as at the design stage. The analysis results can also be used for planning the periodicity and preparation of works on maintenance and repair of the helicopter, or transferrring certain systems for maintenance according to “their actual state”. Such technique will allow minimize technical risks at all stages of the helicopter life cycle, i.e. from the development stage to the operation stage of the serial aircraft.

The article presents classification of the failures consequences and describes the risk assessment process using the risk matrix. On the example of designing a system for indicating the main rotor rotations, the article demonstrates the possibility of selecting the optimal design variant by the fail-safe criteria.

Astapov V. Y., Khoroshko L. L., Dudkov K. V. Evaluation of additive technologies application for creating models of space missile head. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The external outlines of a head fairing affects significantly missile aerodynamic characteristics as a whole. In case of loading, they determine the aerodynamic forces and moments affecting not only the head fairing itself but also the bays to which the fairing is being fixed. The fairing outline should ensure such a gas flow-around, at which minimum zones with vortex flow character is realized. Aerodynamic models are being employed for a head fairing blow-down. It is a complex product, which is firstly being designed, and then manufactured according to the requirements to a particular testing system. Very strict requirements on geometric similarity and surface quality are being placed on the model. Aerodynamics models manufacturing according to the conventional technology is based on machining and is rather labor consuming process. The authors suggest employing new and prospective forming methods, namely additive production, to produce an aerodynamic model, which will change radically both technology and a structure. The additive production principle consists in the fact that functional products and surfaces are being created by layer-by-layer adding of material, i.e. fusing or sputtering the powder, with adding a liquid polymer or a composite. Additive technologies may be systematized according to various criteria, such as the used material phase, radiation source, layer formation method. All modern systems of rapid prototyping operate according to the similar layer-by-layer principle of a physical model construction. Additive technologies employing allows meeting specifications to the aerodynamic model.

For the aerodynamic model growth, the 3D CAD model was being translated into machine G-codes, describing the extruder or laser motion trajectory (depending on the technology). The SLA (Stereo-lithography) was chosen as a rational option in terms of the final product quality and cost. Several models were manufactured and tested at various modes. For the pipe operating area, a drainage model in 1:100 scale was developed. The goal of the tests consisted in experimental determination of the pressure distribution along the head fairing surface, as well as external pressure in the area of the most large-size superstructures installed on the model.

Prior to the head fairing aerodynamic model manufacturing commence, tests of the samples for obtaining the physical properties of the material, being obtained in the process of formation with the layer-by-layer synthesis installation, were performed. The obtained models fully meet the requirements of geometric similarity. When loaded with external loads, the models did not deflect and did not break in the joints areas. They proved their reliability while load application. The test task was experimental determination of the pressure coefficient distribution on the surface of the head fairing and in the area of superstructures.

Baturin O. V., Kolmakova D. A., Popov G. M., Matveev V. N. Obtaining an equation for computing profile losses in a blade row of axial turbine while design calculation. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article proposes a method for reliability evaluation of losses models based on statistical analysis of deviation of experimental data from calculated. It showed that those deviations are subjected to the normal distribution law, and could be described by the value of mathematical expectation  and mean-square deviation .

The values of profile losses were calculated by five well-known models for 170 various axial turbines cascades, representing the diversity of turbines employed in aircraft gas turbine engines. The findings were being compared with the experimental data. The results of comparison were subjected to statistical analysis. It was found, that the best model describing the profile losses in axial turbines was the model developed in the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (Russia). It allows calculate the profile losses deviating from the actual values of losses by 8 ± 84% with a probability of 95%.

With account for the above mentioned statistical criteria, a new equation was proposed based on the analysis of the profile losses’ nature and employing mathematical optimization techniques. This equation opens the possibility of defining the profile losses of an axial turbine more accurately than by the use of the studied models. It allows calculate the profile loss values in the axial turbine deviating from the actual values of losses by 10±61% with a probability of 95%. This new proposed equation accounts for more geometric and operational factors affecting the losses value.

Abashev V. M., Kiktev S. I. Assessing the channel wall deformation impact on the gas flow structure in combustion chamber. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

One of the most pressing problems in the design of large multichannel combustion chambers of power plants with high-speed flow is the study of the flow process in the channel and the channel walls and flow interaction. Several experimental studies demonstrated that braking in rectangular channels of high-speed flow could vary greatly from the flow in a cylindrical pipe. The article deals with calculation and theoretical study of the flow of high-speed airflow in a rectangular channel with deformed inner wall. It assessed the changes in the nature of the flow of gas flow in a rectangular channel in the presence of deformations of these sections under the impact of thermal and force loads. In this article, the authors used the finite volume method, based on the system of Navier-Stokes differential equations. The model of the shear stress (Shear Stress Transport), which is a combination of k-ε, k-ω models was used. This combination of models allows calculate both the flow of the wall-adjacent layer, and the free flow at sufficient level away from the walls. The wide application of the SST model allowed adapt it for most flows, including the stationary problems solution at large Mach numbers. The numerical studies of the large multi channel combustion chambers with high-speed flow revealed that the deformation has a predominantly undulating shape. For this purpose, design models of cut-off wedges with a deformed surface were developed. The cut-off wedges were placed in the calculated volume, through which the heated supersonic gas flow proceeded. The design model consisted of two volumes: 1 – the volume simulating the air flow, 2 – the compartment wedge.

Conclusions on the deformed surface impact on the flow structure were made. Numerical studies revealed the presence of local zones in which shocks occurred.

Khomovskii Y. N. Studying specifics of strained state of a box-shape channel of ramjet engine. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

In hypersonic ramjet engines of underslung type the structural forms of air intake units, transition parts (the so-called insulators), through which the air is supplied to the combustion chamber and combustion chambers themselves represent thin-walled channels of rectangular or circular cross-sections. The airflow duct of an American X-51 hypersonic rocket and, particularly, its insulator is a consistent combination of channels of this shape.

The thin-walled structural elements of box, oval and cylindrical shape, forming the insulator sections, are exposed mainly to the pressure drops and temperature gradients. The stress state of such elements has its own specifics, and no sufficient information on it is available in the known literature sources. It relates, in the first place, to the inner corners. A significant concentration of stresses may be supposed in these places. Instead of a real insulator, let us consider the stressed state of a boxed-shape channel on the example of its six cross-sections.

The calculations were performed separately for the cases of loading by temperature gradient, pressure drop and a joint impact of these loads. The impact of R radius (R = 1; 3; 5; 13; 21; 28,5 mm) in the inner corners of models on the stress concentration factor was considered for each model.

Analyzing the obtained results, we can draw conclusions that the stresses in the corners of the models arising from the influence of pressure are very sensitive to the inner radius (in contrast to the temperature stresses). This may indicate the feasibility of separate consideration of these factors in the calculation of stress-strain state. Separate evaluation of stress concentration factors along the x and y axes may be handy for evaluating the strength of shells made of carbon-carbon composite materials with a fiber structure.

Vovk M. Y., Kulalaev V. V. Normality Criteria While Processing Experimental Studies of Gas Turbine Engines Parameters Based on Applied Mathematical Statistics' Methods. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article performed the generalized analysis of normality distribution criteria for experimental data processing [1-20]. A new «vector» criterion and design technique were suggested and examples of distribution normality verification were given, allowing employ the limited volume of experimental data, which was a rather significant factor while gas turbine engines (GTE) tests performing. The new technique of the distribution normality evaluation while analyzing the field of the GTE workbench tests was imposed by the fact that the vast majority of the experimental data used in engineering are subjected to the normal distribution law [1-5, 8-10]. In the applied mathematical statistics in practical regard the probability distribution characteristics are considered as a center of the statistical data grouping, the degree of dissipation and random values behavior in the vicinity of the center. The symmetry relative to the distribution center is also being analyzed. In terms of applied mathematics, analysis of distributed statistics herewith requires certain knowledge, practice and intuition while primary analysis of the set of the experimental data, where subjective factor gains a significant role. The state-of-the-art condition of the GTE tests development based on applied mathematical statistics requires introduction of reliable and powerful evaluation criteria of statistical data, which possess the property of algorithmization. It reduces to minimum the subjective approaches and determines the topicality of the scientific problem, considered in the article.

While identification of a mathematical model in global software accordint

While identifying a gas turbine engine mathematical model in the global software complexes by the experimental data of a definite engine series and performing also the regressive analysis the accomplishment of condition of the normal field distribution of the experimental data is required. Thus, to ensure the validity of the regression analysis the mandatory preliminary analytical verification of the normal distribution law with the normality criteria [8-10, 13-20] in place is required. Currently, there are 21 fitting criteria, modified for the normality distribution verification [8]. The types of the fitting criteria with the normal distribution law (normality criteria) are widely presented in the bulk work [8]. The table of the strength of various criteria of the normal distribution is presented ibid [Table № 80, p.278]. The following specifics of the known fitting criteria should be noted: the criteria work well with the sample values from 8 to 5000 and require employing special tables, requiring precalculation (ex. Shapiro-Wilk criteria, Filliben, La Breck and etc.). Practically, the wellknown criteria calculations require compilng voluminous tables for the subjective analysis, which leads to serious labor costs, and requires “...not only knowledge, practice, intuition” [8], but also considerable constraints of computer employing. The newly introduced normality distribution criterion [Kr1] may be used for the experimental points array processing and regressive statistics analysis for the rig testing of various types of gas turbines and possesses algorithmization features for computer calculations. It may be employed also for creating applied the software global complexes for automated experimental data arrays processing with sufficient shortening of time and design scope on the computer including experimental dataprocessing for actual gas turbine engine tests verification.

Rebrov S. G., Golubev V. A., Lozino-Lozinskaya I. G., Pozvonkov D. M. Laser ignition of oxygen-methane fuel in a combustion chamber. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article presents the results of the studies on the main regularities of laser ignition of an oxygen-methane gaseous fuel in a combustion chamber. A small-sized laser was installed directly on the mixing head with radiation leading-in along the axis of the chamber. The ignition was performed by initiating a spark of optical breakdown while radiation focusing in the fuel mixture volume. Mixture formation in the combustion chamber was provided by six coaxial-jet nozzles and typical for many modern liquid-fuel rocket engines operating on fuel components oxygen-hydrogen, oxygen-methane.

The studies of laser ignition specifics were performed in two directions. The first direction was determination of laser ignition possibility depending on the parameters of the fuel mixture. With this,the effect of feeding sequence of fuel components and characteristics of the mixture (pressure and flow rate) on the laser ignition possibility and ignition character were studied. The order of the components feeding was set by the control commands of the test bench. The output nozzles with various critical sections were employed for changing the flow velocity and pressure of the mixture components in the combustion chamber. The second direction of the research was studying the effect of the location of the initiation region of a spark of optical breakdown on the ignition reliability. For this purpose, lenses providing the laser radiation focusing at various distances from the mixing head plane were employed.

Final recommendations for both combustion chamber and laser ignition system characteristics selection, ensuring reliable ignition when radiation introduction into the chamber from the mixing head along the chamber axis, were given based on the results of the performed work and the obtained regularities.

Legkonogikh D. S., Golev I. M., Preobrazhensky A. P., Zelenin A. N. Application specifics of electrically driven units in an aircraft power plants. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article analyzes the work on the creation of electric drive units for aircraft and propulsion systems. The trends of gas turbine engines electrification are presented, the most important of which is replacement of mechanical and hydraulic actuators of propulsion unit by electric ones. The article demonstrates that application of electrically driven units in gas-turbine engine systems has a number of advantages associated with reduction mass and size parameters reduction, reliability increase, combat survivability and other operational properties of aircraft power plants. However, the effective implementation of these measures requires solution of some problematic issues of the development of onboard electric energy sources with high specific power. The review of domestic and foreign developments of electrically driven units for existing and prospective aircraft engines is presented. One of the possible options of fault-tolerant structural scheme of the fuel system of a twin-engine aircraft power plant with electric fuel pumps is proposed. This structural scheme will allow performing partial or full restoration of the fuel system in case of operational failures occurrence, as well as in the case of combat damages. The inference was drawn that at present application of electric drive for the units of relatively low power was most expedient.

For actual mass introduction of electrically driven units to aircraft systems it is necessary to carry out further works on assessing the possibility, feasibility and effectiveness of these measures.

Glushkov A. V., Ulybyshev S. Y. Application of the clock mode to the propulsion system for a spacecraft high-precision orbital maneuvering and reorientation. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article sets forth the possibility of a clock mode operation of the propulsion system to solve effectively the problem of the spacecraft center of mass travel, as well as controlled rotation around it. Configuration of the propulsion system consisting of two triples of nominally equal liquid rocket engines with opposite directions of the resulting thrust vector located uniformly on the circumference of a given radius is under consideration. The said design solution allows effective fuel consumption to move the center of mass in space, and in conjunction with the mode of clock operation used to control the engine, ensured the high accuracy of the pulse. While the spacecraft reorienting, this algorithm allows make reversals and guidance of the selected axis in a specified direction, minimizing herewith the total increment of the characteristic speed, which leads to a linear movement of the center of mass, as well as parrying the growth of the kinetic moment along all three central axes of the spacecraft.

The article presents the description of the algorithm for the mode of clock operation of the propulsion system, as well as the results of mathematical modeling, confirming its performance and ensuring all the stated requirements. It was shown, that the problem of guidance and retention of the spacecraft selected axis in a specified direction was realized with minimum fuel consumption, and the linear travel of the center of mass was practically nonexistent. This are necessary conditions for the effective application of liquid-propellant rocket engines for a spacecraft reorientation, and this is highly demanded in practice.

Giliazov M. R., Nagulin K. Y., Gilmutdinov A. H. Dynamic characteristics of galvanometric scanner for laser surface treatment. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

A high-speed galvanometer scanner for laser technological equipment was developed. Closed-loop type of galvo was selected for the précised localization of laser beam on an object surface. For angle measurement, high-speed capacitive sensor was used. This galvo presents the conjugation of a metallic rotor and stator, consisted of permanent magnets, stator plates of a special shape, and a coil.

To enhance the resonant frequency the torsion bar was fixed to the rotor end. On its other end the mirror was fixed.

The scanner ensures a deflection angle of the laser beam within the range of ±22.5° with maximum frequency of 285 Hz. The scanner dynamic characteristics were obtained by numerical simulation. The galvo resonant frequency was evaluated with the damped oscillations analysis. As the initial conditions, the magnetic field distribution precalculated in the stationary state by the MUMPS method was taken in the simulated device. Further, the time calculation was also performed using the MUMPS method, with a time step sufficient for analysis.

After that, the control signal was optimized with the help of PID-regulation of the supplied current. The criterion of optimality was the maximum linearity of the motion of the scanner’s rotor.

The change in the magnetic flux during the oscillation process over time was studied. The time for establishing the forced oscillations amplitude of the rotor (0.02 s) was estimated.

Zinoviev Y. S., Mishina O. A., Glushchenko A. A. Prospects for ground- and space-based optical telescopes development. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The issues of the near and far space exploration are topical in both scientific and practical terms. On the one hand, it is the study of the Solar system (including asteroids and comets), distant Galaxies, while on the other hand, it is the problem of increasing of the number of space debris and spacecraft.

The new generation of the ground- and space-based telescopes with enhanced characteristics are required to solve these problems.

The article presents the review of the prospects of the ground- and space-based optical telescopes development both in Russia and abroad. It considers the results of the works on implementation of the ground-based telescopes implementation for space monitoring developed in the USA, currently carried out, and on creating large space telescopes with controlled composed (segmental) apertures under development in several countries led by NASA.

The performed analysis of the prospects of the ground- and space-based optical telescopes development allowed revealing the basic tendencies of modern telescope building. These include the increase in the diameter of the main mirror of the telescope both through the application of the controlled composed (segmented) apertures principle, and through the methods of aperture synthesis. Besides the permeability and angular resolution increase, application of this trend allows create long-range telescopes, which is extremely important for solving the problem of asteroid danger. Another important trend is creating photometric channels of ground-based telescopes (GEODSS, MMT– 9) with high rapidity, which allows obtaining signatures of space objects with high time resolution and solve the problem of their identification. Finally, creation of a fundamentally new MMT– 9 system allowed detect and study the fast-changing (in time and space) radiation sources of unknown localization in huge survey sectors (up to 900 square degrees). It allows respond to emergencies in space close to real one.

Vasil'eva A. V., Sedov D. P. The construction principles of the radio altimeter system for measurement parameters motion of the recovery capsule. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The key factor while selecting the landing system of a modern spaceship is a single requirement, namely, the necessity of multiple use of a reentry module. A simple parachute system with landing on a firm-land is not capable to slow-down a spaceship to the necessary extent, since it is rather difficult to create the landing shock absorber which would withstand such loading and protect the ship’s hull from damaging. Besides, due to uncompensated lateral velocity and under strong wind the capsule e may fall on its side. To account for lateral velocity and cant angles of a reentry module relative to the surface it is necessary to employ the system ensuring measuring of the corresponding parameters.

The radio altimeter system is included in the reentry module of a manned spacecraft and is intended to measure the current drop altitude from 500 to 0.5 m, the current components of the velocity vector of the center of masses, current cant angles of the reentry module relative to the underlying surface.

The radio altimeter system differs from the earlier designed by implementation of the original technical solutions ensuring carrying-out of the draft proposal requirements on the range and accuracy of measured parameters, built-in self-monitoring, reliability factors, vitality and withstandability to external impact.

Radio altimeter system presents is a pulse Doppler radio altimeter of motion parameters. The authors suggest employing the multi-beam two-mirrors antennae with nine beams as an antennae system.

To ensure performing the task of landing in case of failures in the system the dual redundancy of transmitting modules is implemented. Each module functions independently and executes the flight parameters measurement. The use of information from all transmitters enhances accuracy of the parameters measurement.

The article presents all basic principles of radio altimeter system developing for measuring parameters of movement of a reentry module. It demonstrates operating algorithms of the unit and basic equations for the required parameters computing. The functional diagram of the radio altimeter system was developed and the ways of its reliability increasing were suggested. The effectiveness of the suggested algorithms was substantiated by the system operation modeling. Evaluation of the radio altimeter system accuracy characteristics demonstrating correctness of the selected methods was performed.

Burenko E. A., Nesterov S. V. Active frequency-selective filters designing. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

While their studying, students of radio engineering specialties necessarily face the task of designing electric frequency-selective filters [1, 2, 3]. Due to the trend towards microminiaturization and difficulties in constructing small-sized filtering devices with inductors for radio engineering systems, linear active RC-filters are widespread [4]. The article presents the examples of filters synthesis for various purposes.

The task of the filter synthesis consists of several stages:

– approximating function selection for a specified filter characteristic;

– the filter transfer function constructing according to the approximating function (any characteristic of the filter as a four-pole can be reduced to the transfer function and vice versa);

– determining the filter structure corresponding to the obtained transfer function;

– filter design and analysis of its characteristics.

There are many ways to construct a filter with a given transfer function of the desired order. One of them consists in presenting the transfer function H(p) as a product of cofactors H1(p), H2(p),.... HN(p) of the transfer functions of the first and second orders, with each cofactor is realized by a separate link (four-pole). Further, these links are connected to each other in cascade, i.e. the output of the first link is the input of the second.

The transfer function of the polynomial low-pass filter has the form:

A first-order low-pass filter with a transfer function in the form of (2) can be implemented, if a parallel RC-circuit is used in the feedback circuit of the operational amplifier.

It is quite simple to implement a second-order filter. To implement the low pass filters, highpass and bandpass filters, the second order filters schemes found wide application.

Based on the above said links, the scheme of the low-pass active RC-filter of the fifth order was developed (Fig. 1), realized with the characteristic of the Legendre polynomials (Fig. 2).

Similarly, the scheme of the active low-pass RC-filter of the sixth order is shown on Fig. 3 and its optimal monotonic response is shown on Fig. 4.

To obtain the transfer function of the high-pass filter, it is enough in to replace the p operator with 1/p in equation (1):

where K – the gain of the upper frequencies of the filter.

The scheme of the active high-pass filter of the seventh order with amplitude-frequency response on the Legendre polynomials is implemented based of the known first- and second order links.

The scheme of the active high-pass filter of the seventh order with an optimum monotone characteristic was also realized.

By replacing variables, one can convert the amplitude-frequency responce of the low pass filter to the amplitude-frequency responce of the band pass filter. To do this, the following variables must be replaced in the transfer function (1):

where is the normalized bandwidth of a bandpass filter, defined as

where fx и fx are respectively the lower and upper cut-off frequencies of a passband of a bandpass filter.

Based on the first- and second the order links the schemes of bandpass filters of the fifth order with amplitude-frequency responce on polynomials of Legendre and with optimum monotone approximation of amplitude –frequency characteristic are realized.

The transfer function of the cutoff filter can be obtained fr om the transfer function of the low pass filter (1) by a frequency domain conversion:

where is the normalized bandwidth of the bandstop filter.

High-order cut-off filters can be constructed by cascading the considered links, parameters of the elements and characteristics are determined by the selected approximation.

Kuznetsov V. S., Volkov A. S., Sokovikov S. A. The study of the OFDM signals with primary amplitude-phase amplitude-pulse modulation. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

Technology of transmission with multiple carrier frequencies in the form of multiplexing with orthogonal frequency division OFDM and methods on its basis are widely accepted as one of the most prospective access schemes for application in the communication systems under development.

A new effective method of quadrature discrete modulation with receiving in the continuous channel with additive Gauss noise, called AFM-APM (amplitude-phase modulation amplitude-pulse modulation) is proposed. Due to the quadrature modulation scheme at FM-16, 8 levels of FM amplitude and 8 levels of APM signal in quadrature, this modulation method ensures frequency efficiency in the output bandwidth of
γAFM-APM = 20 bit/s/Hz.

This modulation method allows realize 10 bit/count instead of 6 bit/count with the number of levels not more than with QAM-64.

The possibility of employing the suggested modulation as a method for subcarrier OFDM-signals was considered. The OFDM effectiveness is defined by the primary modulation effectiveness. With AFM-APM OFDM the 8 bit/count is realized, preserving the peak-factor at the QAM-16 level. Previously, no modulation technique allowed achieve such results. The probability of bit error to the Ebit/N0 ratio was modeled. It was demonstrated that more energy consumption was required for the AFM-APM realization. But, since AFM-APM employs cascaded modulation technique, its application in OFDM becomes possible. It is necessary to transfer to cascaded modulation implementation, which allows realizing the high efficiency with simple complexity. Each cascade realizes a part of the volume. The first cascade is FM-16 demodulator, the second is the quadrature modulation of a 4 ´ 4 system with quantization along the co-phase axis.

To compare AFM-APM with the other modulation techniques it is necessary to compare with those techniques, which ensure the same volume of data transmitted per the specified count. Since the AFM-APM provides 8 bit/count it should be compared to QAM-256. By the the modeling results asymptotic advantage of QAM-256 is about 7dB, though its realization in OFDM is impossible.

When comparing with the channel with the same frequency effectiveness and error probability qbit = 10-7, the Gauss channel requires 36 dB, which is 5 dB more than with AFM-APM.

Gogolev A. A., Gorobinskiy M. A. Micro unmanned aerial vehicle intrinsic position determining in conditions of enclosed space. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

Micro unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAV) of a multicopter type are capable of performing a target assignment in enclosed space (indoors) due to their relative compactness and possibility to maneuver in a limited space. Modern UAV complexes employ the receiver of satellite navigation systems (SNS) GLONASS/GPS, which signals do not penetrate the premises as the main information channel. As a result, maneuvering and target assignments performing inside the premises in autonomous mode is drastically restricted while the UAV control by the operator is hampered due to the lack of visual control of the situation around the UAV and presence of the obstacles along the route path.

According to the concept of the UAV development, the task performance should perform in automatic mode. This means that UAV should have an autonomous navigation system operating independently from GLONASS/GPS signals. For this purpose, the UAV is equipped with onboard computing means, but they have certain shortcomings. The strapdown navigation system (SNS) demonstrates large drift indices and accuracy of about 2 to 3 meters; the barometer’s accuracy is about 0.5 meters which is not enough for solving the problem of autonomous piloting; magnetometer is source of significant readings outburst in case of a large metal object presence.

This article suggests the solution of the problem of determining the micro-UAV space position bypassing GLONASS/GPS signals, but employing the SNS and visual navigation system. Data processing from SNS and magnetometer is being performed by Mahony filter at 50 Hz frequency. Due to this fact, the state vector has a high updating rate and a little time of errors accumulation. The altitude computing is performed by complexing information of the barometer and Mahony filter. For spatial position determining the visual navigation system employs code guide-marks, located in the premises, for unambiguous description of ambience specifics. The visual navigation accuracy is 5 cm. Correction of Mahony filter and visual navigation is performed by complementary filter.

The presented hardware-software complex allows determine the intrinsic position, applying the onboard computer, in real time mode with accuracy of about 10 cm, which is about 1/5 of the aerial vehicle linear size.

Torres Sanchez C. G., Vorontsov V. A. Design parameters evaluation of small reentry vehicle with account for initial data uncertainty. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article presents the analysis of trajectory parameters of a small reentry vehicle along a ballistic trajectory with account for the most significant perturbing factors, and calculation of their impact on the spacecraft mass.

The standard engineering models were applied to compute the thermal fluxes along the descending trajectory to compute the mass of the front shield of the thermal protection system. A method based on the Pflanz-Ludke method was applied to compute the parachute system parameters.

To obtain preliminary estimates of the design parameters three approaches were provided:

  • An approach to the design parameters definition at a nominal trajectory,

  • An approach to the design parameters selection from the extreme conditions,

  • A probabilistic approach with account for the random nature of severe environment.

The design parameters computing in extreme (worst) conditions was being performed in such a way that of each parameter deviation led to the more severe conditions.

A probabilistic approach was performed using the equivalent perturbations, also called the Dostupov method. This method is used for statistical analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems. The essence of these methods is based on the fact, that instead of random realizations of parameters, as it is done in the Monte Carlo method, nonrandom quantities, called equivalent perturbations, are pre-computed in advance. These equivalent perturbations are added to, or computed from mathematical expectations. With these parameter values, the value of the function Y is calculated. Then, the required probabilistic characteristics are formulated.

The results of the study revealed that the equivalent perturbation method application allows saving from 2% to 4% on the mass of the reentry vehicle.

Eliseev E. O., Krukov D. A. The system of identical data cryptographic generation based on the Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

Data encryption is a method of secured data transmission. There are two classical approaches to confidential, reversible data encryption for their transfer or secured storage. An encryption key is the basis for using each of them. The purpose of the article consists in developing and studying the operation of the system for identical information generation from a source to a destination that does not employ encryption keys, but which ensures cryptographic protection. The results of this article are the network application for a full cycle of secured data exchange by employing the operations with metadata without applying linear and nonlinear functions of data and encryption keys. This application provides peer-to-peer network communication in accordance with the state diagram. The article presents both the state diagram and the algorithm. The data generation bitrate is probed by the various algorithm settings. The article contains references for increasing the algorithm efficiency and ways of preventing active mitm-attacks. It was clarified that the system envisaged the possibility of confidential and integrity data generation, if the requirements for the metadata options were satisfied. Compared to the similar cryptosystems the proposed system demonstrates relatively low speed in the case of bulky data fragments which havs high entropy distribution bytes. It remains relatively stable throughout due to the one-way functions application realized by fundamental Diffie-Hellman algorithm, and metadata of data fragments employing. For further research of the system for identical data cryptographic generation it is useful to analyze the possibility of increasing the variability of combinations and the length of a common DH-secret, as well as searching for the optimal metadata settings for the real-time generation and system attacks resistance.

Lebedkin I. F., Molotkov A. A., Tretiyakova O. N. Mathematical modelling of complex heat exchange while developing SLM laser technologies. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

An important task of development and research in the field of additive technology is mathematical models developing. A large number of changing parameters, such as laser power, speed, the bulk layer thickness, laser spot diameter, etc.) makes the process of the machine optimal operation mode selecting time consuming and expensive. Besides, various designs of created objects require creation mode of their own. Application of mathematical modeling can significantly reduce research and production costs. In this case, we start solving a simplified problem of heating the body by a mobile heat source, which is a Gaussian beam of radiation, with account for the phase transitions in the material. Calculations are presented in two versions, using third-party software that makes the calculation by the finite element method, and using its own software that performs calculation by the explicit finite difference scheme. The obtained results were compared to the results of other studies. A qualitative matching of the results was observed. The results discrepancy is caused mainly by the assumptions made while the model developing. In the future, it is necessary to account for the medium dispersion and particles movement during the process. As revealed by the experiments, the air flows movement and of the material evaporation from the surface exert a significant impact on the result as well. Strong restrictions on the spatial and temporal steps can be tried to circumvent using implicit methods with the property of absolute stability. The mathematical model and numerical computation method upgrading continues.

Kurianskii M. K., Lolaev S. G., Paschenko O. B., Romanova T. N. A method for developing an optimal plan of fuel consumption by the maneuverable aircraft. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

This article considers the problem of fuel consumption control of maneuverable aircraft which fuel configuration consists of several fuel tanks distributed throughout the fuselage. Therefore, while fuel depletion in a separate tank the aircraft center of gravity changes, which leads to a change of the pitch and roll angles. Thus, the quality of fuel consumption control is determined by such criteria as the aircraft center of gravity changing relative to longitudinal and lateral axes of rotation occur within the given range; maximum fuel mass is used; the number of switches between various fuel tanks is minimal. The goal of the article consists in developing a new method of creating an optimal order of fuel tanks utilization satisfying the specified criteria.

To solve this problem, the setting of task of multicriteria combinatorial optimization was performed and the heuristic method of its solving was suggested. Since the number of switches between the fuel tanks is a discrete integer value, the problem was formulated in a discrete space. To solve the problem, the simulation model of the fuel consumption process that allows to simulate changes of aircraft’s center of gravity for a given fuel configuration and for the order of the fuel tanks utilization was created. While this method developing, the elements of greedy algorithm, method of full enumeration and branch and bound method were used.

Based on the proposed heuristic method the software implementation was developed, which solves the problem of automation of selecting optimal plan of fuel tanks utilization for a specified fuel configuration. The program can be used as a decision making support in the process of designing the fuel configuration of maneuverable aircraft.

Beltyukov S. V., Philatov V. I., Borukaeva A. O., Berdikov P. G. Multi-channel detector's analysis results application for evaluation of a rank demodulator noise immunity. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

Characteristics of multi-channel detectors were studied to solve the problem of the valid signal detecting on the background noise. The proposed employing a rank demodulator for ensuring high noise immunity of communication channels. The results of multi-channel detector’s analysis were used to evaluate this characteristic. The conclusion is being made on the preferential use of the rank demodulator based on the study of the dependence of an error equivalent probability per information bit from the signal/noise ratio. A scheme for its application realizing reciprocal ranks computing is proposed. The article presents design equations for the error probability, probability of a summed rank presence it the signal channel and mutual probability of noise ranks with account for envelope distribution for the case of common ranking of an array consisted of kM counts of the envelope. The dependencies of error probability per bit of information for the rank modulator are also presented. A conclusion is being made that the rank modulator with a total ranking throughout the array of samples has the best noise immunity.

Dobryansky V. N., Rabinsky L. N., Radchenko V. P., Solyaev Y. O. Width evaluation of contact zone between flat-oval cooling channels and transmitting module case of active phased-array antenna. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The layout of modern digital active phased antenna arrays involves transceivers and digital control circuits placing on the antenna canvas in each radiator, which leads to its dense filling and, consequently, intense heating. Thus, the task of heat power removing from the antenna comes to the fore and requires the development of effective thermal control systems that meet not only the requirements for active phased antenna arrays cooling intensity, but also for reliability, maintainability, structural strength under high-cycle loading conditions, etc.

The article presents a technique for deformable thin-walled cooling channels, used in mobile radar stations thermal control systems, modeling. In the idle state, the cooling channels are placed between the receiving and transmitting modules of active phased antenna arrays with small gaps, which allows their convenient installing and maintenance. While operation, the coolant hydrostatic pressure is injected into the channels, causing the channels to deform and contact the walls of the receiving-transmitting modules, ensuring the discharge of the generated heat to the external cooling system. One of the main parameters characterizing the heat dissipation intensity is the contact zone width, realized between the channels and the walls of the receiving and transmitting modules. The article solves the problem of determining this parameter. It considers the contact between deformable channels with a flat-oval cross-section and cooled surfaces of the heated receiving-transmitting modules of active phased antenna arrays. The problem is being solved with account for hydrostatic pressure acting inside the channels, the geometry of the channel cross sections and the gaps between the modules being cooled. The solution of the contact problem for a cylindrical non-axisymmetric shell is reduced to solving the problem of a beam deformation of unit width (cross-section contour) for the case of a plane deformed state. The solution was obtained in an implicit form since the width of the contact zone was defined as the root of a sixth degree polynomial. The dependence of the contact zone width on the geometric parameters (gaps, section dimensions) and the actual pressure was studied.

Nesterenko V. G., Revanth R. A. Design features and efficiency of compact air-to-air heat exchangers installed in the turbofan engine's turbine cooling system. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 101,

The article presents the designs of the basic air-to-air heat exchanger (HE) installed in the turbofan engine bypass section and its modifications based on the computational studies results performed by the authors with ANSYS CFX software. This set of studies includes studies of HE blocks consisting of individual small-sized cylindrical or oval tubes, equal in area to cylindrical tubes, having a smooth or unsmooth inner surface, with circular projections being micro-intensifiers of heat exchange.

The purpose of the study consists in determining configuration and geometrical parameters of the HE tubes that provide a higher temperature drop of cooled air withdrawn from the high-pressure compressor in the turbofan engine, such as the AL-31f and RD 33, as well as lower pressure losses in its bypass section.

The second task was to obtain the dependences of ∆Т = f (d, l) and σ = ∆р/p for various configurations of tubes and tube bundles, with the cross-flow of cooling air.

All computations were performed with the ANSYS CFX software, which ensures the comparability of the obtained computational results. From the viewpoint of possible increase in the temperature drop of cooling air and minimum pressure losses in the bypass section of the turbofan engine, the best results were obtained from a HE with oval tubes with diagonal sizes of 6.3*4.0 mm and micro heat transfer intensifiers with protrusions on the smooth inner surface of the tube with a height of 0.30 mm, installed at intervals of 5.0 mm. These tubes are recommended for application in the HE of the turbofan engine.

The final part of the work presents a new constructive scheme of tubular HE. Its tube diameter was increased to 6.0 mm, compared to the previous HE with the tubes of do = 5.0 mm diameter. Here, in one block, one tube cools the air incoming from the intermediate stage of the high-pressure compressor, which is then employed to cool the low-pressure turbine. In the other two tubes of this HE, which diameter was also increased to do = 6.0 mm, the air drawn from the high-pressure compressor outlet is cooled and supplied to cool the high-pressure turbine rotor. This design allows reduce the mass characteristics of the HE, employed in the engines consisting of two different heat exchangers, and reduce the pressure loss in the bypass section of the turbofan engine as well.

Khatuntseva O. N. On accounting for stochastic disturbances effect on Navier-Stokes equations solution in Hagen-Poiseuille problem. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) are equations of the law of conservation of momentum (or the second Newton Law) for the selected fluid volume. They describe the acceleration of this volume under the action of forces caused by a pressure gradient and external forces. Notwithstanding that the NSE numerical solutions are widely used in many scientific and practice applications, the issue of proving of the possibility (or impossibility) to describe turbulent flow modes by NSE is still open. It is associated, in particular, with the fact, that the porlems allowing analytical solution (such as Hagen-Poiseulle or Couette problem) do not have solutions corresponding to the turbulent mode of the flow.

If ask a question what aspects are not accounted for while turbulence modelling by NSE, on assumption of the first principles, it can be noted that the turbulence mode as well as other stochastic processes, possesses an important statistical feature, namely, excitation of a large number of the independent degrees of freedom (pulsations) at various scales of the system consideration. The law of conservation of momentum herewith for the selected fluid volume in the NSE form, written with no accounting for this process, is violated since not all of the resultant impact, directed at the selected volume, goes into its acceleration. A part of this impact should go into excitation of the extra internal degrees of freedom.

The stochastic system entropy is the parameter, characterizing the relation of micro and macro processes. Thus, accounting for the entropy generation in the selected liquid volume in such process is obligatory. On this basis, the Navier-Stokes equations may be rewritten by introducing the total time derivative to its left part as an extra member responsible for the velocity changing while changing the differential entropy of the selected volume.

Navier-Stokes equations modification by accounting for the extra degrees of freedom, associated with stochastic pulsations excitation in a fluid flow, allowed obtain two solutions of a problem of a fluid flow in a tube with circular cross-section (the Hagen-Poiseulle problem).

One of these solutions exists at any Reynolds numbers and corresponds to the laminar flow mode. The second one is realized only at relatively high Reynolds numbers, and corresponds to a turbulent flow. The Von Karman constant was determined analytically in the expression, describing the logarithmic velocity profile in the central part of the tube.

Holostova O. V., Safonov A. I. On equilibrium positions bifurcations of Hamiltonian system in cases of double combined third order resonance. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

Motion of a near-autonomous time-periodic two-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian system is considered near the trivial equilibrium position, stable in the linear approximation. The system is assumed to realize simultaneously two Raman third-order resonances being strong and weak. In this case, the frequencies of small oscillations are related also by the fourth-order resonant ratio. In the complete nonlinear system, this equilibrium position is unstable. By the perturbation theory methods, normalization of the Hamiltonian of the perturbed motion is performed in the members up to the fourth order inclusively with respect to disturbance, and account for the existing resonances. On the assumption that the summand coefficients related to the fourth-order resonance are small, the approximate (model) system, dependent on the three parameters, was considered. The issue of existence and number of equilibrium positions of the model system was solved by analytical and graphics methods. The domains, where the number of equilibrium positions of the model system can vary from zero to five were identified in the space of parameters of the problem.

As an application, the problem of motion of a dynamically symmetric satellite (modeled by a rigid body) about the center of mass in the central Newtonian gravitational field on the orbit with small eccentricity was considered. The satellite motion was studied near its periodic motion, emerging from the hyperboloid precession on a circular orbit. For parameter values, corresponding to the multiple Raman third-order resonance, the coefficients of the normal forms of the model system are found. It was shown, that there are three equilibrium points in this system, two of which are unstable and the third stable in the linear approximation.

Pikalov R. S., Yudintsev V. V. Bulky space debris removal means review and selection. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The near Earth space littering with space debris is one of the most important problems of modern astronautics. The sooner the active actions on removing the most dangerous bulky objects of space debris from the orbits start, the less risk that the situation in near Earth space would develop according Kessler catastrophic scenario.

The article presents the most known and well elaborated t thus far techniques of active near Earth space clearing from space debris. The considered techniques were separated in two groups, such as a group of passive techniques of removal from the orbit, and active techniques. Passive techniques of removal suppose application of various physical fields and media for the space debris deceleration. The active techniques implies creating an artificial impact on the space debris object on the part of a space tug. Active methods are separated by the type of the impact into contactless, implying remote force impact on the space debris object, and contact techniques with direct mechanic interaction between the tug and space debris.

Remote impact on the space debris object can be performed with a laser. Here, the material ablation effect under the action of laser radiation is employed to create a small reactive force. High-speed particles flow created by the ion thrusters of the space tug can also be used to create the force, affecting the debris. The flow of charged particles can be employed to transfer the charge to the space debris, and utilizing the electrostatic field formed around the it to push the debris away from the orbit. Non-contact methods are most safe for the space tug, but the acting forces level is low, which leads to a longer duration of the withdrawal process.

The techniques supposing direct mechanical interaction between the objects are most effective. The mechanical link is formed due to the capture of the space debris object by the tug. For capture either manipulators, or docking units, or net and harpoon can be employed. From our viewpoint, the most promising are capturing and transportation techniques with tether bond. These are most safe techniques for the tag. They allow control the impact level on the tug of the space debris object, especially if the space debris object rotates with significant angular velocity. The techniques forming rigid mechanical bond can be employed for capturing the objects, which do not possess significant kinetic moment.

Manipulators, special docking devices, nets, harpoons can be used to capture the space debris. In our opinion, the methods imply using of the tethered connection is most promising methods of active debris removal. These methods are most safe for the space tug, especially if the debris object rotates with high angular rate.

Aslanov V. S., Sizov D. V. Dynamics of harpoon-assisted capturing of space debris. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

This study focuses on the problem of space debris capturing with harpoon. In contrast to the existing works on this issue, the paper deals with the process dynamics and accounts for the space debris motion disturbances caused by the harpoon. The objective of the article consists in analyzing the behavior of the system consisting of space debris in orbit and a damper equipped harpoon while capturing process and after it. The paper proposes two mathematical models of capturing. The first model studies three stages of the process, namely perforation, damping, and the target motion after the harpoon fixing in it. The interacting force between the target and harpoon is considered as a time function, which parameters depend on the harpoon properties. The second simplified model is based on a hypothesis that the target and harpoon interaction is absolutely inelastic collision. Both models are applied to simulate of a lightweight target capturing, and the simplified model’s restrictions are demonstrated. A large space debris capturing is also being studied. Numerical simulation reveals that the large rotating object after its capturing either continues its rotation in the initial or in the opposite direction, or starts wavering. The article formulated the conditions for the body transition from rotation to wavering after being captured by the harpoon. The results of this work may be employed for the space debris removal systems developing.

Kotel'nikov V. A., Kotelnikov M. V., Platonov M. A. Effusion of neutral gas in vacuum. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The neutral gas effusion into the vacuum space is studied by computer simulation methods. In General, this problem is six-dimensional in phase space (x,y,z,vx,vy,vz) and non-stationary. As a hole, it is proposed to consider a rectangle, which one side is much larger than the other. This model shape of the hole due to the shear symmetry will allow on the one hand to significantly reduce the dimension of the problem (in this case, in the phase space, the problem depends on x, y, vx, vy), and on the other hand to obtain all the main features of the distribution of gas parameters in the computational domain. The computational model of the problem is based on the method of successive iterations in time, when the transition process from the initial to the final stationary state is modeled, that is, the establishment of the distribution of gas parameters in the computational domain. The methods of characteristics were used to solve Vlasov equation. The calculation algorithm was implemented in the form of a computer program in C++ using the tools of the OpenGL graphic library. The size of computational domain was of 2 x 2 and contained 39942400 cells of the computational grid, the time step was of 0.01 ht dimensionless units. Control of the count end time was performed visually using a graphic window displayed on the screen during the account. According to the observations on the monitor, the following was observed:

  • The constant value of the gas particles flow crossing the computational domain, which indicated the establishment of a stationary solution to the problem

  • The practical coincidence of the gas particle flow from the orifice to the computational domain and the gas particle flow flowing from the computational domain, which indicates the implementation of the law of conservation of gas mass in the computational domain in a steady state.

These two conditions were fulfilled by the end of the calculation. Then the results were subjected to further analysis. The information on the parameters of the rarefied gas flowing from the effusion orifice to the vacuum is based on the distribution function f(t,x,y,vx,vy), which was studied in detail in the course of computational experiments. It follows from the graphs, that the distribution function changes its shape in a typical way when it is shifted from the hole to the boundary of the computational domain along the axis of the jet symmetry. The graphs show also the fields of velocities and concentrations of gas particles in the computational domain. The conducted researches may be useful to developers of portable devices for the small leakages diagnostics employed in the vacuum and space industry. Computer simulation of effusion of a rarefied gas in vacuum gave a presentation on the features of the gas distribution parameters in the computational domain, both during the transition process and in the final stationary state.

Brutyan M. A., Ibragimov U. G. Self-similarity parameter effect on critical characteristics of Hamel type compressible flow. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article envisages the stationary flow of a viscous compressible gas flowing out the vertex of cone.

This flow is an analog of the famous Hamel flow between the two plane walls, inclined to each other at an angle. Unlike the classical case, axisymmetric compressible flow is considered. It is worth mentioning, that the studies on this theme were being carried out earlier by Williams (1967), Byrkin (1969) and others.

In this work the flow inside a cone is assumed radial, i.e. only one velocity component is not trivial: V*=(u*,0,0). Moreover, all flow gas-dynamic parameters are assumed dependent from the distance to the source r* by the power law, while conductivity coefficients are temperature dependent by the Frost law η*, κ*∼T*k, so:

It appeared that self-similarity solutions existed only at the certain relation between the self-similarity parameter m and the power law index k in the form of 2mk=1.

In this case, the system of Navier–Stokes equations written in spherical coordinates is being reduced to the system of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations (ODE). The problem key parameters are included to these equations and boundary conditions. They are α, Re0, M0, Tw, Q. It was established that the solution was determined by specifying only two parameters, while three others were being found automatically.

The nonlinear ODE system was being solved at various values of self-similarity parameters: m = 5·(k = 1), m≅0.66 · ( k = 0.76 ) and m = 1 · (k = 0.5 ).The first combination corresponds to Maxwell’s molecules model, second relates to the well-known Frost’s empirical model (η, κ~T0.76 ), and the third corresponds to the Hard Spheres model.

It was established that the ODE system solution existed only at the cone semi-opening angle less than some critical value of α*. With larger α, the medium continuity assumption becomes inapplicable (Kn=M0/Re0→1)  , so the gas temperature on the cone wall appears negative , which is physically unacceptable.

Thus, the presented work performed the analysis of viscous compressible gas flow in a cone at various values of self-similarity parameter m and set corresponding critical flow characteristics.

Vuong V. T., Gorelov S. L. Nonlinear phenomena in a rarefied gas in Couette problem. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

Heat and momentum transfer processes in a rarefied gas enclosed between two infinite parallel plates with different temperatures and moving relative to each other are studied. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was applied to calculate the distribution of density, velocity, temperature, heat fluxes and viscous stress tensor over a wide range of Knudsen numbers and at different values of plates’ temperatures and velocities. The obtained results were compared with the analytical results for the free-molecular case and for a wide range of the Knudsen numbers. Calculations of the heat flux and friction stress (tangential component of the viscous stress tensor) were performed by the self-similar interpolation method. It was established, that there is a normal component (which is not presented both in the free-molecular flow and in the case of a continuous flow) in the transition region between the free-molecular flow and continuous flow in addition to the tangential component of the viscous stress tensor. This effect was explained by the fact, that the gas density and temperature distributions in the transition region flow were not uniform. Moreover, both normal and tangential components have essentially non-monotonous behavior in the considered range of the Knudsen numbers. Maximum magnitude of the normal and tangential components depends on the plates’ velocity and their temperatures ratio. In addition, the heat flux to the hot wall depends on the Knudsen number and can change its’ sign at a certain temperature drop ratio and the plates velocity.

Borisov A. D., Vasiutichev A. S., Laptev I. V. On ramjet parameters selection, ensuring a cruising flight specified mode. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The main feature of ramjets is direct link between parameters inside the propulsion system and parameters of the incoming airflow, which in its turn determines the aerodynamic forces acting on the flying vehicle. Thus, the process of ramjet development is inseparable from the flying vehicle developing as a whole. The flying vehicle layout scheme selection requires considering large number of different options. While developing a new scheme, engineers are generally guided by the existing prototypes and/or analogues. Determining the flow path cross-sections of the propulsion system; fuel reserve and the way of acceleration to the ramjet starting point; control ranges and other parameters is performed while their optimization process along flight trajectories with given restrictions (above all, size and weight).

A large number of parameters determining the flying vehicle flight and the performance characteristics of its propulsion system, their significant effect on each other complicate analyzing the quality of the selected scheme The article presents an engineering technique allowing coordinating and optimizing the parameters of the propulsion system and the vehicle that provide a given cruise flight mode.

Parametric calculations were performed for a 600 mm in diameter flying vehicle. The dependence of thrust and specific impulse on relative inlet area and excess air ratio are presented.

The developed technique is being applied for preliminary determining the acceleration and cruising parameters of a ramjet.

Blagodyreva O. V. The problem of a cruise missile aeroelastic vibrations based on Ritz method. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article presents the study of aeroelastic stability of the elastic cruise missile based on Ritz method employing a different number of approximating functions and comparative analysis with the similar computations, performed on the basis of the finite elements method (FEM).

A cruise missile performs a longitudinal short-periodical motion in an incompressible airflow. The missile is being modeled employing a beam scheme, including a fuselage, two wing straight consoles and deflectable controls, i.e. elevation rudders. The wing is considered as an elastic beam, working in bending with transverse shear and torsion, while the missile hull and stabilizer are assumed sheer rigid. It is assumed, that the wing consoles elastic vibrations occur in line with the flat sections hypothesis. Aerodynamic loads are being determined based on the quasi-stationary theory of plane-parallel flow of the wing cross-sections flow-around. The longitudinal compression of the missile body under the engine thrust impact is accounted for as well.

The unknown functions of the transversal fuselage axis displacements, the wing axis transverse displacements and torsion angle are presented in the form of expansions in generalized coordinates, representing the movement along the natural forms of oscillations of a free structure with fixed controls. Computation results convergence to a certain value close to the exact analytical solution, which is achieved by increasing the number of approximating functions, is demonstrated on an example. The graphs of the missile natural frequencies dependence from flight speed variation and engine thrust were plotted.

Critical velocities and stability regions of the missile flight were respectively determined for each method.

All calculations were performed in “Wolfram Mathematica 8”.

Glazkov V. S., Ignatkin Y. M. ANSYS Fluent software verification while studying aerodynamic characteristics of Savonius rotor. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The paper presents the results of calculations of the aerodynamic characteristics of the Savonius S-type rotor, performed by numerical modeling of CFD hydrodynamic processes in the ANSYS Fluent software package in the two-dimensional formulation of the problem. The calculation area extends over a distance 7D behind the rotor; 3D – in front of the rotor and has a width of 6D, where D is the diameter of the wind wheel. For the calculation area, a grid of a combined type was constructed and division into calculation zones was made. On the boundary between the rotating and static computed zones, the sliding condition of the grids was applied. To take into account the effect of disruptive phenomena on the surfaces of the aerodynamic profiles of the rotor, a prismatic grid of the boundary layer was constructed with different cell heights. The 6DOF solver is used, which makes it possible to simulate the problem of untwisting the wind wheel from the resting state to reaching the working rpm under the action of an incident flow of different speeds and to trace the change in aerodynamic characteristics during this unsteady regime. The dependences of the instantaneous values of the torque coefficient on the rotor rotation angle are obtained. The dependences of the averages of the power factor of the wind wheel for the different values of speed are obtained. Comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data at different operating conditions of the windmill showed satisfactory agreement. The results of calculations of the lateral force resulting from the rotation of the S-type wind wheel in the range of the velocities of the oncoming stream V = 6..7.5 m / s, squeezed by the manifestation of the Magnus effect, are obtained. These calculation results are necessary for further strength analysis in the case of installing a windmill on the supporting structures of slow-moving aircraft as an emergency source of energy.

Lohmatkin V. V. Integral imaging performance evaluation models for Earth remote sensing spacecraft with account for reliability at the stage of electrical testing. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The object of the study is reliability and integral imaging performance.

The subject of investigation is integral imaging performance evaluation for Earth remote sensing spacecraft with account for reliability of onboard systems and characteristics of special-purpose hardware.

The objective of the study consists in developing simulation algorithms and models of onboard support systems and special-purpose hardware partial failure effect on the integral imaging performance of the observation spacecraft.

The article employs the logical-probabilistic approach to the operability analysis of complex engineering systems, simulation method, synthetic sampling and method of statistical analysis. The author suggests a model of onboard systems failures while electric testing in relation to a spacecraft reliability level, based on statistic material analysis on the check switch-on.

An algorithm and mathematical models of special-purpose hardware modifications failures integral imaging performance evaluation, based on the algorithm of the integral evaluation of imaging performance figures, were developed. The article suggests the technique for performance evaluation of reliability figures of the onboard support systems and opto-electronic target hardware. This technique is based on simulation of the target functioning of a spacecraft with account for onboard systems failures.

The results of the performed studies are employed at ground testing stages of the observation spacecraft at the integral imaging characteristics evaluation with account for onboard systems reliability characteristics. Employing the developed models and algorithms allows evaluate the integral imaging performance with account for the onboard systems reliability figures and onboard opto-electronic target hardware characteristics.

Mathematical models of special-purpose opto-electronic hardware failures, simulation algorithm of special-purpose hardware partial failure effect on the integral imaging performance of the observation spacecraft, and corresponding software were developed. The integral imaging performance dependence from a spacecraft reliability figures can be plotted employing the software. These dependencies allow perform complex evaluation of integral imaging performance in relation to the spacecraft reliability level.

Ionov V. A., Lobkova L. A., Makovetsky M. B. Mathematical model of a passenger aircraft's emergency turbo-pump system drive. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The paper tackles the problem of energy delivering to the onboard hydro system of an emergency turbo-pump station. This hydraulic energy is being fed into airflow by the air actuator. The turbo-pump station provides feeding for aircraft driving actuators before auxiliary power set is activated and main engines are started.

Output actuator should function without strike loads on reinforce mechanism of turbine, and without damage of aircraft structure. The pump station nominal functioning start needs 1 or 2 seconds, while total time period for the total hydraulic system action starts functioning in nominal mode is 6 to10 seconds.

Air hydraulic system, which provides station starting, has essential advantages compared to the previous emergency sources of hydraulic feeding.

Air hydraulic system needs no energy system power, its weight and size are smaller, and it is autonomous.

The article proposes the actuator mathematical model. The model is based on the gas state equations.

The coefficient of gas rate, pre-critical and post-critical gas flow depend on the vent gas flow geometry. Moving liquid volumes, liquid density, moving structure elements mass, spring stiffness, loading actuator level are accounted for.

The liquid consumption balance equation is used to describe the hydraulic cylinder action. Constant and variable throttles regulate fluid consumption. The liquid pressure gradient for these throttles depends on spring stiffness.

The results of modeling are presented as curves for the hydraulic cylinder plunger movement process, and liquid pressure in the hydraulic cylinder. Plunger movement velocity surge and plunger pressure surge are characteristic for initial period of actuator operation.

Gueraiche D. ., Popov S. A. Improving the fuel efficiency of a transport aircraft by minimizing the weight of its non-planar lifting surface. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article evaluates the effect of various design solutions, improving the wing lift-to-drag ratio of a medium-range transport aircraft, on its fuel efficiency. In particular, the most common on modern airliners design solution , which consists in employing a non-planar lifting surface in the form of the classical wing-winglet combination, has been studied in details. A designing calculation technique has been developed for determining the magnitude of aerodynamic loading for various non-planar wing configurations, with account for increments of the local angles of attack and sideslip. These local angles change simultaneously with the general angle of attack changes, resulting in a non-uniform growth of the aerodynamic force coefficient along the wing-winglet span. Geometrical analysis allowed the representing the local lift coefficient as a function of the general angle of attack of the aircraft. The integral of this spanwise lift distribution function along the wing-winglet span allowed calculate of the total aerodynamic loading. The obtained local lift distribution function along a non-planar lifting surface has been applied to estimate the changes in total aerodynamic loading of an aeroelastic wing, the non-planar upward flexed shape of which can be easily parametrized through a second order function.

Weight-equivalents comparison of different configurations allowed perform a quantitative analysis of the increase in the aircraft fuel efficiency, resulted from the increase of the lift-to-drag ratio, aerodynamic loading redistribution along the wing-span and corresponding changes of the wing structural weight. The internal structural layout of the wing was chosen arbitrarily, so the structural weight growth was determined as a function of the structural material density, given the hypothesis that sustaining the initial margin of safety without changing the wing structure can be achieved solely by choosing a material with a higher ultimate strength, and as a result a higher density.

Kuz'michev V. S., Filinov E. P., Ostapyuk Y. A. Comparative fidelity analysis of turbofan engines masses mathematical models . Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article presents comparative fidelity analysis of aviation gas turbine engines mass models accessible in open press. The authors of models are Torenbeek (Delft University of Technology, Nederland), Raymer (Conceptual Research Corporation, USA), Jenkinson (Loughborough University, UK), Svoboda (The University of Kansas, USA), Clavier (Cranfield University, UK and France), Guha (Indian Institute of Technology, India), Byerley (USAF Academy, USA) and Kuz'michev (Samara National Research University, Russia). Thermodynamic and dimensions parameters, used for analysis, of 77 modern bypass engines, differing significantly on working process parameters are presented in the article. Missing data for the above said base were obtained by the mathematical models identification method.

Mass of each of 77 engines was determined by all eight models, and the obtained results were compared to the real engine mass. The analysis results revealed that some of the considered models such as Guha’s, Byerley’s, Jenkinson’s and Clavier’s models are applicable only for high-scale engines and their inaccuracy does not exceed 12%. The listed models calculate the small-scale engines weight with significant error. Moreover, the error value increases with the engine size reduction. This trend applies to all models without exception. For example, Kuzmichev's model has a total error of 6.3%, but for engines weighing less than 1500 kg the standard deviation approaches 20%. Based on the analysis presented in the article, it can be concluded that Svoboda’s and Raymer’s models can be employed for the aircraft conceptual design. Besides, these models can be applied at conceptual design stage. Torenbeek’s and Kuzmichev’s models are more detailed and account for cycle parameters. Thus, they may be employed for engine cycle optimization at design operational conditions.

Zavyalik I. I., Fetisov E. V., Trofimchuk M. V. Application of experiments planning theory methods for flawlessness evaluation of aircraft engine fuel system units. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

Theoretical and experimental studies, conducted at the present-day stage of domestic aviation development revealed that at the interaction of the aircraft fuel system elements and units with aviation fuel, complex physic-chemical processes, affecting technical state level of both separate units and the fuel system in general and as a consequence aircraft fault-free operation, were running.

In this connection, the problems of the aircraft fuel systems flawlessness improvement and development of new, more sophisticated methods of its evaluation seem relevant.

While aircraft operation a great number of random external and internal factors affect the of the fuel system units of the aircraft engine. It is impossible however to evaluate all these factors effect on functioning of the fuel system units of the aircraft engine.

To solve this problem, a complete factor experiment on the central compositional rotational-order plan of the second order has been carried out.

Application of the developed mathematical model while studying the of fuel system aggregates reliability with the expansion of the ranges of values of input parameters (external factors) and internal parameters of the system (fuel engine system aggregates) allows obtain a reliable estimate of the failure-free operation level of the fuel system aggregates.

Orlov D. A., Saitova A. G. Spacecraft optimal control while forming an orbit of the Jupiter artificial satellite at the section of preliminary aerodynamic deceleration braking. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article studies the problem of a spacecraft (SC) movement control while executing preliminary aerodynamic deceleration in the atmosphere, and SC transition into transfer orbit after its outing the atmosphere, application of accelerating burn of reference speed in the apofocus of this orbit, and its transfer into the orbit of artificial satellite of Jupiter. Minimization of total power consumption on the orbits’ formation is employed as the basic criterion of optimality. Control laws for angle of attack and roll attitude on the atmospheric section of SC movement were determined through maximum principle of Pontryagin. Restrictions on maximum allowed values of temperature and overload, affecting the SC while the descend process in the atmosphere were accounted for.

A technique for the optimal control of a spacecraft while moving to Jupiter with account for flight dynamics specifics was developed. Using the Pontryagin maximum principle, the laws governing the angle of attack and roll at the atmospheric portion of the space vehicle motion are defined. Limitations on the maximum permissible temperatures and overloads that act on the spacecraft during the descent in the atmosphere are taken into account.

Assessment of the possibilities, and analysis of energy efficiency of this technique of putting the SC into the orbit of artificial Jupiter satellite depending on the altitudes of conditional perihelion point was performed. It was shown that for all considered initial data range the combined outing technique led to significant energetic advantage. Energy consumption is 15-20 times less, compared to propulsive technique for outing into orbits with aphelion point altitudes less than 6000 km for SCs with lift-to-drag ratio of 0.6.

The obtained results are of practical importance and may be used for the study of planets and their satellites, for the deep space in ballistic centers, scientific centers, and organizations, preoccupied with this issue.

Agishev A. R. Longitude and period mean-square deviation computing after series of corrections completion near geostationary orbit. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

Putting a spacecraft into assigned longitude of geostationary orbit state and transfer to a new longitude state is performed on pre-calculated plans, containing information on values and time of fulfilling all orbit corrections. The result of these maneuvering contains random errors caused by measuring errors of the orbit parameters and errors of correction performing. Check measurements and extra corrections, which should be foreseen in advance, are necessary to ensure the required maneuver performing accuracy. In this case, calculation of static characteristics of random deviations, occurring as a result of performed planned corrections, is effective.

The initial data for the calculation are the plan of transversal and binormal corrections, as well as mean-square deviation of the period measuring error and mean-square deviation of correction performing error.

In the calculation, all mistakes are considered as independent random variables with a zero expectation. The main feature of method is account for the effect of each mistake on the longitude deviation. The total deviation of orbit period and longitude of the geostationary spacecraft are the period measuring error effect, as well as transversal corrections’ performing error and transversal components of binormal corrections. While calculation, all errors are assumed as independent random values with mathematical expectation equal to zero. The main peculiarity of the computation method is an accounting for longitude evolution, which is the consequence of each error, occurring while maneuvering process.

Verification of the calculation correctness was performed by the software simulation of the correcting flight of the spacecraft in geostationary orbit. Characteristic quantities of measuring and corrections performing errors were accounted for. Simulation results confirm the calculations correctness. Computed mean-square deviations correspond to its confidence interval with 0.99 probability, found from a sample of 50 realizations. Mean-square longitude deviation for a spacecraft correction was 0.9%.

The proposed method of calculation can be applied in control measurements planning and final corrections to ensure accuracy of the spacecraft transfer into geostationary orbit.

Zwe M. M. Experimental determination of the variation of feed force values during drilling of printed circuit boards. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article defines the experimental dependence of the drilling force on the number of drilled holes when drilling mounting and adapter holes in printed circuit boards. Expressions for the calculation of the temperature in the cutting zone and statistical characteristics of the envelope family of the maximum values of the drill vertex temperature are given. Dispersion of the instantaneous temperature distribution of the drill tip is revealed. The number of mounting and adapter holes in one Board can be up to several thousand pieces. The defects appeared in the surface of the holes for drilling printed circuit boards. Occurrence of these defects is connected first of all with heating of a drill during drilling. At the same time, the drilling accuracy significantly affects the quality of the printed circuit Board, which, in turn, depends on the quality of the layer combination and on the material parameters. It should be noted that defects formed at the stage of drilling, not only can lead to failures, but also increase the cost of products by increasing the cost of subsequent stages, as require the introduction of additional operations in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. The reliability of the drilling process depends on: the material of the dielectric base and foil; tools, mainly drills; machine tools; drilling modes; human factor. Problems of providing process of drilling of mounting holes in printed circuit boards are caused by considerable differences in hardness of components of base materials. The main tool for obtaining mounting holes in printed circuit boards are carbide drills. They are made of tungsten carbide with cobalt carbide additives (VK6, VK8 according to GOST 3882). Drilling modes have the greatest impact on the reliability of the drilling process, since, on the one hand, they can vary in a sufficiently large range of values, and on the other hand, they provide the technologist with sufficient freedom in choosing these values. During drilling, the heating occurs during the hole drilling due to the friction force on the back surface of the drill. The cooling of the drill bit provides pupils with the transition of the tool from hole to hole. Educated family of functions allows to statistically assess the variation of the technological characteristics of drills within a single batch and, consequently, to predict the durability of the drills and, consequently, the probability of failure of the process of drilling holes. At each moment of time, the dispersion of the maximum temperature values in the heating-cooling cycle will be subject, based on the conditions of operation, to the normal distribution law. The experiment showed the degree of dispersion of the feed force values when drilling holes in printed circuit boards. Experimentally, the determination of the change of drilling force from the number of tested holes makes it possible to calculate the variation of the force directed normal to the rear surface. This force significantly affects the temperature in the cutting zone during drilling of printed circuit boards.

Borodin V. V., Petrakov A. M., Shevtsov V. A. Simulation model for adaptive sensor networks studies. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article presents a simulation model for the adaptive sensor communication networks effectiveness study and analysis. It presents the model structure, and describes its functional capabilities and limitations. With the aim of reducing the simulation time, a number of controlling mechanisms was implemented in the model, particularly a threshold value control of the selected set of parameters, forecasting the parameters changes, with account for previously obtained results. The proposed model is used in the following studies:

– Determining the conditions of the network staying in a steady state, and its the transition to the lock state. It was shown, in particular, that the network state estimation can be performed based the analysis of the local parameters behavior (i.e. computed at each node);

– Development and optimization of multi-station access algorithms, determining the area of effective application for adaptive network management;

– Bandwidth optimization service channel to manage the network functioning process, preventing its transition to the unstable state and the lock state;

– Analysis of the input message flow view impact on the network efficiency; size optimization of the packets allocated from messages;

– Development of algorithms for optimal network management, both local and global (network-wide) parameters;

– Development and optimization of algorithms for the service channel operation for the route information transmission;

– Development and research of routing algorithms preventing duplicate packets and looping routes, as well as determining the delivery time of routing information, network load, and the amount of transmitted information;

– Studying the network behavior in the space of complex geometry (in particular, on the surface of the hemisphere, torus, etc.), as well as in the presence of opaque partitions spatially separating the network nodes;

– Studying of the network behavior and routing algorithms in non-stationary conditions, including nodes or communication channels failures, the time variation of the selected nodes activity, changing the space configuration of the, in which the network operates.

At present, according to the results of the study, a voluminouse statistical material was obtained. A part of the results of the study are reflected in references [17–20].

Generalov A. G., Gadzhiev E. V. Developing Miniature Antenna System for Small and Microsatellites. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

Nowadays, active process of entire space hardware including the onboard hardware miniaturization is gaining momentum. The onboard antenna-feeder devices are also affected by this process of miniaturization. With account for a number of specifics of the onboard antennae , a relevant up-to-date problem on developing small-sized, flush-mounted, reliable, simple and high-tech antennae system for small spacecraft arises. A particularly urgent need for the onboard compact VHF antennae is felt. The article reveals the advantages of microstrip antennas application, developed on printed technology, to solve the problem of developing small-sized flush-mounted onboard antennae systems for small spacecraft.

antennae design and the material applied as a dielectric substrate are proposed and presented. Such an approach allowed reducing the onboard antenna size by 2-2.5 times compared to the existing analogs.

The article presents the design of onboard antennas for two types of small spacecraft CubeSat and “Ionospere”.

The electrodynamic modeling was performed employing CAD means. The results of developing the onboard UHF-band microstrip antenna model by finite elements method are presented. Basic model parameters such as voltage standing-wave ratio, radiation pattern, and gain were obtained and evaluated.

Further, the designed antenna layout is presented. Measurements performed employing the method of the reference antenna in the JSC “NIIEM”. The article presents the results of measuring tanding-wave ratio, radiation pattern and gain. The good agreement of the results obtained while simulation and prototyping was obtained.

Thus, a small-sized, low-profile on-board microstrip antennas for small spacecrafts were proposed and developed in this article.

Gorbulin V. I., Khodor M. A. Distribution technique of observation facilities fields of vision in the area of responsibility. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article substantiates the proposal multi-channel panoramic optoelectronic means application for the air situation monitoring. The task on the fields of view distribution of the surveillance facilities in the area of responsibility was set. The article describes the specifics of algorithms building for the field of observation of a panoramic optical-electronic devices, depending on the form of fundamental of the of accommodation centers lattice of the fields of view of elements of the monitoring tools.

The described technique allows determine the best of all considered structure of photosensitive elements’ fields of view allocation and dimensions required for it at specified number of photosensitive elements and the size of area of responsibility. Analysis of computation results performed for various correlations of zone of responsibility size of fields of vision of observation facilities and different photosensitive elements number revealed the absence of the best lattice options. Hence, there is a need to automate the development of the best version of the lattice and calculate the parameters of the Dirichle region. This conclusion indicates the relevance of the presented algorithm.

Visual analysis of the options graphical representation of for covering the panoramic optical-electronic means area of responsibility suggests a certain redundancy of the panoramic optical-electronic means’ area of vision, which leads to the diversion of resources to control the space outside the designated area and, also to a decrease in efficiency as a result. With account for the potential range of he considered air objects detection and the their speeds range, efficiency is one of the critically important parameters, and in conditions of military operations it requires elimination or maximum possible reduction of all negative factors.

To eliminate the indicated disadvantage, the article proposed to optimize the coating by the fundamental parallelogram deformation. The comparison of the values of the coating coefficients obtained by two methods reveals the advantage of the technique, using deformation among the overriding options of the lattice of 12%.

Bulygin M. L. Realization specifics of multi-beam exposure modes with beams frequency separation in spaceborn synthetic aperture radar based on active phased-array antenna. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

Multi-beam SAR modes allow increase imaging parameters (such as swath, resolution) in AESA-based spaceborne SAR systems. An example is a multi-beam SAR mode with azimuth DBF with frequency separation of beams at the receiver.

However, multi-frequency echo-signal receiving by analog AESA is leads to frequency dispersion of AESA on receiving. This effect leads to additional deviation of each beam in elevation and additional amplitude losses. As a result, it leads to deterioration in multi-beam SAR modes performance: the swath shortens, and energy performance decreases.

AESA frequency dispersion effect while receiving can be slightly reduced in multi-beam spotlight mode, where this effect reduces swath. It can be achieved by antenna pattern extension in elevation.

AESA frequency dispersion on receiving leads to omissions in milti-beam ScanSAR imaging, which is unacceptable. In milti-beam ScanSAR this effect’s compensation is possible in two ways.

The first one is special alternation of current frequency values between the beams. This option does not increase the azimuth sector to which the beams are directed. But it can be applied in multi-beam ScanSAR only when the beams number is equal to the number of partial strips of scanning.

The second one is implemented by operative control of multi-beam pattern azimuth position. The multi-beam pattern is being redirected in azimuth through switching to the next partial strip. This option increases more than twice the azimuth sector in which the beams are directed. But it can be used at an arbitrary number of beams and partial strips of scanning.

Increasing the number of partial scanning strips weakens the AESA frequency dispersion effect on the swath on receiving in multi-beam modes, since it affects only the first and the last partial strips.

In this way suggested ways of compensating the effect of AESA frequency dispersion on receive allows reduce the effect of this impact on imaging characteristics. Moreover, an algorithm of inter-beam current frequency values alternation uses less azimuth sector in which beams are directed than an algorithm of operative control of multi-beam pattern azimuth position. It may be important in spaceborne SAR systems where AESA beam deviation in azimuth capability is limited.

Uryupin I. P. Synthesis of piecewise-smooth approximations of aircraft movement trajectories. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The goal of the study consists in developing an algorithm for optimal switched systems synthesis. Switched systems relate to hybrid control systems and described by differential equations and recursion inclusions. They serve as mathematical models of dynamic systems with an automata part. Switched systems find wide application in aerospace engineering in the field of flying vehicles movement control. The article envisages the problem of optimal trajectory synthesis of the switched system, approximating a continuous trajectory of the aircraft movement. The trajectory is a

The trajectory is a piecewise-linear function and, in general, it cannot coincide with the predetermined continuous curve. Solution of the set problem allows develop and check a method of synthesis of optimal piecewise smooth approximations of movement trajectories which can be employed in complex applied problems.

The algorithm is based on sufficient conditions of optimality. The synthesis technique consists in finding generating functions of price, conditional optimal structures and conditional optimal switching moments from which the price function is compiled (the Hamiltonian – Jacobi – Bellman function). The synthesized optimal positional structure of the switched system allows receiving optimal trajectories for any initial states.

The result of this work is the solution of the problem of synthesizing optimal piecewise smooth approximations of the aircraft movement trajectories, as well as the method applied herewith of creating generating functions of the price and an optimal positional structure. The developed method may be impemented in Aerospace area.

The problem solved in the article can be employed as a test task for theoretical research in the field of optimal control. The developed algorithm of creating generating function of the price and a positional structure for the trajectories piecewise smooth approximations can be applied to solve other more complex problems. Given, that even in academic examples the solution is numerical, the application of the proposed synthesis methods is inextricably linked with the development of appropriate approximate algorithms, as well as programs for the numerical implementation of these algorithms.

Semakov S. L., Semakov I. S. The simplest forecast model of time series and its reaction on linear and parabolic input impacts. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

Eremin A. I., Selvesyuk N. I. Amended estimate of landing danger coefficient while descent along glideslope with account for vertical wind. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The article envisages an approach to aircraft flight-safety checkout system developing at the crucial flight stages with account for external factors and piloting errors. The kernel of the safety checkout system algorithmic provision is analytical calculation of integral danger coefficient.

Most of the accidents with human casualties occur while discent and landing. In this connection, auxiliary means for flight-safety automated control should present onboard an aircraft.

The problem of continuous aircraft landing safety control in longitudinal channel after beginning the descent along the glideslope under vertical wind action and piloting error was formulated and solved.

The specific feature of the approach proposed in the article consists in forecasting the potential consequences due to the dangerous deviations from the glide path at the hypothesis on optimal threat elimination by specified integral criterion evaluating the landing quality at the end of landing. Bellman’s dynamic programming method was employed to compute this criterion.

Scaling factors of the formula for integral danger coefficient computation were determined by computer modeling for various initial data with account of the initial piloting errors while vertical wind action in the process of the aircraft descent along the glideslope.

The article demonstrated that the suggested model for qualitative danger evaluation while landing adequately imitated pilot’s anxiety increasing and its subsiding after hazardous situation elimination.

Polyakov V. B., Neretin E. S., Ivanov A. S., Budkov A. S., Dyachenko S. A., Dudkin S. O. Architecture of prospective onboard equipment control complexes. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

Avionics of a modern aircraft is developed in accordance with the integrated modular avionics (IMA) concept, based on a common computing platform and an open network architecture. With this approach, the functions of aircraft systems (for example, flight management, stall warning, etc.) are allocated to logical sections, i.e. functional software. It is located in one or several physical modules (unified in terms of design), which are set in a common housing, i.e. a crate. Based on the IMA concept, avionics was realized on a number of aircraft, such as, MC-21, Boeing 787, Airbus A380, F-35, Su-57.

Additional advantages are provided by implementing the Distributed IMA approach. In this case, it is possible to dispose the modules in separate blocks outside the crate in the places of concentration of the onboard units and sensors. This approach allows reduce the weight and size of the cable network; increase the noise immunity of the transmitted data, and system reliability in total.

Some modern aircraft employ control systems of common aircraft equipment, which allow realize computer functions of a number of aircraft systems (such as hydraulic system, system of doors, hatches and emergency gangways, parking brake system) in a single block. Data reception from sensors, and instruction issue to actuators is performed by information input-output devices, distributed all over the aircraft. Application of the aircraft equipment control system provides the time and material expenses reduction at every stage of the aircraft life cycle due to enhancing functions of the software together with the number of computing units’ reduction, i.e. system function integration in one computing unit.

The architecture of the perspective control system for onboard equipment based on the distributed IMA concept is proposed. With increased reliability this architecture can significantly reduce the material and time expenses of onboard equipment development, maintenance and modernization. Also, the architecture of the complex components, namely, onboard equipment control module and data conversion module was proposed.

This complex was designed for performing functions with the assigned FDAL (Function Development Assurance Level) “A” (the aircraft function loss is classified as catastrophic) in accordance with the ARP4754A Standard.

To achieve this goal, the development process described in RTCA DO-178, DO-254, and DO-297 was implemented. These documents set the software and hardware development process requirements for onboard equipment of civil aviation.

Dolgikh A. E., Zhidkov P. M. A model of aircraft impulse laser rangefinder operating on aerodynamic objects. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The simulation model of an airborne impulse laser rangefinder was developed. The article describes three basic structural parts of the model. The model was realized in C++. The model realized the processes of laser generation, reflection from a complex object, small signal receiving and digital information processing. Later, the obtained model results were compared to a priori information on the distance between a laser and a target. Aerodynamic targets were represented by 3D polygonal models. The rangefinder photodetector is discrete in time. Computing the number of photons for each clock cycle is performed by strobing the irradiance map over the range map. The irradiance and rang maps were created by the rendering method. To account for of different polygons’ overlapping each other, the rendering was performed employing the z-buffer algorithm. The model describes the radiation noise of photodetector was using the Poisson distribution. The readout noise was described by the normal distribution.

The range measurements are being performed several times. Then the results are analyzed by the trajectory processing. In contrast to signal accumulation, this processing is stable to the laser response shift from the target in clock cycles of photodetector unit. The true and false trajectories selection is performed by the threshold value of the trajectory length. The model operation was realized on the example of three aerial vehicles, such as Boeing747, Hornet and Tomahawk. The authors demonstrated the possibility of model tests statistical analysis for determining dependencies of operation range and measuring accuracy from pulse duration and sampling frequency of photodetector unit. The extreme value of laser rangefinder range capacity was determined by the signal/noise ratio level, ensuring stable measurements. Based on the obtained results the authors suggested application of pulse duration of τ < 100 ns and sampling frequency of about 60 MHz.

Badalov A. Y., Razumov D. A. Modeling technique in a life cycle of a cosmodrome large automated system of a Smart City level. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

The design and development of large-scale automated systems (AS) is always associated with surmounting of a large number of uncertainties, which structuring is often performed by employing the practice of standards and modeling in the framework of Systems & Software Engineering trend. Methods of the large systems (LS) analysis suppose their decomposition in the frame of structural and/or functional paradigms, which allow consider the obtained components as objects for functional, structural and other kinds of modeling. The complexity is stipulated by the fact, that the structural realization of such systems is ambiguous, and determined by a variety of factors, such as the presence of communication channels, the level of duty services automation, the interaction of agencies, the level of financial provision etc. Thus, the design of such LSs is associated with decomposition of the General problem at the level of the life cycle paradigm in the frame of structural and functional component hierarchy, which nodes contain the dispatching services and control centers. Besides, the problems of organizational and regulatory interaction require rather flexible approach to realization at each stage of a life cycle. While a cosmodrome of a regional level automated control system (ACS) design, the necessity occurs to optimize the taken decisions. Systems of this kind are functioning at all time and continuously, irrespective of automation level. In this sense, the time of their operation possesses a power of the continuum. Thus, the presented article suggests modeling technique exactly within the life cycle (LC) of a cosmodrome LS, including implementation of a simulation model for the system key performance indicators (KPI) optimization. The presented materials come in handy for the designers of large regional automated systems in the Smart City context such as cosmodrome ACS, as well as ASs of regional and municipal levels, ASs of a large-scale sporting events of national and international levels, situational centers of regional and municipal governments, departmental automated systems, including such a specific sphere, to which organs of government and management are related.

Sokolov S. V. The Integrable Case of Kovalevskaya in a Non-Euclidean Spase: separation of variables. Trudy MAI, 2018, no 100,

In this paper we consider the problem of the motion of a Kovalevskaya top in non-Euclidean space. Applying, as in the Euclidean case considered in the classical papers of Kovalevskaya and Ketter, non-trivial transformations of phase variables involving both generalized coordinates and conjugate momenta, we find the Abel-Jacobi equations and give the separating variables on the plane.

As is well known (see, for example, [1]), Helmholtz proposed, in the axiomatic construction of mechanics, to abandon the Euclidean property of space, and postulate only the possibility of the motion of a rigid body typical for all Riemannian spaces of constant curvature. In the light of this it is obvious that the study of the dynamics of a rigid body in spaces of constant curvature is of prime importance.

Referring to the recent review [1] for a detailed explanation of the history of research, as well as modern statements of problems in this relevant field, we note only that in classical papers attention is concentrated on obtaining equations of motion and searching for additional integrals. In this paper, following the work of Kovalevskaya [2] and Ketter [3], we obtain separated equations for the problem of the motion of the Kovalevskaya top in non-Euclidean space. As a direction for further research, one can indicate an analysis of the stability of motions that are specific to Hamiltonian systems that are completely integrable with respect to Liouville, by methods that were developed in [4,5], as well as a classical analysis of orbital stability (see, for example, [6-18]).

As a result we are reducing an integration of the original problem to hyperelliptic quadratures. An analytical expressions which were derived in presented paper can be used for the subsequent analysis of the phase topology.

Larina E. V., Tsipenko A. V. Experimental data on flow in gas ejector for turbulence model verification. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

Gas ejector is a convenient device for verifying mathematical models, which is based on comparison with experimental results. Advantages of flow in an ejector for a numerical experiment:

  • axial symmetry of the structure and gas feeding allows compare 1D, 2D and 3D models (mathematical models in one-, two- and three-dimensional coordinate systems) with the experiment;

  • rigid walls with known parameters;

  • a simple specification of the initial parameters of the field of gas and parameters of gas at the output;

  • various types of canonical flows in one device in different combinations (supersonic underexpanded and overexpanded jet, subsonic jet, shock reflection from the wall, supersonic and subsonic boundary layer, positive and negative pressure gradient along the wall, stationary and nonstationary separation);

  • a convenient set of experimental data for comparison with simulation results for local and integral parameters.

The authors considered a single-stage axisymmetric ejector of the classical single-nozzle design. Compressed nitrogen was employed from the balloon system with a stagnation temperature of 300 K. The article presents all necessary geometry, inlet pressure in the ejection nozzle, and the pressure sensor positions. The sensors scanning slot is 0.001 s.

Data collection system ensured the time interval of 0,001 s between the two sensor readings. The sensors error was less than 35 Pa (0.005 psi). The results of various launches were not being averaged.

One-dimensional theory comparison with the experimental data reveals that the 1D theory gives a lower (optimistic) estimation of the start-up pressure. The experiments demonstrated also that minimum level of the ejector high-frequency noise corresponds to the minimum stable pressure in the vacuum chamber.

A numerical simulation of the ejector operation for several variants of the ejecting gas pressure employing the authors’ original code based on I.Kryukov and I.Ivanov code and Godunov’s method was carried out. The vacuum chamber pressure fluctuation and the shock-train separation point displacement were obtained. A numerical experiment yields acceptable average flow parameters, but absolutely unacceptable frequency characteristics.

The presented experimental data are quite complete and suitable for turbulence model verification.

The work was supported by the RFBR grants No. 16-38-60185, No. 16-01-00444a.

Chernakov V. V., Iksanov H. S., Myakochin A. S., Nazarenko I. P. General technique for computing the test bed variant of a space power unit in transient operation modes. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The subject of this work is the power unit of the space nuclear power plant in the test bed version. The purpose of the work was to develop a general methodology for calculating the power unit of the test bed version of a nuclear power plant for space applications in transient operation modes. An additional task was to determine the minimum set of independent variables, allowing fully characterize the operation of the power plant in non-stationary modes.

The computation technique is based on a unifying physical and mathematical model of the power unit. The physico-mathematical model is being built on a modular principle and includes the models of all the components of the power unit along the energy conversion contour. The article describes also the algorithm and the scheme for calculating the parameters of a closed gas-turbine circuit in a nonstationary formulation. The technique and algorithms are described on the example of a test bed version of a space nuclear power installation with a resistor heater as a heat source.

This technique can be used to perform calculations while the design, development and evaluation of space nuclear power units efficiency, as well as in modeling and developing control algorithms for the energy conversion loop in the modes of the source thermal power alteration. The technique can also be changed and supplemented depending on the layout and design of the particular power unit, the characteristics and specifics of its constituent parts, the type of heat exchangers, heat source, etc.

The main feature of the work is that this technique allows compute all most important parameters of the energy conversion circuit of a space nuclear power unit exactly at non-stationary operating modes. This is necessary at the start-up phase and while switching from one mode to another for development of control algorithms for the entire spacecraft.

Aslanov V. S., Yudintsev V. V. Cable towing of a space debris object with a cavity filled with liquid. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

Space debris active transportation employing a space tug with a tether link is one of the promising techniques of near-Earth space cleaning-up. When developing such transportation means, it is necessary to account for the specifics of space debris objects, particularly, the presence of elastic structure elements, and fuel remnants. There are two types of the space debris, namely, overaged spacecraft and orbital stages of rocket carriers. On one hand, orbital stages are simpler for transportation compared to spacecraft, since they do not contain large attached elastic elements, such as antennas or solar batteries. On the other hand, orbital stages might contain fuel remnants affecting the motion of space debris and the transportation system at large. The presented work is devoted to this phenomenon. The purpose of this work is development of a simple mathematical model of a transportation system with account for the fuel remnants onboard the space debris object of a space station type.

The article studies the effect of fuel remnants on the safety of withdrawal the space debris with fuel remnants. The authors obtained equations of motion in central gravitational field of a mechanical system, consisting of a space tug, space debris object and a tether. The space debris object is considered as solid body, containing a moving mass of liquid. The liquid fluctuating in the tank is represented as an equivalent pendulum system. Stationary solutions of the equations of movement were found, and linearized equations in the neighborhood of stable stationary solutions were constructed. The results of numerical modeling, demonstrating the closeness of analytical solutions of the linearized equations and numerical solutions of the initial equations of motion are presented.

The obtained linearized equations can be useful for determining transportation system parameters, ensuring safe withdrawal of the space debris.

Ruslantsev A. N., Dumansky A. M. Deformation of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic deformation under the time-varying loads. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

Rheological effects such as creep and relaxation may appear in the material when operating under long-time load. This can lead to a delayed fracture, so it is important to analyze the regularities of polymer composite materials deformation with account to the time factor. The presented article considers models implemented for describing rheological effects, shows their advantages and disadvantages.

The most common cases of loading can be described by the relationships of hereditary mechanics. Besides the fact that the hereditary approach is the most common form of a relationships between stresses and deformations at time varying loads, it allows identify a number of interrelated functions characterizing the material.

A model based on the matrix equations of the theory of laminated plates and relations of a hereditary type is proposed. It allows establish the dependence of deformations from time under time-varying loading.

To reveal time effects, the test for creep and relaxation of BMI-3/3692 carbon fiber-reinforced plastics samples with reinforcement scheme [±45°] and KMU-4L with reinforcement scheme [±20°] were performed. The BMI-3/3692 samples were tested for creep at time-varying loading also. The KMU-4L samples were tested for creep and relaxation. Resistive strain gages were employed to register longitudinal and transverse deformations. Nonlinearity and hysteresis are appearing on the stress-strain diagrams of the tested samples. Likewise, the diagrams of stresses and deformations are essentially dissimilar to each other, which can be explained by time-dependent factors.

Calculation for BMI-3/3692 carbon plastics with reinforcement scheme [± 45°] and KMU-4L with reinforcement scheme [± 20°] was performed employing the model proposed in the work. The Abel kernel was chosen as a creep kernel. Rabotnov kernel was used as a relaxation kernel.

Mechanical characteristics of the BMI-3/3692 carbon plastic were determined: E1 = 84 GPa, E2 = 80 GPa, ν12 = 0.04. G12 = 7.5 GPa. . The kernel parameters were determined by the least-squares method. Minimum of disparity of computed and experimental parameters was determined numerically. The following parameters values were obtained: α = –0.7, β = –0.05, k = 800.

The elastic characteristics of the of KMU-4 carbon plastic monolayer were determined: E1 = 150 GPa, E2 = 4 GPa, ν12 = 0.32. G12 = 3.3 GPa. The kernel parameters were also determined numerically: α = –0.8, β = –0.05, k = 150.

The article presents the graphs demonstrating a good correspondence between calculated and experimental data.

The proposed model can be used to calculate the stress-strain state of composite structures while long-term deformation.

Azarov Y. A., Chernovolov R. A. Some specifics of modeling an aircraft aeroelasticity in transonic wind tunnel. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The article considers specifics of modeling the phenomena of the dynamic aeroelasticity, such as flutter and bugging, on dynamically congruent models in the wind tunnels (WT) in transonic range of Mach numbers.

The goal of the research is developing recommendations on similarity criteria selection for modeling the phenomena of aeroelasticity in the transonic mode by additive technologies.

The major stages of this work are analysis of existing structures of transonic aeroelastic models by weight, stiffness and strength characteristics, and comparative analysis of model materials’ specific stiffness and strength characteristics.

The article gives recommendations for the similarity criteria selection while design, manufacture and testing of dynamically similar models (DSM) in transonic WT. Implementation of the synthesized criterions will allow obtaining the reliable results of the experiment and successful transferring to the full-scale design.

It was shown, that the major problem is caused by the fulfillment of the mass similarity condition – the Newton’s criterion. This problem is stipulated by models’ structure overweighting. The article gives examples of overweighting effect on the flutter critical speed.

The design features of the main types of transonic DSMs force diagrams were considered. The effect of the main strain load carrying elements’ cross sections shapes of DSMs on DSM’s weight effectiveness was considered as well.

A comparative analysis of the specific stiffness and strength characteristics of homogeneous materials (metals), thermoplastics and isotropic composite materials was performed. This analysis results allowed obtain estimations of weight efficiency when used in DSM designs.

The article presents also the prospective directions for weight reduction of models of beam and plate scheme.

Grishin A. A., Strugovets A. G. Evaluation of design decisions in the part of losses for current collection devices in the transmission of electrical energy from solar batteries. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

This paper covers the slip ring assembly layer total resistance estimation method. This method is meant for application upon slip ring assembly design and engineering. The primary objective of this paper was to obtain the capability of slip ring layer heat dissipation simulation modelling based on the equivalent circuit.

The role of the slip ring assembly in the spacecraft electric power subsystem is considered; the basic structural elements of the assembly are described; the principles of operation of the device are explained. The major output performances of the slip ring assembly such as the voltage drop value across the layer of the slip rings and the total power dissipated on the device are defined. The process of current flow through the slip ring assembly is demonstrated. An equivalent circuit for a layer of slip ring assembly with ten contact rings is presented and reviewed in detail. The equation system for the equivalent circuit loop currents is defined. A relationship between the contact resistance and the impedance of the slip ring layer is established. Contact resistances are introduced into the system of equations. The formula of the impedance function of the layer of slip rings layer is obtained from the value of the contact resistances. The total resistance and the heat dissipation value of the slip ring layer upon nominal slip ring installation are estimated. The experimental and theoretical plots of the slip ring assembly layer impedance variation are provided for comparison. The adequacy of the assumptions taken and acceptability of the technique for practical application was validated. The analysis of contact resistance variation value versus the slip ring layer total resistance in case when the inner ring is displace versus the outer one was carried out.

The paper concludes that there is satisfactory convergence (within 4.5%) of the theoretical results with experimental data. Application of the above technique will allow predicting the slip rings heat dissipation variation during the design phase as well as to estimate their lifetime with lower costs.

Ispulov A. A., Ivanov S. L. Accuracy evaluation of the filtering algorithms while tracking a maneuvering air target on angular coordinates. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

At present, algorithms for coordinates and parameters evaluation of the air target (AT) movement on fighters are realized based on simplified filtering algorithms, particularly by α,β-filtering and α,β,γ-filtering. The main drawbacks of these algorithms are insufficiently accurate and stable tracking of maneuvering AT while low rate of information update and missing of adaptation to rapidly changing air combat (AC) conditions.

Implementing of more complex models of a relative movement of a fighter and AT with refined parameters is one of the possible ways to overcome these shortcomings.

The purpose of the paper is a comparative assessment of the filtration accuracy when tracking a maneuvering AT in angular coordinates using the α,β-filtering algorithms and the Kalman filter (KF) for the Zinger and Song models with refined parameters at a low rate of data update about the target.

In the interests of obtaining an extrapolated evaluation and the operation of filtering algorithms, determination of the values of the maneuverability coefficient when an AT is performing the combat turn is required. The data on the AT spatial movement was obtained by semi-detailed simulation on the flight test-bench.

Maneuverability coefficient determination was performed via correlation-spectral processing, by a transition from the time domain to the spectral domain – the direct Fourier transform.

To achieve the purpose of the work, modeling of the filtering algorithms at a low information update rate about the target has been performed by statistical tests method. The mean square deviation of filtering errors has been used as an accuracy index. The α,β-filtering algorithm for the model of uniform rectilinear motion, the KF algorithm for the Zinger model, and the KF algorithm for the Song model have been analyzed.

Analysis of the presented results allows us to draw the following conclusions:

  • the filtering algorithms considered in this paper are valid, which makes it possible to significantly improve the accuracy of determination of the angular coordinates of the maneuvering AT, compared to their measured values;

  • algorithm III is characterized by the highest accuracy of filtering the AT angular coordinates, which extrapolator functions is based on the Song model with refined parameters. Thus, in the steady state, the increase in the filtration accuracy index can reach up to 40% compared to the α,β-filtering algorithm, and up to 10% compared to the Kalman filter based on the Zinger model;

  • application in the KF of a simpler Zinger model of AT’s the relative movement with refined parameters allows improve the accuracy of angular coordinates filtering of the target compared to the α,β-filter up to 30%;

  • the disadvantage of the KF based on the Song model is a large inertia. Thus, the transient processes time for filtering the AT angular coordinate in the vertical plane ьфн reach 10 seconds or more, while the transient processes in the filter, when using the Zinger model, are completed twice as fast. Another drawback of the filter based on the Song model is obviously a great deal of effort to implement it;

  • it should be expected that application of KF based on Zinger and Song models with refined parameters while tracking an AT performing maneuvers, other than a «combat turn», will lead to a reduction of the filtering accuracy index growth compared to the α,β-filtering algorithm. To eliminate this drawback, it is advisable to apply additional special procedures for reducing the a priori uncertainty relative to the type of AT maneuver.

Thus, to ensure high tracking accuracy of the maneuvering AT in angular coordinates in the AC conditions at a low information update rate in modern aviation sighting systems, it is advisable to apply filters that employ models of relative target movement of higher orders. The filtration accuracy index increase for the KF with the Song model is 40%, as compared to the α,β-filter, and 30% for the KF with the Zinger model. However, if AT maneuver changes, it will be necessary to implement the procedures for adapting the filter parameters to the maneuver type. In addition, the filtering algorithm selection should be performed either by the criterion of the estimation error minimum or by the criterion of the transients minimum time.

Enkin A. A. Methodology for aircraft rational control law forming while performing maneuvers in horizontal plane. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The article presents the methodology for agile aircraft rational controls forming while executing a turn in horizontal plane. The flight of an agile light airplane is selected as an object of study. While solving the problem of rational trajectories selection provisions of the direct variation method were assumed as a basis. The existing techniques, where the reference trajectory is set as dependence of phase coordinates from the physical time in the form of a polynomial, exhibit a significant drawback. This dependence of an aircraft speed from the trajectory geometry, i. e. time derivatives of coordinates, uniquely determine the speed at each point of the trajectory. A distinctive feature of the proposed methodology from the existing one is the aircraft control laws forming method. Control functions for aircraft roll and normal speed overload herewith are determined from the required accelerations for monitoring reference trajectory, specified in the form of polynomial dependence of phase coordinates from time. Tangenital overload control is formed on the assumption of specifics of maneuvering in horizontal plane. These features consist in the existence of a certain flight speed, at which maneuvering in horizontal plane is performed with maximum angular rate of turn. The degree of approaching this rate herewith is determined by the moment of the engine operation mode switching, and ensures the possibility of fuller realization of aircraft performance characteristics inherent to its structure (maneuvering characteristics).

Thus, the developed methodology ensures the accounting for maneuvering specifics in horizontal plane while forming an aircraft speed mode control, and allows eliminate the “stiff” dependence of flight speed from the trajectory geometry. It allows also determine the rational trajectory of the combat maneuvering in the horizontal plane, by which high levels of maneuverability inherent to the aircraft structure are achieved.

Application of this methodology is possible while developing the systems of intellectual support for a pilot’s decision-making, as well as aircraft automatic control systems.

Evstifeev M. I., Eliseev D. P. Present-day approach to navigation instruments design. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

Computer aided design systems have been widely used in developing of various technical systems. Concern CSRI Elektropribor has a long experience employing PTC Creo Elements, which shows an effectiveness of 3D modeling employed in innovative navigation devices. It allows both increasу labor productivity and cut devices developing time by paralleling activities while working on project. Moreover, it ensures quality improvement of the systems under development, while 3D models are working well for both finite element analysis of mechanical characteristics and rapid prototyping. Thus, 3D modeling has become a design standard for gyroscopes being the most complicated navigation instruments.

At present, a high-tech manufacturing faces such a critical task as developing innovative and competitiveness products. That is why risky and challenging solutions should be applied for navigation devices design. Correctness of these solutions could be achieved in two ways: computing and prototyping. As the first way, finite element analysis is widely used around the world as non-alternating method of predictive modeling. In recent years, with advancement of additive technology, devices prototyping and, sometimes, their manufacturing is being provided by 3D printing. Highlighted sequence of design provides a systemic approach to the developing based on up-to-date technology and allows suggest the following method of navigation devices design. 1) Developing 3D models of devices’ parts and assemblies. 2) Employing finite element analysis of devices’ mechanical characteristics. 3) Rapid prototyping by additive technology. 4) Errors’ determining and correcting.

The method differs from the others by implementation of closed process “design, modeling, manufacture”, which provides improvement of products quality and labor productivity. Moreover, this method is recommended for bachelor students teaching on design basics. It contributes essential part in developing engineer skills of students


Konysheva V. Y., Maximov N. А., Sharonov A. V. Wavelet analysis in linear dynamic systems control and diagnostic problems. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The paper considers one of the possible approaches to solving the problem of linear dynamical systems control and diagnostics. Analysis of available publications [2, 4, 9] on the subject revealed that the statement of the problem of diagnostics assumes knowing of the current values of the dynamic systems state vector. However, measuring all the state vector coordinates is not always possible. Firstly, such situation may arise due to the lack of “access points”. Secondly, if the measurement results of some of the state vector coordinates contain “unacceptable” errors, which do not allow them to be used to solve problems of control and diagnostics of objects.

The proposed approach presupposes the existence of a control points shortage, but requires the observance of Kalman’s observability conditions, which allows restoring all the coordinates of the state vector. With this regard, the problem posed combines three problems: the problem of estimating the coordinates of the state vector, the problem of determining the altered parameters of the object, and the problem of determining the moments of appearance of these alterations (the moments of “discord”). Solution of the first problem is traditionally associated with the constructing the Kalman filter. To solve the second problem, the authors propose to apply the equations of parametric sensitivity. To localize the instants of the onset of such “discords”, the article proposes to apply the expansion of the parametric sensitivity functions in Fourier series with respect to the orthonormal wavelet basis.

The results of mathematical modeling of the solution of the problem of control and diagnostics of the simplest linear dynamical systems confirmed the operability of the proposed approach.

Busurin V. I., Mevedev V. M., Karabitsky A. S., Groppa D. V. Algorithms of digital information analysis for optimizing checkup of control systems. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The basis of technical support for information, measurement and control systems consists of electronic devices and systems for communicating, gathering, processing, transmission and display of information, which, in stages of development and production, are subjects to diagnosis.

For means of checkup and most of other types of control system tests, it is common to use checkout equipment (CE). The CE hardware and software are developed individually for the needs of specific tests of inertial control system. To simplify the design and improve versatility, this article offers to rethink the software design methodology for CE, allowing forming CE software automatically for control and diagnostics purposes of several similar inertial control systems. This solution will significantly reduce the time and cost of developing hardware and software parts of the CE.

Forming of the software is performed by attaching additional software modules (ASM), which are responsible for unique to a particular inertial control system (ICS) equipment or functionality, to basic software module (BSM). Designed software remains unchanged while being used for control and diagnosis of various ICS’s. BSM performs such functions as distributing software threads and their priorities, ASM launching and control. ASM are developed in conjunction with CE and have unique features. Interaction between the modules is performed by means of shared memory and communication protocols between modules. To sel ect ASM’s necessary to complete the specific test job, the software should analyze digital data, incoming fr om the control system. This data-analyzing algorithm is separated into several major steps: searching for keywords employing reference list, comparing reference lists and detection of ‘answer’ keywords.

Bukhalev V. A., Boldinov V. A. Signals filtration at low-frequency interference in unmanned flying vehicles measuring-information systems . Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The authors consider the problem of information processing in measuring information systems of unmanned aerial vehicles’ (UAV) at low-frequency interference. As a rule, the classical approach to solution of the problem of low-frequency interference filtering proves to be unusable due to the estimates divergence. The authors propose to solve the put forward problem by employing optimal filters realizing the «interference whitening». The thus obtained mixture of valid signal with white noise

The suggested algorithm of optimum filtering consists in preliminary passing-through of a measuring instrument output signal through the forming wideband filter. The thus obtained mixture of a valid signal with white noise is fed to low-frequency filter forming an optimum valid signal estimation.

The structure and parameters of the synthesized filter depend on the nature of the low-frequency interference in the measurement channel. As a rule, intensity of UAV’s trajectory fluctuations can be considered as approximate constant and not depending on UAV control system type. On the contrary, dispersion of noise disturbance, may either increase, or decrease while UAV approaching an object. The nature of the organized interference depends on jammer actions.

The optimum filtration algorithm has been constructed for both cases. The disadvantage of the proposed approach is the unjustified complexity of optimal algorithms implementation for solving applied problems.

The main problem consists in an adequacy of the developed mathematical model (linearity, a small order of the equations, unauthenticity of basic data and other) to the real system under study. It feels particularly sharp while creating the UAV navigation and guidance algorithms with their tight restrictions on speed and memory of the onboard computer.

One of the effective ways to solve this problem is to replace the differential equations for the coefficients that determine the passband of the optimal filter by their steady values, calculated by algebraic formulas obtained from differential equations.

The simulation obtained results allow draw conclusions on the applicability of the proposed approach to filtration problems in the opto-electronic and radio engineering measuring information systems of UAV. In this case, the accuracy of angular coordinates estimating of the object of observation will decrease by 10–15% of the true values.

Kovalsky A. A., Afonin G. I., Tereshenko S. V. Propositions on the main trends of central timing system modernization for ground-based spacecraft control automated complex . Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

There is a need for standard time signals and frequencies in various spheres of action. The necessity for frequency and time synchronization of technological and information processes at spacecraft (SC) ground-based automated control complex (GACC) is of special topicality.

The article presents the main central timing system (CTS) modernization for SC GACC as well as specifics and perspectives of SC CTS GACC while employing data transmission channels of satellite communication system (SCS) “Primorka” and satellite radio navigational system (SRNS) GLONASS.

The object of the study is SC CTS GACC. The subject of the study are methods and means of time signals distribution.

The purpose of the study consists in increasing SC CTS GACC stability by implementation of data transmission channels of the SCS “Primorka” and the satellite radio navigational GLONASS system (SRNS).

System analysis of methods and means of time signals propagation in SC CTS GACC, and possible synchronization error sources was performed in this work.

The block diagram of SC CTS GACC creation with three-level architecture was developed. The upper level (the CTS backbone network) is between the State time references and central stations, which will meet the strict requirement on characteristics quality. The intermediate level between CTS central points and CTS peripheral stations will be connected by SCS “Pimorka”. The low level – between CTS peripheral station and a customer SC GAACC, accounting for the SC GAACC requiremetns.

Realization of the proposed three-level SC CTS GACC will allow significantly increase the SC CTS GACC stability.

Efimov E. N., Shevgunov T. Y., Kuznetsov Y. V. Cyclic spectrum power dencity estimation of info-communication signals. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The paper introduces cyclic periodogram averaging block algorithm for the estimation of cyclic power spectral density (CPSD) using time-smoothing approach. A brief overview of the cyclostationarity phenomena and the corresponding cyclic characteristic functions are provided; a detailed theoretical description of the proposed algorithm focusing on the task of cyclic power spectral density estimation of the finite length digital infocommunication signals is presented. The structure of the CPSD function on bispectral plane for the case of finite length digital signals is described. The properties of the support region of CPSD on bispectral plane such as resolution element shape and effective width are taken into the consideration in order to avoid significant gaps alongside cyclic frequency axis.

In order to demonstrate the proposed algorithm as well as the advantages of the cyclostationary approach itself, a numerical simulation is carried out. A mixture of two amplitude-modulated signals with wide-sense stationary random processes used as their modulation sequences is chosen for the simulation. The parameters of the simulation such as effective bandwidths of the mixture components and their carrying frequencies are selected in a manner that a significant overlapping in the frequency domain is to occur. The analysis of the estimated cyclic power spectral density as a two-variable function obtained with the proposed algorithm allowed to successfully determine the number of the components in the signal mixture, their carrier frequencies, separated periodograms for each of the components and make the conclusion of the statistical independency of the underlying random processes. The results of the numerical simulation confirm the correct work of the proposed algorithm as well as demonstrate the selective properties of the cyclostationary approach.

Tikhomirov A. V., Omel'yanchuk E. V., Semenova A. Y., Mikhailov V. Y. Prediction of radio waves propagation parameters when employing low-lying antennas in conditions of urban development. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

Design of ground mobile communication systems operating in urban conditions, including episodic networks, requires accounting for the effects of various factors of radio waves propagation on the received signal parameters. Depending on the types and urban building density the signal may contain include line-of-sight, reflected, diffracted and refracted components [1]. In the absence of a priori knowledge of obstacles’ type, size and shape the path loss can be estimated based on measurements. Empirical estimation should bear statistical character and based on determination of median values of path loss.

Due to the terrain and building types variety as well as the relative position of transceivers and, hence, difficulty to predict the effect of particular factors along the propagation pass on radio waves damping, a universal model for losses calculation while radio waves propagation in urban conditions does not exist. Models for predicting the signal level in ground mobile radio communications system can be employed only in cases of mobile networks with highly raised antennas of basic stations. Due to the growing popularity of the urban wireless networks (WLAN) and mobile ad hock networks, implicating a large number of mobile transponders, the purpose of this study is predicting of radio waves propagation at low-lying antennae in urban conditions by modifying the existing models on the ground of experimental data.

Based on the experimental study at the frequency of 870 MHz performed in Zelenograd, radio waves propagation losses were determined in conditions of urban building. The obtained experimental values of propagation loss were applied for linear approximation. The values of coefficients were determined and Stanford University Interim (SUI) model modification was suggested for urban media for the cases of antenna suspension height of up to 10 m. The article demonstrates that while estimating radio signal propagation in urban conditions with low-lying receiver antennae the attenuation degree equal to four can be employed.

Yastrebtsova O. I. Conditions for the absence of “blinding” in microstrip antenna arrays. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The paper considers one of the problems occurring in microstrip antenna arrays, namely the effect of “blindning” when the array radiation vanishes at certain scanning angles. The topicality of this problem is associated with wide implementation of antenna arrays in various Earth exploration satellite systems including synthetic aperture radars.

Fr om the published sources we know that this is due to the interaction of surface waves supported by the structure of the antenna array, in this case a dielectric layer, with dominant Floquet mode. Determining angles whereby the risk of “blinding” occurs is possible by applying the plane of phase constants, wh ere both Floquet modes and surface waves, excited in dielectric substrate of the microstrip antennae array, are depicted. The intersection of the circles corresponding to the surface waves with the circle of the radiating Floquet mode at a given scanning angle will mean the possibility of “blinding”.

This method was applied to the two dipole microstrip antenna arrays: in the first case the dielectric of the substrate was selected in such a way that only one surface wave of electric type was excited. In the second case, three surface waves were excited − two of electric type and one of magnetic.

Possible “blinding” angles were determined by performing plotting on the plane of phase constants. They were verified hereafter by modeling of an infinite antenna array, which allowed obtaining radiation element diagram. All the “blinding” angles found analytically appeared on the radiation patterns. The angle, not appeared while simulation, took place only in the second case, which corresponds to the theory, since the appearance of blind angles can depend, for example, on the method of the radiator excitation. The method applicability for the considered problem was confirmed thereby.

The conditions ensuring the absence of blinding angles at a given range of scanning angles were formulated hereafter. The restrictions are imposed herewith on both the distances between the radiating elements and parameters of the dielectric substrate. A famly of curves representing the dependence of maximum distance between radiating elements from maximum scanning angle of microstrip antenna array was plotted. It allowed determine structural parameters of antenna array by the maximum value of the scanning angle.

Bakhtin A. A., Volkov A. S., Baskakov A. E. Studying specifics of MAC algorithms realization in mobile self-organizing communications networks. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

With account for the trends of mobile self-organizing communications networks development, the number of technologies and communication systems employing the principle of infrastructure building without the use base station will increase in subsequent years. Thus, more and more tasks, which should be solved on a data link layer of the system developed, are being revealed. A base station absence in the network topology generates the tasks of organizing the message delivery route selecting, which is especially important in mobile self-organizing communications networks. The concept of mobility itself, i. e. nodes’ permanent spatial motion imposes additional restrictions on the communication system. Thus, the problem of transmitting the service and information frames in conditions of a non-constant connection between nodes occurs. Currently, one of the most widely used algorithms for the environment accessing is the CSMA\CA algorithm. Stations and subscribers of the 802.11 network, that is, Wi-Fi networks are operating on its base. The algorithm is based on the principle of transferring the service frames of the RTS-CTS-DATA-ACK format. Using this algorithm allows solving the problems of a hidden node. The MACA algorithm lies at the heart of the implementation of CSMA\CA and is distinguished by the use of RTS-CTS-DATA service frames, without delivery confirmation. These algorithms have disadvantages, such as a large number of service frames in the communication channel and a possible non-delivery of the service frame with a changing network topology.

To solve these problems, an algorithm MMAC was developed. Application of this algorithm implies the presence of two or more communication channels by each node: separate communication channels for the transmission of service frames and for the transmission of data frames. Since this imposes additional costs on the implementation of the second channel, the algorithm has been modified. The LCM MAC algorithm employs the principle of separate transmission of service and information frames in different time slots.

A study of their efficiency was performed by simulating these algorithms in the software environment of Network Simulator 3. Analysis of simulation results revealed that the access algorithms for the MMAC and LCM MAC algorithms demonstrate the best packet delivery rate and network bandwidth compared to the MOCA and CSMA\CA algorithms (at the average by 20% and 500 bit / s, respectively). Based on the performed work, it was revealed that the actual task of research and development of a mobile self-organizing communication system, namely its data link layer, is the solution of a number of tasks:

  • overflow of service frames;

  • significant decrease in network bandwidth with increasing number of nodes;

  • possible non-delivery of packets with increasing number of nodes;

  • impossibility of simultaneous listening of service frames and transmission of information frames without involvement of additional channels;

  • unused information from other layers of the OSI model.

Isaev A. I., Skorobogatov S. V. Hydrodynamic verification and validation of numerical methods of the flow calculation in combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

Currently, the engineering practice widely uses software packages for engineering design automation. They include the systems allowing solve complex problems of computational hydro-gas dynamics. The specificity of the employed mathematical tools imposes certain constraints in the course of operation. Thus, there is no universal mathematical model at present, which would reliably describe all turbulent flows specifics for the entire spectrum of problems. Instead, there are many semi-empirical models correlating well with the experimental data for only a certain range of problems.

The most widely used models are the models of Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equations. At the same time, these models have a greater number of variations, most of which found application in commercial software packages as well. Such diversity creates the problem of selection of the most appropriate model for the particular solution case. Thus, verification and validation are the intrinsic part of the turbulent flows numerical modeling.

The purpose of the article is the methodology of verification and validation of a flow computing in a combustion chamber air-gas channel of a gas turbine engine with transverse vortex system. The authors performed reviewed the most relevant turbulence models employed in software packages of computational hydro-gas dynamics. Their advantages, disadvantages and constraints associated with the empirical data are listed.

Based on the developed combustion chamber model, the full-scale model for hydrodynamic research and the finite element mesh for calculations in the software environment were created.

The article presents the results of experimental studies and the results obtained by numerical methods. They performed their comparison and analysis. Based on this data, the two models corresponding to the selected confidence interval, were separated out.

At the next stage validation of turbulence models was being performed. As a result, it allowed give qualitative estimate of flow kinetics over the entire computation region.

Verification revealed that of all the models considered, the best conformity with experiments was ensured by the SST k-w model and standard k-e model.

In consequence of validation, the authors managed to find that the SST k-w model reproduced the flow kinetics in air-gas channel of the combustion chamber with a transverse vortex system more correctly.

Golovkin M. A., Efremov A. A., Makhnev M. S. Methods for estimating the rotary derivatives of forces and moments acting on the aircraft model. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

Ashurkov I. S., Leshko N. A., Tsybulnik A. N. Conceptual model of a spaced system for complex ballistic targets radar observation. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The article describes the model of spaced radar system with uncooperative radiation sources, integrated into a set of national technical means of space-rocket machinery tests monitoring. A model based on estimation of spatial and accuracy characteristics of complex ballistic targets elements allows selecting a rational variant of implementing a set of national technical means of monitoring at the finish area of foreign missile testing grounds.

In general terms, a mathematical model of a simulation-analytical type of a spaced radar system is being represented in a form of an interrelated structure and includes models of uncooperative source of illumination, complex ballistic target and receiving site integrated to a set of national technical means of control. Potential accuracy of coordinates measuring of a complex ballistic target was computed. Сriterion of optimality was selected as an arithmetic mean of range estimation CSR. The required information zone is represented in the form of a discrete set, for which maximum possible number of the receiving site allocation variants was determined. Further, applying the direct-searching method the value of the target function is determined for each variant of the set, which meets the specified limitations. Then the variant ensuring the goal function minimum is selected. Selection of the receiving site allocation rational variant allows realize potential capabilities of the spaced radar system for complex ballistic targets detection and measuring its’ coordinates in the full.

The proposed model of spaced radar system with uncooperative radiation sources integrated into a set of national technical means of monitoring space-rocket machinery tests being carried out by foreign countries allows select rational location and direction for receiving site at the finish area of foreign missile testing grounds.

Rybalko A. A., Naumov A. V. A model for ensuring fault-tolerance of container virtual services at data centers. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The following work is focused on the topic of enhancing the reliability of distributed services using container virtualization technology. An infrastructure based on container virtualization is presented and analyzed in the environment of changing workloads. Means of deployment, monitoring and lifecycle management are included in the infrastructure. The solution also includes a thorough description of networking exchange between services and service-monitoring system interchange of data in a multi-tenant environment. In modern datacenters the efficiency of resources usage is based on the number of business applications per host unit, while maintaining the isolation of applications from each other, as well as providing the stability, backup and disaster recovery, lifecycle management and network interconnections control.

The article compares the benefits of full and container virtualization, as well as analysis of service-oriented architecture on the base of container virtualization. The instruments analyzed from full virtualization perspective are VMware ESXi, KVM, Microsoft Hyper-V, Citrix XenServer, while OpenVZ and LXC/Docker technologies were reviewed from the side of container virtualization. One of the most important criteria analyzed is the scalability of the resulting solution built using the virtualization instruments presented above. Using container virtual machines, the number of objects on each host greatly grows, which is a more effective usage of resources from one hand, but poses a problem of monitoring and lifecycle management of a much larger number of objects on the other hand. The article analyses the network infrastructure and the monitoring toolset designed to handle much larger numbers of controlled objects than what is currently available on the market.

A hybrid architecture of Token Ring and Partial Mesh domains are presented as the more scalable and effective solution in the article for network communications between container hosts and between containers themselves. This hybrid approach is also applicable in different infrastructures build for high loads and big data processing.

Lyapin A. A. Testing of programming modules for flight task calculation and control based on the source data prioritization. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

The article proposes the diagram of computer-aided exploratory testing of calculation and control of the flight task software developed by State Rocket Centre “Academician V.P. Makeyev Design Bureau”. Calculation and control of the flight task software (ССFT software) is a key system of rocket complex and prepares for intercontinental ballistic missile’s flight-control system data, special automatics, and flight-control system of detachable elements. ССFT software consists of programming modules developed by engineers of State Rocket Centre and related organizations. Programming module (PM) is a functionally completed software implementation of CCFT particular task (algorithm).

To ensure quality and reliability every programming module should be debugged and tested in autonomous operation. Reliability of programming module is the probability the module operation without crash.

In this work the author suggests applying a method of computer-aided exploratory testing for debugging and testing PM from CCFT software. This method accounts for input parameters’ priority built on the basis of computational stability index of explored tasks.

The testing diagram accounts for programming modules’ potential crash. It is based on determination of input parameters’ priority. The author suggests employing priorities that are based on computational stability of tasks.

The testing diagram can specify the test data area variation and makes the best use of testing time resources. The diagram also performs qualitative evaluation of calculation and control of the flight task software’s functionality. This diagram is being used for CCFT software testing by engineers of State Rocket Centre.

Anzheurov A. S., Denisova I. P., Kostikov Y. A., Pasisnichenko M. A. Numerical analysis of the new type retroreflector application effectiveness while laser ranging of a spacecraft . Trudy MAI, 2017, no 97,

When laser ranging of a spacecraft the light impulse reflected from retroreflector , forms spot on the Earth surface, which center is usually located at a significant distance (from hundreds to thousands meters) from the station’s receiving telescope, due to the velocity aberration effect. Thus, the receiving telescope appears to be at periphery of the spot.

Due to the fact, that the electromagnetic radiation energy flow in the pulse decreases as distancing from the pulse axis to its periphery, only a small portion of the light energy hits the receiving telescope. Often, this portion is not enough to register the moment of the reflected impulse arrival at the laser station. To eliminate this shortcoming the Research and production Corporation “Systems of precision instrument making” suggested the retroreflector of a new type, in which maximum of intensity of the reflected impulse’ direction diagram was shifted from optical axis to periphery by coating the retroreflector edges with various coatings, so that the spot changed into a luminous ring. It allowed shifting the intensity maximum to about 1.2 arcseconds from the reflector optical axis with angular width at the level of half-power of about one arcsecond.

Mathematical modeling and numerical analysis of a new type retroreflector implementation effectiveness for laser ranging of high-orbit and low-orbit spacecraft were performed in this work. The conducted study revealed that ensuring the most favorable conditions for low-orbit spacecraft ranging (the orbit height of 300−550 km) in retroreflctor of a new type requires shifting of annular directional diagram maximum of the reflected impulse relative to the central beam not by 1.2 arc-seconds, but several times more, i. e. approximately by 9.7 arc-seconds. High-orbit spacecraft (orbit height of 6000−34000 km) for the same purpose must be equipped with retroreflectors of a new type, in which the maximum of the directional diagram of the reflected impulse is shifted relative to the Central beam by about five arc-seconds.

This means that at the stage of designing of each spacecraft the unique retroreflector of a new type should be developed and manufactured maximally effective for operation at the projected orbit.

Ruslantsev A. N., Dumansky A. M., Alimov M. A. The stressed-deformed state model of curvilinear composite beam. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

Polymer composite materials are applied in a wide range of aviation and space technology products. A lot of such products’ components are curvilinear beams that work on bending. However, in connection with pronounced property anisotropy, composed materials’ behavior in such components differs significantly fr om metals.

While developing design technique, information is required on material’s working in these or that conditions. For this purpose, samples with shapes close to typical structural elements are tested, in which course the stressed-deformed state of these elements is studied. Classical tensile, compression and shear tests cannot fully demonstrate the behavior of multilayered composite materials. Bending tests can provide additional information that fully describes the behavior of the material.

ASTM D6415 Standard describes the samples testing of a typical structural element. The radial stresses in the sample are determined at the end of the test. Based on the experimental data listed in the ASTM Standards, a conclusion can be made that the destruction occurs in the curved zone of the sample due to delamination.

While composite structures designing, the interlaminar stresses should be taken into account, since the contact zone between the layers has a low strength and destruction can be caused by the delamination of the material. Thus, determination of internal stresses caused by interlaminar interactions during stretching and compression of layers is an important task.

The model determining the stress state in a layered curvilinear composite beam is suggested. The model correctness is verified by comparing the calculated stress values and the results obtained by finite element modeling. It is shown that the discrepancy between the results does not exceed 5%.

Calculations for curvilinear beams with cylindrical anisotropy of properties and for layered beams were performed. It is shown that maximum stress values are determined by the bending moment and geometric parameters of the beam. The most effective stress reduction can be achieved by reducing the curvature of the laminated beam.

It was determined that the central part of a composite beam, wh ere delamination is most possible, was the most dangerous zone. Optimum relationship of the beam’ material strength in circumferential and radial directions was determined.

Recommendations to increase the bearing capacity of curved beams were elaborated.

Kalashnikov S. T., Mokin Y. A., Shvaleva R. K. On changes of pressure center position of a sharp cone with small surface variations under hypersonic flow-around. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The problem of evaluating maximum possible changes in the position of the pressure center at small angles of attack and specified constrains on surface distortions of hypersonic vehicles in the form of sharp cones with small-parameter linearization is reduced to the math problem of a linear functional norm. The developed integral expression of linear functional, evaluating changes in the position of the pressure center for the shape variations is based on a semi-analytic method of differential locality hypothesis. The general integral expression of the preset functional norm in linear space of weak surface variations for the specified restrictive function is developed.

The validity of the developed analytical expressions being strictly in the class of sharp cones is confirmed by analyzing test examples for two possible types of linear surface variations and their linear combination. The first variation is related to a linear scale and the second one relates to a cone angle. The compliance of numerical results of analytical estimates of δxƒ to the exact result is taken as a criterion. The validity of the obtained analytical results for bodies close to a sharp cone shape is estimated by comparing with the results of numerical computations based on the solutions of inviscid Euler equations for models of perfect gas or equilibrium and dissociating air.

It is shown that the first variation of the sharp cone pressure center δxƒ at the specified weak variation of its surface under supersonic and hypersonic flows at small angles of attack depends only on two dimensionless parameters: a cone angle θk and relation of derivatives  of its surface pressure coefficient. The integral dependence of the first variation norm δxƒ for a sharp cone on the surface variation δy(x) and the above parameters is developed. The integral dependence of the first variation norm δxƒ for a sharp cone is developed at the specified restrictive norming function ψ(x) for a set of admissible variations of the cone surface δy(x), which allows of estimating a scale of probable variations δxƒ in indefinite-type conditions δy(x). The method to determine qualitative variation of the sharp cone surface, which is close to maximum possible variation δxƒ at the specified variation constrains δy(x), is pointed out.

Bakhvalov A. V., Greshnyakov P. I., Gimavied A. G. Studies of hydraulic drive efficiency with discrete valve and switched inertia tube. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

For the last years, energy efficiency is one of the main and important issues in developing fluid power technology. The discrete method of regulation is of particular interest while the development of such systems, in which the fluid stream is alternately supplied to the hydraulic drive actuator. For this purpose, discrete action valves are used. They are relatively simple, reliable, insensitive to contamination, and possess low cost.

The paper presents the mathematical model of the hydraulic drive for loads lifting, containing discrete valve and switched inertia tube. Employing a switched inertia device (inertia tube and discrete valve) in the hydraulic drive system allows increase efficiency of such system by 20-30% due to the inflow of additional liquid from the low-pressure line (so-called flow amplifier mode).

As a result of dynamic processes simulation in MATLAB/Simulink package, transients occurring while hydraulic drive operation were calculated. The article analyzes the effect of the following parameters on the hydraulic drive efficiency: the discrete valve operation frequency in the pressure line, the pulse duty cycle, the diameter and length of the inertia tube. Regulation quality estimation is given in the movement of the output link of the hydraulic drive with a cargo on the set trajectory.

It was established that for the hydraulic drive with the pressure in the pressure line of 15 MPa and a weight of the cargo up to 1000 kg, the use of a hydraulic drive scheme with discrete valve and switched inertia tube allows increase its efficiency by 17% compared to the throttle control. The recommended parameters for such system configuration are as follows: the discrete valve operating frequency is 40 Hz, the pulse duty cycle is 30 to 50%, the inertial tube diameter is 10 mm, its length is no more than 10 m. The diameter of the discrete valve hole in the pressure line should be sel ected fr om conditions for ensuring the required speed of the output link.

The disadvantage is acoustic noise while using a switched inertia device. It is necessary to use a pulsation damper to eliminate it.

The obtained results can be useful for selecting hydraulic drive schemes with a higher coefficient of energy efficiency.

Vasiliev V. V., Lazarev V. V. Twin-fuselage aircraft: pro et contra. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The article analyzes virtues and shortcomings of the twin-fuselage aircraft configuration as applied to a passenger and cargo aircraft. It notes specifics of aerodynamic and weight perfection of the twin-fuselage aircraft. The peculiarities of aerodynamics and weight perfection of the twin-fuselage aircraft are noted. The article also reveals the differences between twin-fuselage aircraft configuration and the aircraft of traditional schemes. The main ones are the as follows.

The aircraft increase of the moment of inertia relative to the longitudinal axis complicates the compliance with the Part 25 airworthiness for recovering the aircraft from a turn with the tilt of 30° and entering it into a turn of the opposite direction with the tilt of 30° within no more than 7 seconds.

The emergence of specific natural modes of aircraft oscillations with the rotation of the fuselages in pitch plane with opposite phase.

The advantages of unswept central part of the wing are asserted. Attention is drawn to the increase of the aircraft pivoting radius on the ground and the complication of aircraft control when the pilot’s line of vision is shifted from the axis of the runway.

As twin-fuselage aircraft configuration has no advantages over traditional aircraft configuration, its use is advisable only for solution of specific problems. For example, developing a passenger aircraft with a passenger capacity exceeding 500 seats, or a multifunctional heavy transport aircraft for the cargo placing in two fuselages, as well as a hard cargo on the external sling between the fuselages.

Existence of the fuselage of certified donor aircraft will provide technical and economic efficiency of the twin-fuselage aircraft.

Boyko S. O. Methodology of spacecraft structural components position fine adjustment. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

With significant increase of satellite structural components size specifics of their relative position adjustment occur, associated with singular masses separate by a certain distance and structural elements coupling them.

All structural components are affected by various space factors, including temperature impact, which leads to satellite structure optimal geometric disposition changing due to deformations. The author suggests employing the six-degree-of-freedom adjustment actuator to ensure fine adjustment.

To control the adjustment device movement the author suggests the methodology based on implementation of measuring machine, three measuring spheres and an algorithm for measurement results processing. Contacting the spheres in at least four points, the measuring machine computes the coordinates of the position of each sphere’s center, which defines the spatial position of the adjustment device upper base. Data spheres’ centers position control is performed at the initial position (prior to spacial movement performing) and end position (after spacial movement performing). Position determining technique consists in the following. Using the obtained coordinates, we determine the values of the three linear and three angular movements of the plane, formed by the centers of the three spheres.

To determine the movemeents one should compute coefficients of coordinates’ transformation matrix for the displacement from the initial position to the end position.

Analyzing theoretical (defined by control block) and actual (computed from co-ordinate measuring device data) values of the adjustment actuator spatial movement allows evaluate transmission errors for every degree-of-freedom. Specified errors led to satellite structural components relative offset in an area, which depends on their distance from each other.

The proposed final adjustment methodology of structural elements and mechanical devices allows account for interaction of separate actuators in adjustment devise and structure of satellite geometry changing to achieve the specified parameters during ground experimental tests and on-orbit satellite functioning.

Gordeev S. V., Kanev S. V., Suvorov M. O., Khartov S. A. Evaluation of high-frequency ion thruster parameters. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

There is an increasing need for low Earth orbiting satellites for various purposes. Such satellites are cheaper to put into orbit (for altitudes 160−300 km), and can ensure high-resolution for Earth observation. However, lowering orbit altitude means that atmosphere gases concentration and the aerodynamic drag force increase causing decrease in the spacecraft orbit lifetime. Electric propulsion thrusters could be used to counteract the aerodynamic drag. For example, the European Space Agency spacecraft GOCE operating in a near-circular orbit with altitudes of 250−280 km for more than four years used the ion thruster T5 of QinetiQ Company for aerodynamic drag compensation. This thruster used onboard xenon as propellant. When the whole amount of propellant was consumed, the vehicle began lowering and burnt in atmosphere. Application of atmosphere gases as propellant may substantially increase lifetime of low orbit spacecraft.

This work focuses on the operation of high-frequency ion thrusters operating with atmosphere gases as propellant. Such thrusters may be used to counteract the aerodynamic drag of low Earth orbit spacecraft. Work processes in the ionization chamber of ion thruster were modeled. A mixture of atomic and molecular nitrogen and oxygen was considered as a propellant. During ionization each of these gases partially transforms in singly charged ions. The thruster characteristics, namely its thrust and consumed power were analyzed and compared to characteristics of the spacecraft from the viewpoint of its aerodynamic drag and solar panels power.

The results of this work demonstrate the possibility of creation a low orbit spacecraft with high-frequency ion thruster operating with atmosphere gases as propellant to counteract the aerodynamic drag.

Borovikov D. A., Ionov A. V., Seliverstov S. D., Yakovlev A. A. Analysis of the effect of additional axial stage of a compressor on characteristics of small-sized turbojet engines. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The article is devoted to the analysis of changes in characteristics of small-sized gas turbine engines with a two-stage axial-centrifugal compressor instead of a single-stage centrifugal compressor, and analysis of the current level of cycle parameters of small-sized gas turbine engines. The work was performed by mathematical modeling, using empirical data. Initial stage of the work revealed that even a slight improvement of modern small-sized engines cycle parameters would lead to a significant improvement in the main characteristics of the engine. Models were developed with average parameters in their class: air flow of 650 g/s, gas temperature of 1100 °K. A number of assumptions was made: the efficiency was fixed for all units, except the compressor at the operation level of design mode; generalized characteristics of high-speed turbocharges and characteristics of single-rotor single-loop single-cascade jet engine compressors were adopted as the characteristics of compressors. For a single-stage centrifugal compressor, the compression ratio in the rated mode was adopted as 4 at the level of the leading serial analogues, and for an axial-centrifugal as 5.7. Analysis of the obtained altitude-airspeed performance revealed that by employing an axial-centrifugal compressor instead of a centrifugal one we can expect improvements of the main parameters (internal thrust, specific thrust, specific fuel consumption) of the engine up to 10−15% in the entire range of airspeeds and altitudes. Particularly, in the basic modes of flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a similar engine, i. e. cruising (M = 0.8, H = 8000 m) and take-off (M = 0, H = 0m), thrust grew by 8%, and fuel consumption reduced by 12%. This result allows concluding that it is reasonable to use a constructive scheme of a small-sized engine with a two-stage axial-centrifugal compressor while developing new engines.

Moiseev K. A., Panov Y. N., Moiseev K. K. Mathematical model of a two-link tractor moving on the dirt road. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The article presents a mathematical model of a two-link object movement on the dirt road with periodic unevenness. This model may be useful for the suspension system development at the initial design stages. Mathematical models are presented for different viscoelastic characteristics of the coupling device. It studies the smoothness of the unit in resonant modes of motion of a two-unit tractor. The study of smoothness is based on the intensity curves, which are constructed using the amplitude-frequency characteristics. These characteristics were obtained from the solving the systems of differential equations by analytical matching method or numerical Runge-Kutta method. Matching method is very effective for dynamic systems studying if a differential equation does not exceed the sixth order. It is an organic combination of operator method and the method of variation of constants. Operator method allows construct the equation authorization for the original system of differential equations, and find coefficients of dissipation and frequency of free oscillations of the system under study. As for the method of variation of constants based on the solutions obtained by the operator method, it allows determine a particular solution of the original system of differential equations in the form convenient for analysis.

The obtained results can be applied to ground-car mobile and crawler units, a well as aircraft while studying its landing or emergency landing.

According to the obtained results the authors concluded that the improvement of the smoothness of a two-unit tractor when driving on dirt soil with periodic unevenness requires modification of the viscoelastic characteristics of the hitch mechanism, which, in its turn, alter geometric and weight parameters of the tractor.

Alliluyeva N. V., Rudenko E. M. Mathematical method of objective function calculation and routing problems solving. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

A lot of tasks of unmanned aviation on observation of the objects, in the most general set up is reduced to route selection between the two benchmarks, which lead to mathematical problem of optimization on the graph. It is assumed herewith that the route is closed and passes through all ribs of the graph. The optimization task on the graph meant for calculating the set of closed routes of minimal length relates to the integer programming problem [1].

The goal of the work consists in solving the optimization problem on the graph leading to obtaining optimal closed routes (OCR). The authors suggest genetic algorithm (GA) as an optimization method. For its implementation the objective function of sevral variables was developed, which simplified significantly the program code and reduced the computation time. The objective function represents the sum of three functions. The first function depends on the edges of the graph, and penalizes edges and loops which do not belong to the graph. The second function depends on the Euler model of the original graph, i. e. the method of the graph reduction to the Euler type by adding multiple edges. The third addend depends on the vertices of the graph and accounts for their multiplicity. The minimum of the objective function is achieved on OCR only.

The GA application allows obtain limited quantity of OCRs from a large variety of variants during finite time, which can be reproduced several times by using the group of the graph’s automorphisms. The presence of the OCRs variety allows planning the order of graphs fly-offs afield while solo and group flights, promptly regroup monitoring routes in consecutive and dispersed flight over various ribs and without intersection at vertices.

Diveev A. I., Konyrbaev N. B. Quadrotor group control by variation analytical programming technique. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The article analyzes an applied problem of area monitoring with a quadrotor group. The problem solves in two stages. At the first stage, the problem of searching an optimal route for each quadrotor is solving. This problem is the problem for travelling salesman group in 3D space, and related to the class of computation tasks of NP-difficulty. Variation genetic algorithm is applicable for such task solving. This genetic algorithm employs the principle small variations of basic solution. All genetic operations perform on the sets of basic solution variations. The rate of convergence of the genetic algorithm depends on the obtained basic solution. At the second stage, the problem of synthesis of quadrotors control to ensure their movement along the routs obtained at the first stage is solving. To solve the problem synthesis of control the numerical symbolic regression method was employed, i. e. method of variation analytical programming, which allows finding mathematical expression for a control function. The arguments of this function are contained in the quadrotor state vector. The control function ensures an optimal mode of quadrotor stability relative to the point in state space.

An example of control problem solution for two quadrotors group is presented.

Terekhov R. I. The study of a regional airplane's emergency remote servo-control specifics in longitudinal channel. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

In this article servo-control means the principle when control levers are coupled with their control tabs rather than main control surfaces. Control tab is a small surface located in control surface tail section. Its deflection causes the hinge moment occurrence, which moves the control surface.

The purpose of the emergency servo-control consists in ensuring redundancy of a mixed flight control system. The study was conducted for regional aircraft with two independent hydraulic systems and two elevators for longitudinal adjustment and control. Two conventional electrohydraulic servoactuators (EHSA) provide each elevator deflection in the main control mode. Each elevator has a control tab with electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) for emergency control in case of both hydraulic systems failure, when all the EHSAs switch to damping mode.

The estimated value of control tab’s own hinge moment is significantly less than elevator’s hinge moment. Such small-sized EMA of low weight could be used to control tab deflection.

The description of elevator deflection dynamics includes the non-linear dependencies of both elevator’s and control tab’s hinge moments, damping force caused by EHSAs in damping mode, and elevator aerodynamic damping.

After the loss of hydraulic power, the elevators move under the hinge moment. It could result inthe exceeding the operational values of angle of attack or normal g-factor of the aircraft. For smooth and safe transition between control modes, the control tabs in main mode should be controlled so as the elevator hinge moment close to zero. Furthermore, such deflection of control tabs allows reduce the EHSAs load during the flight.

The handling quality of an aircraft being in servo-control mode depends on a considerable degree on the actuator damping coefficient. In the course of the study the acceptable range of actuator damping coefficient values necessary to provide the required handling qualities in emergency control mode has been determined. Flight simulator study with test pilots involved proved that aircraft handling qualities in servo-control mode ensured the safe flight continuation and landing.

Kozlov A. V., Kozlova M. V., Skorik N. A., Sharonov A. V. Application of multispectral satellite imagery to monitoring of vegetation activity annual dynamics. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The paper presents the results of application of multispectral images obtained from OrbView-2 and Envisat missions to monitoring of vegetation activity annual dynamics at 12 test sites in Volga-Akhtuba floodplain based on conventional FAPAR index over a decade since 1997, including drought summer season of 2006, as a part of a project conducted by N.N. Zubov State Oceanographic Institute for monitoring of Lower Volga. The territory under consideration extends over 9000 square kilometers, thus making the use of satellite imagery to be the only source of assessing the overall ecosystem state. Time series of FAPAR values for regular (non anomalous) years are being approximated by a single harmonic model function. This function then serves as a reference to analyze deviations of particular FAPAR values from it. To introduce stronger physical relation between reference model function and parameters of the environment we consider using public annual temperature data from weather stations of World meteorological organization in addition to satellite images. The two models, one with temperature variations included and one without these, are then calibrated and compared against each other at all test sites. Mathematical and physical rationale for both types of models and some visual examples of their calibration are given. Our study concludes that despite of the fact that using the temperature data improves the accuracy of vegetation dynamics model, this effect does not prove to be significant, while yet increasing demands in the amount of input data for analysis. Quantitative statistical results support the case.
Malygin I. V., Belkov S. A., Tarasov A. D., Usvyatsov M. R. Machine learning methods in classification of radio signals. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

This paper is devoted to the issue of recognizing received encoded radio signal sequences. Traditionally, correlators or matched filters are used in communication systems to detect and process noise-like signals. These two models use a threshold detection parameter. The use of a neural network is proposed to improve the quality of signal recognition when the noise characteristics in an environment are unknown. The neural network is a non-linear model with a relatively large number of parameters which tests proposed examples during the learning phase and attempts to reproduce the relationship between them using the responses. To use the neural network, it is necessary to reformulate the original issue in terms of optimization. That is, to enter a quality functional, which will be optimized, and choose a method of optimization for the given functionality. To select the neural network parameters that achieve the optimum of the quality functional, the back propagation algorithm will be used. The stochastic gradient descent algorithm determined by the quality functional will be used to calculate parameter updates of the neural network. For convenience, only digital signals will be considered in this paper. Nevertheless, the method described in this paper can be applied to a continuous signal. The digitizing of a continuous signal will transform the task into one of signal detecting, which has been formulated above. In each cycle of the receiver’s operation, a signal is generated at its input.

The signal is a sequence of fixed-length and can either be similar to the protocol-defined signal, or be significantly different. Therefore, the task can be formulated as a task of binary classification of the received signal in each cycle of the receiver’s operation as a valid signal and noise.

It is assumed that the quality of recognition will be better than with the traditional methods because, during training, the neural network is able to memorize the special features of the noise and, consequently, use the obtained model at the signal classification stage.

A diagram for an experimental stand is also provided in this paper that would allow for the confirmation of this assumption.
Yanushkevich V. F. Radio-pulse signals interaction with anisotropic media above hydrocarbon deposits. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The article analyzes the interaction of electromagnetic waves in radio-pulse signals mode with the medium above hydrocarbon deposits. Tensor of the dielectric permittivity constant of an anisotropic medium over the deposit in the mode of radio-pulse signals is derived by means of a quasi-hydrodynamic approach using multi-particle electron-ion currents. The study was carried out based on the solution of the electron motion equation. Hilbert transform was employed to find the envelope and instantaneous frequency of the two acting signals. The components of the medium’s dielectric permittivity constant above hydrocarbons were analyzed. Selection of the radio-pulse signals’ frequencies was stipulated by determining characteristics of media over deposits at great depths compared to the earth surface. It is shown that the results of the study can be used to identify the environment over deposits by the nature and magnitude of the total and differential components of the dielectric permittivity constant of the anisotropic layer. The tensor of the dielectric constant of the anisotropic medium over the hydrocarbon deposit in the radio-pulse signals mode can be used to determine the electrodynamic characteristics of the medium above the deposit in a wide range of probed signals’ frequencies, dielectric permittivity and conductivity of the media. The studies can be applied to determine characteristics of the medium over the deposit under the propagation of electromagnetic waves with right and left-hand circular polarizations, which increases the informative value of the methods of contouring and the hydrocarbon deposits allocation. The propagation of electromagnetic waves with left-hand polarization while changing the dielectric constant of the medium leads to the alteration in the combination component with a change in the sign of the differential component. Thus, it can be used to develop methods of electromagnetic exploration, search and identification of hydrocarbon deposits. Electromagnetic methods of hydrocarbon search and identification can be updated due to the received information on objects through not only one or two information channels but also using larger quantity of them, which enables their boundaries to be identified against the background of the underlying environment with a sufficiently high level of certainty. The results of the study can be applied in geophysics search.

Kuznetsov V. S., Shevchenko I. V., Volkov A. S., Solodkov A. V. Ensemble of Gold’s codes generation for direct-sequence spread spectrum. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The article considers generation of m-sequences and Gold’s codes employed in spectrum spreading systems. The goal of the article consists in ensembles systematization and search for all pairs of polynomials, forming Gold’s codes.

Gold’s codes have a low level of cross-correlation between the sequences in the ensemble, which allows employ them for users’ separation in communication systems. Maximum number of users in the system depends on the number of sequences in the code ensemble.

The classical method of e-sequences and Gold’s codes generation is representation of generator in the form of linear-feedback shift register (LFSR), since this approach ensures the simplicity of algorithm implementation to a digital unit. Employing the classical generation method (based on the generator representation in the form of LFSR) becomes non-optimal while generating ensembles of long sequences (N > 210 – 1). The generation time of all Gold’s code pairs grows significantly due to the number of all possible combinations increasing while sorting pairs of sequences.

The Gold’s code generation method using the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and decimations defined for the codes under consideration generation was selected. Based on this algorithm the authors developed the program for searching the preferable pairs returning the Gold’s code under addition modulo two. The main goal of the program is generation of all volume of the Gold’s code family. The obtained results were checked by evaluation of the value and number of cross-correlation peaks of the two tested sequences. The obtained results can be implemented in the systems employing direct spectrum spreading, such as CDMA.

The paper presents the number of binary polynomials and the list of the number of unique polynomial pairs for the code length up to m ≤ 16, forming Gold’s codes. The full list of primitive polynomials for the code length of N = 210 – 1 is presented. The example of preferable pairs of primitive polynomials of m-th degree (m = 5) is given. The number of pairs polynomials for generating Gold-like codes for the degrees of m = 8 and m = 12 of code seeds is given.

The obtained results can be implemented while developing communication systems with users’ separation for obtaining overall Gold’s ensemble and studying the properties of the obtained sequences and their derivatives.

Bakhtin A. A., Omel'yanchuk E. V., Semenova A. Y. Analysis of present-day capabilities of organizing ultra-high-speed satellite radio links. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

According to the «Digital Economy of Russian Federation» program, new requirements for wireless communication technologies, including technologies for remote sensing systems (RSS) are now being put forward. The share of Russian remote sensing data in the total amount of remote sensing data used in Russian geographic information systems will grow steadily and reach 90% by 2024 [1]. At the same time, it will be necessary to ensure complex implementation of the overall technical capabilities of the manifold of spacecraft and ground infrastructure in order to obtain the large amount of RSS data of the required quality [2].

The article considers technical characteristics of modern remote sensing spacecraft from the viewpoint of radio downlink organization. It presents the problem of the discrepancy between the current throughput rate of the satellite channel and the volume of transmitted information from the remote sensing.

The existing radio RSS links keep on employing various frequency ranges depending on the requirements for the communication system. However, the X-band and K-band have the largest bandwidth for RS data transmission. It is shown that the standard transmission rates in the X-band are 150 Mbps and 300 Mbps employing standard modulation and coding methods, while maximum throughput rate of the satellite radio channel of some foreign satellite communication systems reaches 1 Gbps [3].

Future methods and modern trends for increasing throughput rate were determined based on the analysis of modern satellite transmitters for remote sensing systems: methods of modulation and error control coding in the X-band , as well as the possibility of transition to the K-band. The article shows that in practice the use of the K-band at the present time does not allow achieving the required advantage in radio link capacity. This, in particular, is caused by more stringent requirements for the implementation of on-board and ground-based equipment imposed on the transmitters in the K-band, as well as due to the higher losses in the propagation of radio waves in this range. As the main recommendations for the development of high-speed satellite radio links equipment, we should indicate implementation of modulation and coding schemes with high spectral efficiency, the use of several channels and the adaptability of the communication system. The authors propose a modulation scheme with high spectral efficiency [23] as well as the implementation of four-channel transmitter scheme [24] allowing combine X- and K-band transceivers to achieve larger total throughput rate of the radio link. Development prospects in this area should also include the development of an element base in the K-band of frequencies and an increase in the accuracy of antenna guidance for a polarization decoupling employing.

Vovasov V. E., Betanov V. V., Turlykov P. Y. Navigation receiver and accelerometers integration for coordinates and orientation evaluation of highly-dynamic objects. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

One of the effective methods of noise immunity improving is implementation of integrated inertial-satellite systems. NAP GNSS with INS integration will allow eliminate the existing shortcomings of each system separately. Typically, integration involves the joint processing of pseudo-range, pseudo-phase and pseudo-velocities, obtained by the GNSS receiver, as well as vectors of angular velocities and accelerations derived with non-stationary Kalman filter, which will be called the Kalman filter type (KFT).

Highly dynamic object is characterized by the presence of jerking while moving. The jerking is customarily understood as the discontinuous change of the third derivative of a coordinate with respect to time. To ensure this requirement it is necessary to employ navigation receiver with signal phase tracking system with the third order astatism. Employing a navigation receiver with conventional second order filter within the system of signal envelope tracking just enough for delay tracking. Since the exact model for integrating equations of orientation is based on the model proposed by Bartram, it complicates the use KFT, as it requires rather complex notation of derivatives in analytical form. The state vector of the filter should include accelerometers’ instrumental error, namely the rate of zero drift and scale factor error of each, which expands the state vector, and thus reduces the potential accuracy. Besides, the use of high-speed gyroscopes requires a priori orientation setting.

In this regard, we suggest using no gyroscopes, positioning accelerometers to the phase center of navigation receiver antenna, and rotating herewith the frame with mounted antenna and accelerometers in a prescribed manner. It is necessary for orientation determining in the event of uniform movement of the object, i.e. when the measurement of the accelerometers is close to zero. Integration of these devices, each of which possesses the ability to determine positioning, gives the system a new feature, namely orientation determining.

In this case, the KFT forming-up with this type of integration does not cause mathematical difficulties, and adaptive KFT element in use allows tracking course maneuvers of the object, while frames rotation allows orientation estimating even with rectilinear and uniform motion of the frame’s center.

Erokhin V. V. Multi-criteria optimization of the trajectory of an aircraft in the augmentation area of the satellite navigation system. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

A promising trend for improving organization and management of air traffic is the implementation of the concept of communications, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management, developed by the international civil aviation organization. This concept is based on the principles of broadcasting automatic dependent surveillance (ADS-B), which is a digital system for airborne transmission of flight path parameters by data of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). To solve the problems of high-precision positioning and of flight safety, a ground-based augmentation system is used. When controlling the flight path, the aircraft position relative to the ADS-B ground station changes, thus affecting the Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP). In addition, when the distance from a local area augmentation system (LAAS) increases, the effect of decorrelation factors on the compensation of systematic errors increases as well.
Thus, the task of the trajectory managing arises under the condition of simultaneous minimization of several optimality criteria − minimization of the range and duration of flight, positioning error and reduction of the distance to the LAAS. The minima of individual particular criteria is generally achieved with varioius parameters of the flight path, therefore, in addition, the need to select the rules for decision-making in the multi-criteria optimization problem taking into account the existing constraints arises.
The goal of the work consists in synthesizing and studying the algorithm controlling an aircraft flight path in the terminal area when implementing the concept of area navigation based on multi-criteria optimization methods.
The algorithm for multi-criteria optimization of the flight trajectory in the area of GNSS augmentation is synthesized based on minimax control. It is shown, that the developed algorithm provides a compromise solution by the vector optimization criterion. Controlled flight trajectory allows reduce the range and flight time compared to the classical flight with high accuracy in determining the parameters of the flight path.
Thus, the developed algorithm for controlling trajectories allows us to find a compromise solution of the multi-criteria optimization problem. The obtained results can be applied for planning routes and flight profiles, as well as for programming the construction of spatial trajectories in order to achieve high accuracy of position fixing.

Klenov E. A. Algorithms and software for competitive analysis (on the example of aerospace industry objects). Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

Solving problems of the competitive analysis refers to the modern theory of decision-making. Decision makers should have necessary and sufficient information on new technologies in the industry, key competitors, potential risks, etc., as well as have time to process it and take optimal decisions.

The goal of this work is developing of competitive analysis tools that is methodical, mathematical and software systems for supporting decision-making based on global competition modeling on the major stages of the life cycle of aerospace industry high-tech products.

The article suggested for the first time an extension of the classical model of analysis of M. Porter’s five competitive forces, namely, a model of global competition. It also proposed methods for competitive strategy designing and forecasting the state of the industry markets based on of the behavior of intelligent agents, game theory and decision-making theory, methods of analysis of the competitiveness of high-tech product. Among the obtained results are the following:

  1. Developed the model of global competition in the aerospace industry. The model is characterized by introducing new forces/agents into the game: complementors and influentors. The model contains also the self-similar hierarchical market subsystems.

  2. Proposed method of competition analysis in the key stages of a product life cycle — a) scientific and technical b) technological and c) market.

  3. Developed mathematical methods of designing competitive strategies, the behavior of intelligent agents, predicting the state of the industry markets, quantitative assessment of the competitiveness of high-tech products manufacturers.

  4. Developed a software package Competiton based on the model of global competition, consisting of a support system for decision-making and automated data collection module. Also developed algorithms and special software for effective data collection and analysis.

  5. As a result of using Competition software package recommendations were developed to improve the competitiveness of the medical information systems for medical-flight examination, based on the collection and analysis of evidence of primary information sensors using biofeedback techniques. These recommendations form the basis for the creation of medical information-analytical system DigitalMed.

The developed models, algorithms and software are used for the analysis of global competition for existing businesses of the aerospace industry and has shown its effectiveness.

Mikhailov N. A. Development of an algorithm of a group of unmanned aerial vehicles evolution for signature reduction. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

For a long time the work has been underway on the development of the systems defending from small-sized unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAV) [1-3]. Modern unmanned air systems are capable of successfully overcoming the enemy’s air defense systems when used singly, [5], but the use of SUAVs group significantly increases the probability of their detection, due to better group’s visibility and less maneuverability compared to a single SUAV. The complexity of SUAV detecting is associated with a small value of radar cross-section (RCS) in radar observation range. In the optical and infrared observation ranges, the small sizes of SUAV complicates their detection as well. However, there is information on developing the control system for enhancing RCS for a group of missiles or UAVs [4]. One of the current problems of multiple SUAV’s application consists in reducing the group’s visibility in optical range when passing the air defense systems. As it is noted in [6], the visibility can be reduced by «reducing of the aircraft size». In this case, regarding the multiple SUAV’s application, we should speak about reducing the total area occupied by SUAV’s group in the image. An appropriate SUAVs group regrouping to reduce its visibility can solve this problem. This paper demonstrates how various groups’ readjustments could reduce their visibility. Various scenarios of the group entry into the scope of the enemy’s air defense systems were considered. A comparative efficiency analysis of various staffed formations was carried out. An algorithm providing for the operational reconstruction of the drone’s group, oriented to implementation using the Pixhawk autopilot was developed. Computer simulation using the model of autopilot and drone, which showed the operability of the proposed algorithm, was performed.

Sirotin A. N. On special cases of a problem of an optimal control of angular movement of symmetric spacecraft stabilized by rotation . Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

Stabilization by rotation and stabilization of a spacecraft relative to the three axes are the main methods employed to maintain the exact solid body orientation. The idea of rotation stabilization is based on the application of a gyroscopic effect. The advantage of this method, compared to the other approaches, consists in simplicity and the lack of a prolonged active rotation period to maintain orientation in a certain direction. Rotational stabilization was being employed for a large number of foreign and Soviet/Russian spacecraft. Application of rotation stabilization for passive control is relevant for spacecraft with limited resources. However, the shortcomings of the passive stabilization method are also well known and are associated mainly with the problem of the exact reorientation of space antennas and optics. Thus, frequently used maneuvers for angular motion lead to the need to resort to solving problems of controlling the exact reorientation in three-dimensional space.

The article studies the problem of angular motion optimal control of a rigid body by stabilized rotation. The efficiency criterion of is a minimum of energy costs. Compared to the general problem of reorientation and rotation control, the problem of bodies with stabilized rotation from the mathematical viewpoint is somewhat simpler. It is explained by reduction of dimensionality and complexity of the corresponding nonlinear equations of the system. Nevertheless, the problem of controlling joint reorientation and rotation remains complex and nonlinear. This, in turn, does not allow obtaining the required analytical result at the given time. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to obtain a characterization of extremal trajectories. There is a possibility to study in detail the problem of zero stabilization by rotation, when the projection of the angular velocity on one of the axes is identically zero.

Vasilyev B. E., Magerramova L. A., Kolotnikov M. E., Golubovsky E. R., Volkov M. E. CIAM data bank on materials structural strength. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The design of a modern aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE) is associated with numerous calculations of the stress-strain state, strength and dynamics of the engine components and parts. It involves several processes, including substantiation of the main components sources, certification, analysis of the defects origins detected while operation and implementation of measures that can prevent the defects occurrence. Thus, the design procedure requires a complete set of data on the structural strength (realized in the course of the design) of the materials used.

This paper presents the results of the long-term work in CIAM on the development of the database (DB) for information storage on the structural strength of the metal alloys used in manufacturing of the main and critical parts of an aviation GTE. The DB contains characteristics of a large number of materials obtained from experiments on 10000 specimens (more than 120 titles). Knowing these characteristics is necessary to perform calculations of the static strength and cyclic durability, dynamic characteristics and life of the GTE parts in a wide range of loading and operation conditions. The DB is based on the “Granta MI platform” software and consists of several sections containing reference information, experimental results, statistical processing results and characteristics for calculations. A description of the database structure, its functional capabilities and user interaction features is provided. A structure has also been developed for the DB section designed for samples made by using additive manufacturing.

The developed CIAM databank on the structural strength of materials corresponds to current global analogues and can be used by the aircraft engine industry to calculate strength and dynamics, as well as to examine defects.

Aksenov A. Y., Zaytseva A. A., Kuleshov S. V., Nenausnikov K. V. Possible landing support variants while unmanned multi-rotor flying vehicle's off-line control . Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The paper analyses the problem of a small multi-rotor UAV control in various flight modes. The modern tendencies of control systems design for self-supporting UAVs assume employing methods allowing decrease the level of the spacial position uncertainty and surrounding conditions of the UAV itself without external pilot’s (operator) engagement.

With this, the standard technological solution for a certain number of critical flight phases, requiring precise spatial positioning and control (such as take-off, hovering over landing site, and landing) does not exist. These phases require more precise UAV’s control, due to the necessity of holding it in a specified point in space. The presented article analyses principles of auto-take-off-auto-landing systems design, based on computer vision (CV) methods implementation, and considers specifics of markers employing.

The article analyses the existing auto-take-off-auto-landing systems without global positioning implementation. It suggests an approach to the auto-take-off-auto-landing system design based on computer vision, for an UAV of a multi rotor or a helicopter type. Three types of the system components mutual arrangement were considered and analyzed, and merits and demerits of each configuration were formulated.

The article shows that with any cameras positioning within the auto-take-off-auto-landing system, it is necessary to employ markers to facilitate localization of the key points the UAV or a landing site by the CV systems. Various methods of markers’ positioning and realization of marker labels, depending on marker’s position were analyzed. Markers on the landing site can be realized by the following methods: contrast image of some pattern, liable to identification by the CV methods; lights, remotely controlled by the processor; colored or infrared LEDs, operating in continuous or pulse mode. Variants of marker labels on an UAV are as follows: colored or infrared LEDs, operating in continuous or pulse mode; lights, remotely controlled by the processor; the system of angle reflectors and illuminator; contrast image-pattern (including a fuselage shape).

The studies revealed that the controlled markers mode was preferable in all cases, when formation of a control channel between an UAV and landing system was possible.

Further research will be devoted to development of software for auto-landing system based on obtained marker implementation recommendations.

Lukin V. N., Nikitin I. K. Video sequences retrieval algorithm. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The article focuses on the algorithms of the event detection in content-based video retrieval. Video has a complex structure and can express the same idea in different ways. This makes the task of searching for video more complicated. Video titles and text descriptions cannot give the whole information about objects and events in the video. This creates a need for content-based video retrieval. There is a semantic gap between low-level video features, that can be extracted, and the users’ perception. The task of event detection is reduced to the task of video segmentation. Complex content-based video retrieval can be regarded as the bridge between traditional retrieval and semantic-based video retrieval. The properties of video as a time series are described. The concept of anomalies in the video is introduced. A method for event detection based on comparing moving averages with windows of different sizes is proposed. According to the classification given at the beginning of this article, our method refers to statistical methods. It differs from other methods of low computational complexity and simplicity. The video stream processing language is proposed for function-based description of video handling algorithms. So, our method is formulated in the form of a declarative description on an interpreted programming language. Unfortunately, most of the existing video processing methods use exclusively imperative approach, which often complicate its understanding. Examples of this language implementation are given. Its grammar is described either. As it was shown by the experiments, the implementation of the proposed video events retrieval method, unlike their counterparts, can work for video streams as well with a real-time and potentially infinite frame sequences. Such advantages within low computational requirements make implementation of the method helpful in aviation and space technology. The algorithm has some disadvantages due to necessity of parameter selection for particular task classes. The theorem on near-duplicates of video is formulated at the end of the article. It asserts the near-duplicate videos express the same sequence of phenomena.

Astapov V. Y., Khoroshko L. L., Afshari P. .., Khoroshko A. L. Application of CAD system for simulation and study of magnetic-pulse welding of the tubular structures. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

Liquids and gases are widely used in aircrafts structures as energy carriers for propulsion systems, in hydraulic actuators and pneumatic boosters, and as coolants, lubricants or in pneumatic actuators to ensure vital activity of a crew and passengers. The presence of liquid and gaseous media onboard an aircraft leads to the necessity of employing piping systems. One could hardly imagine fuel and pneumatic systems of modern aircraft without pipelines and automatic equipment, regulating their delivery. At present, aircraft and helicopter pipeline systems count thousands of tubular structures joints. The aggregate length pipelines herewith is hundreds plus meters. There are various pipelines with diameters sized from units to several tens of millimeters from various materials – aluminum, titanium, steel and other alloys. The great majority of them herewith are various fixed junctions with tips, flanges or pipes between each other.

The presented article is devoted to methodology development of automated design of both aircraft pipelines structures in 3D space, including various complex pipeline structures, and modeling the process of magnetic-pulse deformation and formation of fixed junctions of pipelines between each other from homogenous and heterogeneous materials using CAD system. For this purpose a computer solid-state simulation is used together with solving the dynamic problem of junction formation while varying various structure parameters, characteristics of materials and parameters of magneto-pulse deformation.

On creating pipelines parts and further modeling of the magnetic-pulse deformation the Autodesk Invertor design environment was used. To model 3D objects which axisymmetric tubular workpieces of junction structures can be related to, various tools for geometry creation were used. While modeling the process of high speed deformation by pulsing magnetic field and formation of junctions the Autodesk Simulation Mechanical 2015 program, allowing effectively try out tubular workpieces assembly with the required surface shapes, parts sizes and specified characteristics of materials, was used. This simulation of the process of connecting tubular workpieces by pressure of pulse magnetic field allows select effective modes of deformation in terms of junction quality to form the required parameters of welding in cold state in contact zones of tubular structures.

Ye W. T., Markin L. V. Discrete models of ensuring service areas and automated layout of aircraft. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The article considers the solution of a problem of the instruments automating layout design in the aircraft technical compartments. An additional requirement to the layout is the ensuring of service areas, which is understood as assembling or servicing ease of the equipment. The purpose of this study consists in developing methods and algorithms, providing access to assembly tools and the workspace while installation and maintenance of the already installed equipment.

The gist of methodological approach employed in this study consists in modeling of spatial movements of the equipment necessary for performing maintenance work on this equipment. The set of equipment necessary for its assembling and dismantling (screwdrivers, wrenches, special installation tools etc) is determined for each unit. On its basis the geometry model of this equipment is formed. Further, all necessary movements for both the assembly process itself (such as a wrench rotational motion) and the process of installation tools delivery to the work point are determined. Thus, modeling of this process is rather complicated task of geometric modeling.

Solving method is geometric modeling of both placed objects, and mounting hardware and the trajectory of its motion. Thus, both the mounting hardware and motion trajectory are considered as assembling objects. Intersection with other objects is unallowable. Geometric receptor models, discretizing the installation area, are used a modeling method. Selection of receptor models is stipulated by the fact that a solid-state model of the entire positions of the assembling tools in the course of their delivery and operation is utterly geometrically complex. Based on heuristic algorithms the possible trajectory of assembling tools delivery to its point of use is used. This trajectory represents a solid-state model of the instantaneous movements of the installation tool along the sel ected path.

Based on the receptor computational model the authors developed the procedure for determining the movement trajectory of the installation tools, or the finding of fact of impossibility to service the concrete object, which indicates the poor (low-tech) design decision.

The disadvantage of the receptor geometric model is that it is not a initial model for a design engineer. The initial information for the designer is parametric model containing of the primitive's description and its main parameters values, which can easily determine fr om the drawing. Therefore, the necessity in extra program module “Parametric model”↔“Receptor model” arises. Thus, we can consider receptor model as an “intrаcomputer model”.

The advantage of the receptor model, determining its selection for our studies, is the ease of determining the condition of intersection of geometric objects described by this method, which cannot be described analytically. For instruments in need of servicing three receptor models are being developed: geometric shape of assembling tool, its delivery trajectory to the point of use, and working space where this tool would be used. With this, the database is used, determining the necessary installation tool for each type of the object in servicing. The type of the assembling tool is determined by the type of attachment this object in aircraft structure. The installation tools acceptable for the specified operation are ranked also according to productivity and operational comfort. Thus, the installation tools are checked on workability by preferability. The preferability is determined by productivity and operational comfort of installation tools acceptable for work.

Thus, a solid state geometric object of extremely complex shape lacking analytical description is developed. If this object can be accommodated among the already installed aircraft instrumentation, this equipment can be serviced, otherwise– it cannot be serviced. The possibility of rather easily determining the fact of intersection of all objects of the scene described by receptor models, is the substantiation of selection in our studies of receptor method of geometric modeling.

The authors developed the software in C# implementing the described receptor geometric models allowing evaluate the possibility of servicing the already installed equipment in the aircraft technical bay.

Buslaev S. P., Vorontsov V. A., Grafodatskiy O. S. Problems of Venusian spacecraft landing modeling for various soil-analogues. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The subject of this study is the problem of Venusian analogues-groups simulation, which arises anew while planning the future spacecraft expeditions to new areas of Venus. Here, under the analogs-soils, we imply mathematical models or purposefully made in terrestrial conditions artificial physical models of soils to substitute natural soils of Venus. These analogs-soils are employed for landing dynamics calculation and testing of a spacecraft landing on soil.

The goal of this work consists in analyzing the problems while developing new analogues and the experience of employing analogs-soils in JSC “NGO Lavochkin” during the by-gone Soviet spacecraft “Venus 9-14” and “Vega 1-2” development.

At present, planetologists еtake interest in studying new areas of Venus, where tectonic processes occurred earlier. They expect to bump into ancient rock yield of the planet in these areas, which wlould help to elucidate the history of Venus evolution.

On June 15 1985 the Vega-2 spacecraft landing had completed a fifteen-year series of successful landings of ten Soviet spacecraft on the surface of Venus. Structurally, the landing mechanism was attached to a cushioning toroidal shell, which was deformed and absorbed the kinetic energy of the spacecraft, while hitting the surface. Analysis of radar images of the Venusian surface revealed that all Soviet spacecraft landed in the areas with predomination plain types of Venusian terrain. The terrain relief of this area differs from the one, with the new landing areas. The area with the new landing areas was called “tesserae”, which in Greek means “tile”. The “tessera” relief represents an aggregate of intersecting ridges and furrows, the ridges’ height herewith can reach up to 1–2 km, the ledges – up to 1 km, while slope angles of the surface can reach up to 30 degrees.

The spacecraft landing practice was performed at the JSC “NPO Lavochkin” on both physical and mathematical test benches. The article lists the objectives of physical tests. Models of deformable and non-deformable soils were employed for landing practice. The article presents the description of the physical test bench, which was employed for developing mathematical model of a spacecraft penetration into deformable Venusian soil. It also presents the description of mathematical models of landing on various models of soil.

The work lists the sequence of models simulating the spacecraft hit with the soil. These models are listed by the degree of their complication – from a flat impact on an non-deformed flat surface to a spatial impact on an elastic-viscous-plastic medium with a complex relief.

Finally, the article drew conclusions that two most common basic problems exist for soil-analogue:

– Selection of hypothetical soil of Venus in the “tesserae” area;

– Selection of Earth soil-analogue, corresponding to the hypothetical Venusian soil.

The relief in new regions of Venus is much more complicated than the terrain in which Soviet vehicles landed, so these problems are of particular importance for the safe landing of spacecraft.

Emelyanov A. A., Malyshev V. V., Smolyaninov Y. A., Starkov A. V. Formalization of the problem of operative target functioning of diverse spacecraft for remote Earth probing. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The existence of a steady and rapidly growing demand for remote probing data (RPD) stimulates organizations operating the domestic spacecraft grouping (RPD) and ground infrastructure to seek the ways to improve the system’s efficiency.

Presently, the topical problem consists in the lack of multi-objective planning of intended use of aggregate information resource of diversified orbital grouping, insufficient level of automation, the lack of means for feasibility calculation of consumers’ applications, insufficient operative planning horizon, which does not allow rational employing of a spacecraft technical capabilities.

The article considers the issues associated with formalization of up-to-date task of target grouping operations planning for various types of remote probing spacecraft and development of a set of interrelated mathematical models necessary for specialized software developing that allows create optimal control programs for surveying in a realistic situation at a given planning interval.

An approach to the solution of the planning problem for a spacecraft group of the one type is proposed. The initial set of surveying objects is being divided into subsets according to the type of shooting equipment specified in the consumer’s application, and by the geometric parameters of the survey areas. Models for changing the occupied volume of the on-board storing device and changing the orientation of the line of sight of the camera are presented in the form of discrete equations of state. The basic formulas necessary for determining the moments of possible shooting of point and area objects, determining the boundaries of possible radio communication intervals with ground receiving points of information, checking the conditions of shooting by illumination and the amount of clouds over the survey area are presented. A technique for calculating the area captured in a single survey of a specific spacecraft and the area captured by a spacecraft group in the planning interval is described. As a model of the plan, a pair of interrelated programs is considered: a time sequence of switching on and off the survey and radio transmitting equipment of the spacecraft of the group and a piecewise linear program for reorienting the line of sight of the camera. A criterion for the effectiveness of the plan is introduced in the form of a linear convolution of the normalized information efficiency and the relative costs of the onboard resource of a group of similar spacecraft.

The solution of the task of planning the target functioning of a grouping of diverse types of spacecraft is reduced to the sequential solution of planning problems for groups of the same type of spacecraft that are part of the initial grouping.

Lavrentyeva M. V., Govorkov A. S. Objects identification in e-model structure by identified formal parameters in the design and engineering environment. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

The study relates to the field of design automation and technological preparation of production in aircraft construction. The authors propose a technique for a product e-model objects’ structure identification by formalized parameters. For this purpose, the technique for contour pattern recognition, allowing identify geometric primitives bounding the surfaces, that form contours of each structural element, is employed. Thus, the necessity to develop structural geometric model of a product arises. It is necessary to identify hereafter the formal parameters of a part structure objects. The article considers the sequence of work with part’s e-model, which employs production rules, theory of sets elements, and apparatus of mathematical logic. The obtained structural and technological parameters of a part allow qualify it to a certain type, i. e. identify. Identification of a part, its structure and data on its coupling face allows define technological parameters, which structural form sets the geometrical requirements to basing. The article presents several basic rules for establishing the relation between individual parts, which can be used while a part processability evaluation, development of routes of producing and assembling, as well as technological equipment design.

Thus, recognition systems implementation will significantly increase production efficiency by structural and technological problems solution unification. It will serve as a platform for intelligent systems of decision making of various directionality within the industry, which will allow decrease the effect of human factor while decision making due to formal criteria employing. Recognition systems implementation will allow ensure competitive products’ manufacturing with product’s structure with high target manufacturing and operating processability indices. The project is based on idea of technologist’s knowledge formalization, and developing on its basis the system of decision-making support. It will allow reduce the number of errors while performing technical control of the product while production start-up, and decrease production costs due to analyzing several design solutions and selection of composition-optimal structural elements with the specified level of processability and cost. The project is flexible while adjusting, with the possibility of implementation at various machine-building enterprises.

Zanin K. A. Developing of a model of spacial resolution evaluation of a synthesized aperture space radar. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 96,

At present, there are contradictions in the formulation of the indicators of resolving power of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Developers of SAR equipment usually suggest evaluate the resolution through the width of the profile of the scattering functions (hardware function). This definition simplifies the commissioning of the target equipment, but does not take into account the resolution relationship with the radiometric characteristics of the X-ray diffraction pattern, the background signal of the underlying surface, and random synthesizing errors.

The inflated expectations of the consumers of radar information quality come into conflict with the requirements of the design specifications formulated by the developer of the target equipment based on their parochial interests. As a result, to formulate the requirements of the design specifications, it is necessary to develop methods for evaluating the quality of the radar image (SAR) that account for the characteristics of SAR.

The article suggests an improved method for estimating the spatial resolution of a synthesized aperture radar, based on the condition that the modulation amplitude exceeds the signal equivalent to noise. The modulation difference is evaluated with account for attenuation of the spatial frequencies of the complex scattering coefficient on the SAR information path.

To evaluate the resolution, the author suggested to employ two types of test objects with harmonic amplitude and phase modulation. Mathematical relationships determining the resolution equation through the spatial function of amplitude modulation transmission by the radar information path are considered.

Analysis of the image formation specifics in radar complexes compared to optoelectronic ones was carried out. The article shows that the SAR provides spatial resolution about twice as low as the limiting value determined by the half-width of the hardware function.

An improved method for determining the space radar’s resolution capability with account for the synthesized aperture formation specifics and random errors, is suggested. The proposed model of a test object with harmonic change in the complex amplitude or phase of the reflected signal allows relate the resolution capability of the SAR with its radiometric characteristics and reflection from the underlying surface.

The function of modulation transmission of the amplitude and phase of the information path of the PCA for harmonic test objects was obtained. The properties of the amplitude modulation transfer function dependence on the spatial frequency made it possible to explain certain characteristic properties of the radar compared to optical images.

The article shows that the SAR ensures approximately the same spatial resolution for the amplitude and phase harmonic modulation of the object scattering function, which is approximately two times worse than the limiting one. Increasing the contrast of the object to absolute values slightly improves the resolution up to 1.6 times. In case of low-contrast objects, the amplitude modulation is transmitted without distortion; the resolution capability is determined only by the realized signal-to-noise ratio with a resolution of 2.5 times worse. If an object is observed against speckle noise, the resolution of the SAR drops three or more times.

Yudintsev V. V. Spatial motion model of Yo-Yo Mechanism. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The article considers the spatial motion of the Yo-Yo mechanism. When employing the Yo-Yo mechanism for an angular velocity damping of an object performing complex spacio movement, the effect of this movement on the operation of this mechanism should be accounted for. As an option of Yo-Yo mechanism implementation, which assumes an object’s complex spatio movement, the author considers implementation of a mechanism as a part of autonomous docking module meant for capturing space debris’ objects. After the docking module separation from the space tow and its docking with a space debris object, it is possible to use the Yo-Yo mechanism for an object’s longitudinal angular velocity damping.

To analyze the spatial motion effect fn the object, on which the Yo-Yo mechanism is installed, on the movement of mechanism’s elements (wire ropes with loads) a mathematical model of the spatio motion was developed. Besides the angular motion of an object the model supposes the location of the plane of the wire ropes reel-out at a distance of an object’s center of masses, as well as the possibility of asynchronous movement of the mechanism’s wire ropes. To form the equations of motion, the Lagrange formalism was used. Equations were set down for each phase of the Yo-Yo mechanism motion.

The performance of the mathematical model is demonstrated by several numerical examples of the of the angular velocity damping of the debris’ object of a prolate and oblate type in terms of the ratio between the principal moments’ of inertia values. It is shown that the determining factor affecting the motion of the wire ropes of the mechanism is the transverse angular velocity of the object. The initial transverse angular velocity of the carrier leads to the exit of the Yo-Yo mechanism wires’ from the plane of the wire ropes reel-out, which can lead to disruption of its operation. The Yo-Yo mechanism can be used as part of an autonomous docking module to decrease the space debris objects’ angular velocity, such as spent orbital stages of carrier rockets with a longitudinal moment of inertia less than transverse moments of inertia.

Kuznetsov M. M., Kuleshova Y. D., Reshetnikova Y. G., Smotrova L. V. Occurrence conditions and high-speed overlap effect value in shocked gases' mixture. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

In the previous articles the authors formulated two theorems on the high velocity translational non-equilibrium in a shock wave of a one-component (ordinary) gas. It was noted herewith that the proofs of those theorems in case of shocked gas mixture required overcoming of several significant difficulties. The main difficulty consists in the fact that bimodal distribution of molecules velocities in gas mixtures cannot be used without doubt to determine the structure of a shock-wave, as it was done for the ordinary gas. As a rule, the area of applicability of the classic Tamm – Mott-Smith bimodal distribution with constant approximation of the auxiliary macroscopic velocities and kinetic temperatures for the groups of molecules in the supersonic and subsonic “wings” of such distribution is limited by the small values of concentrations of one of the mixture’s components. Only in this case it is possible to keep all the advantages of the bimodal approximation of partial distribution functions in binary gas mixture to obtain a simple analytical solution for shock wave structure. That is why obtaining necessary and sufficient conditions for high velocity translational non-equlibrium for arbitrary values of gas mixtures’ component concentration becomes much more complex.

The paper presents rigorous formulation and substantiation of these conditions.

These conditions are applicable to the case of variable auxiliary approximation macro parameters of “hot” wing of a binary gas mixture bimodal distribution. At the same time, the values of auxiliary macroscopic velocities and kinetic temperatures for groups of molecules in subsonic «wing» are kept constant. In binary gas mixtures with distribution functions for both the light and heavy components three types of functions of molecules’ pairs distribution throughout their relative velocity module exist. These functions are: G(ll) is the distribution function of pairs inside a light-light component, G(lh) the function of molecules’ pairs of light-heavy component and G(hh) is a function of molecules’ pair inside a heavy component. The numerical calculations of the corresponding “overlap” effect of bimodal distributions for pair of molecules was performed for a special case of small concentration values of heavy component in binary gas mixture (Rayleigh gas). It is known that in Rayleigh gas this effect for function G(hh) is most noticeable. While its computation, the molecules’ rotating degrees of freedom were accounted for.

Minin N. V. The use of combined pulsating air breathing jet engine as a propulsion system for small-size unmanned aerial vehicles. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

In the report is considered the problem of creation and study of design of the new type of small-sized jet engine with free-piston membrane supercharger of a fuel mix in which the part is used for internal cooling heat-stressed mobile units of the engine and reception of work of compression of the compressor membrane type.

The scheme of the new energy installation is developed. Thermal and thermodynamic calculations by technique of the authors are made. The basic constructive sizes of the engine are calculated and the problem of cooling of piston unit by the charge of a fuel mix of the engine that has led to partial regeneration of heat in a cycle to decrease in the specific charge of fuel and increase in altitude is solved.

The maximum power of the power plant is limited by the working diameters of the piston group, its mass, frequency of operation. Examining the design parameters of the engine raises questions on the solution, for minimum capacities — the task of maximum piston operation speed at a speed of up to 30 m/s, a constructive and technological solution to the problem of avoiding traditional spring-ring sealing methods and switching to a smooth pair, Liquid wedge. And also complete withdrawal from the rotational movements of the crank drive, use in the atmospheric engines of the membrane compression system, with direct massless drive from the reciprocating motion of the lightweight piston group and the group of damper compression in the cycle. And the use of synchronizing mechanisms synchronization of moving pistons, cyclically operating without compression loads.

Based on the developed methodology, the main parameters of the aircraft with a starting mass from 1 to 100 kg have been evaluated and it is shown that the proposed new variant of the combined remote control has a weight efficiency comparable with known developments and deserves further more thorough research. Based on the preliminary technical and economic analysis of the lightweight UAV, it is shown that the proposed version meets all the basic requirements of the current stage of development of launch vehicles.

Lunev E. M., Neretin E. S., Budkov A. S. Development and study of aircraft trajectory control model while flying en-route of four-dimensional area navigation. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

This work is devoted to the analysis of the existing algorithms of trajectory control and their updating up to the level of 4-D area navigation (4D-RNAV) for further implementation while developing prospective automatic control systems for en-route flight.

With the advent of satellite systems, navigation has changed qualitatively in the direction of increasing accuracy. However, navigation is only one of the constituent parts of the overall process of flight execution. It should be considered thereupon in general concept, namely, communication, navigation, surveying and organization of the air traffic, developed by ICAO in the 1980-s. The navigation concept of the future developed by ICAO is based on the area navigation.

The area navigation principle allows an aircraft to execute a flight on any desired path and thus realize the advantages of navigation of higher accuracy in improving the structure of air area. It leads to simplifying of air traffic servicing, and foremost decrease of aircraft operating costs.

The planned flight path can be specified not only in the horizontal plane in the form of a route, but also in the vertical plane, by specifying the flight heights of the waypoints, angles or gradients of the trajectory inclination. In addition, a space-time trajectory can be set, when for some points the time of their flyby is specified. In accordance with the dimension of the «space» in which the guidance is carried out, the area navigation is subdivided into three types:

– 2D-RNAV ‒ two-dimensional RNAV in the horizontal plane — LNAV (Lateral Navigation). Sometimes, using a literal translation, it is called lateral navigation, since the guidance is provided only by lateral evasion;

– 3D-RNAV ‒ three-dimensional RNAV in the horizontal and vertical planes. For navigation in the vertical plane, the abbreviation VNAV (Vertical Navigation) is used;

– 4D-RNAV is a four-dimensional RNAV in the horizontal and vertical planes plus the solution of the problem of regulating the speed of flight for passing points of the route or arriving at the aerodrome at a given time. Zone navigation by time is abbreviated as TNAV (Time Navigation). [3]

The problem of area navigation implementation consists not barely in ensuring the flight on an arbitrary path, but in ensuring its accuracy according to the requirement set in the given region. In modern aero Thus, the issues of area navigation were closely interleaved with RNP problems. They were so closely interleaved that these two ranges of issues were incorporated into a single ICAO document «RNP Manual» [1].

Today RNP is considered as a tool for flight technical and regulatory control with RNAV application.

Depending on the strictness of requirements to the accuracy of the specified path following, and the type of functional requirements to onboard equipment the following notations are widely used:

– B-RNAV (Basic RNAV) — the main (basic) area navigation;

– P-RNAV (Precision RNAV) — precise area navigation;

‒ RNP-RNAV — area navigation with required navigation performance.

RNAV is considered by ICAO as the main type of navigation of the future, since it has a number of undeniable advantages over conventional, traditional navigation.

Sokolov S. V. The Integrable Case of Adler–van Moerbeke. Mechanical interpretation. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The Adler–van Moerbeke integrable case is considered. The case of integrability founded in 1986 by M. Adler and P. van Moerbeke is the most complicated in the rigid body dynamics. It came due to papers A.S. Mishchenko and A. T. Fomenko dedicated to integrability of Euler equations on finite-dimensional Lie groups. As a result a new family of integrable quadratic Hamiltonians with additional integrals of fourth degree on so(4) was appeared. The existence of quartic additional integral is connected with special symmetry so(4) admitting real representation as direct sum of two copies of so(3). Euler equations on Lie algebra so(4) also describe the motion of a rigid body with an ellipsoidal cavity filled by a perfect incompressible vortical fluid around a fixed point in a case of uniform fluid vorticity. These equations as a model of the Earth’s rotation were studied by V. A. Steklov. Modern results for integrable metrics on so(4) and their mechanical interpretation can be found in many reviews.

After Poincare we consider rotations of rigid body with cavity, which contains inviscid incompressible liquid, about fixed axis. Such a case characterizes by additional integral of Lagrange type and corresponds to axially symmetric mass distribution.

We give one of the possible mechanical interpretations for the integrable case under consideration. We explicitly present the most convenient form of additional integral. Put some partial relations between principal values of inertia tensor we reduce our system to Poincare case. Connections with some classical integrable mechanical problems are observed. Conditions of physical realizability for this mechanical model are discussed.

Shchukin A. V., Khabibullin I. I., Il'inkov A. V., Takmovtsev V. V. The effect of diffuser dimple's shape on its flow-around pattern. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

This experimental study is aimed at the searching an easy-to-manufacture shape of the previously submitted by the authors highly efficient surface thermal exchange intensifier of a separation type with high functioning intensity of large-scale vortex structures, namely two-cavity diffuser dimple. This dimple, placed in an array of dimples demonstrated a higher level of heat dissipation, exceeding more than three times the heat dissipation while a smooth plate flow-around. It was accepted as reference. The high level of thermal effectiveness of this dimple is associated with implementation of optimal relative height of the rib separating its hollows, the diffuser shape of its hollows for the backflow, as well as with their slope in plan view of the relative direction of the main flow.

Based on visualization of the flows and determination of the pressure coefficient Cp in the bottom part of the studied dimple’s variants the experimental data was obtained on its shape in terms of the self-organizing large-scale vortex structures.

The ways of geometric shape of the two-hollow diffuser dimples’ simplifying were studied, and, hence, its manufacturing technology under condition of preserving the intensity and continuity of large-scale vortex structures functioning.

The authors established that without the hollows’ separating rib, when the entry edge is described by the line of radial contour, two-hollow dimple passes into the class of one-hollow dimples with permanently functioning single large-scale vortex structure. The rarefaction level, however, in the in the dimple’s epicenter decreases compared to the two-hollow diffuser dimples.

The performed comparative studies revealed the existence of the rational geometry of one-hollow diffusor dimple of a separation type ensuring permanent functioning of vortex structures. This dimple allows much simpler manufacturing technology compared to the two-hollow diffuser dimples. However, it is inferior to the latter in the intensity of large-scale vortex structures. Thus, following the two-hollow diffuser dimple structure it is necessary to explore and find such installation angle relative to the main flow that provides maximum vortex intensity. This is essentially the algorithm for further optimization of the easy-to-manufacture one-hollow diffuser dimple of separation-type studied here.

Pozhalostin A. A., Goncharov D. A. On axisymmetric parametric oscillations of a fluid in a cylindrical vessel. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The authors considered the case of axisymmetric parametric oscillations of an ideal fluid filling the cylindrical vessel. They obtained the differential equation of parametric oscillation damping with account for the main parametric resonance, as well as numerical values of the variables comprising this equation.

It was shown that could initiate small oscillations of the system, with the corresponding values of the modulation index. The value of the modulation index is determined by Van der Pol method. The problem was considered in the linear formulation, with fluid movements were assumed small. The velocity potential satisfies the Laplace equation in a cylindrical domain. On the wetted surface of the vessel the conditions of impermeability were met, while on the free surface of the liquid the linearized boundary condition was met. The velocity potential, in accordance with the Fourier method, was represented as a series of the hyperbolic functions, Bessel functions of 1st order and the time factor.

The equation for the parametric oscillation was obtained for the time factor from the equation for the velocity potential. The kinetic energy of the mechanical system was determined by the gradient of the velocity potential. The reduced inertia coefficient of the system was calculated by the Green’s function method. The viscous resistance force in the fluid was assumed proportional to the first degree of speed. The fluid velocity was defined as the gradient of the velocity potential. Then we compose the Rayleigh dissipative function. Expression for the potential energy was composed. We composed the Lagrange equation of the II-nd order with account for the dissipative forces, due to the presence of viscous friction in the mechanical system under consideration.

The resulting differential equation is a second order differential equation with a small parameter. The damping coefficient implies experimental determination. We indicate references to the papers, which present the numerical values of the damping coefficient. Further, the damping coefficient was assumed as known. The averaging was performed, and the border region of parametric resonance instability was sett. The conclusion on the existence of the small oscillations of the respective values of the modulation index was made.

Kuli-zade M. E., Skorokhod E. P. Development of kinetic models of the moving plasma. The constants of the radiative d-p transitions of the xenon ion. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

Multi-level physicochemical kinetics at present remains relevant to General theoretical issues of spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas and optical diagnostics in the framework of radiation plasmodynamics, in particular for the device-specific debug modes, where “working fluid” is the Xenon plasma. When composing kinetic equations, multiple radiation constants (Einstein coefficients) are necessary.

Selection of the model itself is predetermined by considering the xenon ion level scheme, recorded in LS-relations. The level scheme composed and supplemented by the quantum-defect approximation allows calculate the transitions that are absent in the reference edition [12].

Six models of probabilities' calculations including the radiation transitions 5d ‒ 6p relating to the lowermost levels are considered. The radial integrals required for calculations of Aki /106 transition probabilities were calculated by the the Bates–Damgaard method using two different values of the effective quantum number: a specific level, and for the entire configuration as a whole. They were also calculated according to the of Hartree–Fock–Slater method. Angular dependencies for these three methods were performed in approximation of the LS–relation and in the framework of intermediate relation.

The article presents the results of the above-mentioned six quantum-mechanical models for 5d ‒ 6p 314 dipole transitions. A comparison with experimentally obtained results of other authors was made [18–21, 24, 16].

The reference data includes also the values of the photo-transition probabilities obtained from the experimental data on the line shifts corresponding to the quadratic Stark effect [22].

The Einstein coefficients differ within a few orders of magnitude. Thus, for the transition 6p 4P5/2 → 5d 4D7/2 with the wavelength of 605.115 nm, the probability calculated by him in Bates‒Damgaard approximation with the use of a relation gives the value of Aki /106 = 0.48 with account for the intermediate relation of 1.5; according to the Hartree-Fock-Sleter method in the framework of the intermediate link ─ 0.041. The other authors give: 20.5 ─ [19]; 52. ─ [20]; 21. ─ [16]. The value obtained from experimental data on the lines' shifts corresponding to the quadratic Stark effect [22] is Aki /106 = 52.9.

The presented Einstein coefficients calculations results from the 5d levels supplement the reference data of the 6s ‒ 6p photo-transitions probabilities [15].

Blagodyreva O. V. Ritz and finite element methods application to aeroelastic vibrations computation of a cruise missile . Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The article studies the aeroelastic stability of a cruise missile performing longitudinal short-period motion in incompressible airflow. The missile is modeled using a beam structure, including the fuselage, two straight outer wings and flight control surfaces — elevators. The wing of the missile is considered as an elastic beam operating in bending with transverse shear and torsion, while the fuselage and the control surfaces of the missile are considered as rigid. It is assumed, that the elastic vibrations of the wing panels occur according to the hypothesis of flat sections. Control drives with wiring are considered disconnected, and their effect on the structure is replaced with the unknown control forces. Aerodynamic loads are determined based on the quasi-stationary theory of plane-parallel flow cross sections of the wing. The longitudinal compression of the missile body under the effect of thrust force of an engine is also accounted for.
The equations of small vibrations of the system are represented in the form of Lagrange equations of the second kind in generalized coordinates. The generalized coordinates are considered as normal coordinates, representing the movement over the eigenvibration mode of a free structure with fixed operating controls.
Based on the Ritz method the unknown functions of transverse displacements of the axis of the fuselage, the transverse displacements of the axis of the wing and the angle of twist of the wing are presented in the form of expansions along the generalized coordinates.
For a more accurate study of the behavior of a wing’s flexural-torsional oscillations the finite element method (FEM) was used. The wing is separated into a number of compartments — finite elements (FE), within each the geometrical, stiffness and mass properties are assumed to be average and constant.
The article presents a comparative calculation of the flutter of an elastic missile using the Ritz method and the finite element method (FEM). The graphs of the variation of natural frequencies of the missile depending on the changes of the flight speed and engine thrust power are plotted. The critical speed and the stability region of the missile were defined respectively for each method.
All the calculations were performed with the software “Wolfram Mathematica 8”.
Gnezdilov V. A., Grishanina T. V., Nagornov A. Y. Deformation of a plane statically indeterminate frame system with buckling bars. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

Long frameworks (lattice beams) are often used in different building structures (cranes, masts, bridges, pylons of electric air-lines, etc.), as well as in space structures deployed or assembled on orbit. In some cases such structures can undergo to large elastic displacements with large angles of the bar turns. At the design it is usually required that there must not be any irreversible deformations and damages (cracks) in the structure at the maximum operational loads. Statically indeterminate frames allow elastic buckling of some compressed bars with moderate finite deflections limited by the relative longitudinal displacements (contaction) and the turn angles at the joints which connect the buckled bars with the others.

In this work the new approach is developed for solution of geometrically nonlinear problem of deformation for a plane frame system with large displacements and turn angles taking into account buckling of some bars with moderate elastic deflection.

Every bar of the system rigidly connected in the movable joints with the other bars and subjected to tension or compression and bending in considered as a beam finite element.

Large displacements and turns of bar in the structure are described by four unknown coordinates of the bar ends (the joints it connects) and by three supplementary generalized coordinates. Two of them represent the relative turn angles of the bar ends and the third — its deflection due to moderate elastic bending. Such representation of describes sufficiently exactly the possible instability of the bar with moderate buckling deflection.

The nonlinear equilibrium equations in displacements for the system loaded by the forces and moments applied in the joints are obtained by use of the virtual work principle. These equations are solved numerically. The example of calculation of the system behavior subjected to the increasing load with the successive buckling of some compressed bars is considered.

Garipova L. I., Batrakov A. S., Kusyumov A. N. Accounting for dynamic conditions of aerofoil flow-around while solving the problem of a helicopter main rotor trimming angles determining. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The main rotor trimming is one of the important tasks of helicopter aerodynamics. The aim of trimming consists in determining the values of balancing angles (total and cyclic pitch angles) of the main rotor, which allows minimize longitudinal and lateral moments, as well as vibration load. A simple approach to the main rotor's balancing angles determination is based on the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT), based on steady-state aerofoil aerodynamics. However, while straight and level flight the helicopter's blade sections motion bears a complex oscillated character. For this reason, aerofoil performances can differ significantly from its steady-state equivalents.

The aim of this research is numerical simulation of the oscillating NACA 23012 aerofoil flow-around to study the effect of dynamic flow conditions corresponding to a forward flight mode on the values of the main rotor trimming (total and cyclic pitch) angles. Numerical simulation was performed using HMB code (Liverpool and Glasgow universities) based on the Unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equations (URANS) with k‒ω SST turbulence model.

The results of study revealed that the dynamic condition leads to significant changes of the aerofoil aerodynamic characteristics and the main rotor trimming angles compared to the steady state formulation. Based on these results a correction can be employed to improve the simple BEMT approach accuracy.

Klyagin V. A., Petrov I. A., Shkurin M. V. Analysis of avionics' blocks placement on the aircraft of various types. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

Avionics’ layout on a modern aircraft is a complex engineering task. A quality solution to this problem currently became potentially possible by using PC. However, at this moment, existing application programs are based on heuristic methods [1, 6, 7] or on analytical solution [4, 5] of the problem. They are still not widely used. One reason for this is the lack of information about the patterns of avionics’ distribution. Statistical analysis will highlight patterns that will become the basis of new methodology. Statistics will clarify the existing methods as well.

The first necessary step for the analysis -is gathering information on the layout diagrams of aircrafts in context of avionics’ placement. Combat aircraft of the second half of the twentieth century were studied. The most common source was the photos of real aircraft, showing the avionics (e. g. open avionics bays).

Next step consisted in calculating the total number of items of avionics with the differentiation of the installation type. This work assumes the following types of installation:

  • Single mounting;

  • Single racks;

  • On the frames or multiple racks.

Thus, the article presents the analysis of the avionics’ placement on combat aircraft of the second half of the XX century according to the installation type for the various classes and the date of the first flight. The results show that for all classes of the aircraft, the vast number of blocks were arranged on the shelves. Single mounted makes approximately 9.5% of the components. Only two out of the 35 types dominated by point installation. Also seen a number of patterns such as on devices with smaller dimension is slightly higher relative number of blocks with a single installation. Based on the work a conclusion was made that for the automated layout method development it is useful to represent the location of the avionics in the planes.

Ngo Q. T., Solenaya O. Y., Ronzhin A. L. Analysis of mobile robotic platforms used to batteries service of unmanned aerial vehicles in autonomous missions. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The problem of increasing the operating time of unmanned aerial vehicles in autonomous missions is considered. Approaches to charge or replace on-board batteries on the accompanying robotic platform are analyzed. The key issues remain questions of the autonomous landing of the unmanned aerial vehicle on the platform and the way of servicing battery. The available prototypes of service robotic platforms are differed in the complexity of internal mechanisms, speed of service, algorithms of joint operation of the platform and unmanned aerial vehicle during the landing and maintenance of the battery. Autonomous landing of aerial vehicle in modern studies is considered not only on a fixed platform, but also on a mobile platform that moves in various environments. Landing unmanned aerial vehicle on a service charging station is realized with the help of various systems of navigation and analysis of the surrounding area. A battery-replacement system significantly reduces the preparation time of a multi-copter for a new flight and increases the total number of multicopters that are simultaneously in an autonomous mission. The charging system has a lower cost compared to the battery replacement system by minimizing the mechanical components of the structure. Modern means of navigation and technical vision ensure the landing of UAVs on the ground robotic platform can be performed with high accuracy in indoor environments. In outdoor application, taking into account the influence of weather conditions, the landing error is much higher. To communication the mobile platform to unmanned aerial vehicles, wireless means are mainly used to ensure their coordinated work during landing and take-off, and also to control several vehicles in the queue for charging. The purpose of this study is to develop a multifunctional mechanism for connecting a multi-copter to a ground-based robotic platform that performs the functions of their transportation and maintenance. Based on the results of the analysis, a classification of existing systems installed on robotic platforms for the maintenance of batteries is made. A further study will be devoted to the development of the requirements for the design of a multicopter maintenance system on a projected ground platform, taking into account its functional purpose, as well as the creation of software and hardware for the joint operation of multicopters and a platform.

Rebrov S. G., Golubev V. A., Golikov A. N. Laser ignition of oxygen-kerosene fuel in rocket technique: from igniters to rocket engines . Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The article reviews the main results of research aimed at introducing laser ignition for rocket engines using oxygen-kerosene fuel. The purpose of the work was to determine the operational parameters of the laser ignition system and the ranges of the composition and fuel rate of the fuel mixture to ensure reliable ignition in igniters, rocket thrusters and sustainer rocket engines. The method of initiating a spark of optical breakdown in area with favorable ignition characteristics of the mixture was used as a method of ignition. The laser radiation was focused either in the volume of the mixture or near the metallic surface for that.

The tests covered a wide range of changes in the operating parameters of both combustion chambers and ignition systems. Laser ignition was successfully tested on chambers, starting from a small volume of several cm3 for igniters and low-thrust engines to the sustainer chamber of the engines of the first, second stages of the Soyuz launch vehicle with a volume of 65 dm3. The tests were carried out using mixtures of both a reducing composition at a value of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio to 0.1 and an oxidizing composition with a value of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio up to 11. Laser parameters were also ranged for output pulse energy from 1 mJ to 100 mJ and for pulse repetition frequency from 10 Hz to 100 Hz.

The complex of carried out works made it possible to develop the technology of laser ignition of oxygen-kerosene fuel with the determination of the necessary operating parameters of fuel mixtures and the ignition system itself with regard to rocket technology: igniters, thrusters, large combustion chambers for rocket engines with thrust up to 18 tf. Guidelines for introduction of laser ignition for large size rocket engine combustion chambers have been developed on the basis of experience gained. It was also shown the feasibility of laser ignition of large-sized oxygen-kerosene chambers using small-sized lasers mounted directly to the combustion chamber. These results allowed to propose a scheme of laser ignition system to replace the existing pyrotechnic for the first and second stages of the Soyuz launch vehicle, based on the use of micro lasers with fiber radiation delivered to them from a reusable stationary diode pumping station placed on the launch site.

Dolgushev V. G., Ionov V. A., Kun N. V., Matveenko A. M. Development trends of modern aircraft onboard hydraulic systems. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

Resiliency is essential for operation of an aircraft during its lifetime. In modern aircraft hydraulic system a specified level of fail-safety in the design process is ensured by the initial selection of the structure and parameters of the system, which cannot be changed during the flight.

The fail-safety can be improved by increasing various safety factors and redundancy of elements. Nevertheless, in its turn, it leads to the system weight increase. However, the increase of fail-safety without weight increase is possible through adjustment of internal parameters by changing operation modes (e.g., unloading in cruising flight and the crossing of the settings at high loads or failure in the system).

The decisive factor is the smaller weight of the system, giving the opportunity to increase the combat effectiveness of the aircraft either due to the smaller mass and therefore greater maneuverability, or to the larger mass of ammunition.

For large passenger aircraft, using forced modes to compensate for failures of pipelines, implementation of titanium alloys and high rated pressure level will allow create a hydraulic system with a significantly smaller mass.

A mixed system, incorporating centralized hydraulic system and stand-alone drives is expedient to be applied on the military-transport aircraft, which due to the extra mass is possible to achieve high survivability.

Borisov A. E., Leont'ev V. A., Novak V. N. Analysis of the features of the main rotor with negative offset of the flapping hinge. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

In this paper a new concept of a high-speed main rotor of a single-rotor helicopter is considered. A new concept of a high-speed main rotor is to use the design rotor hub, which allowing to obtain a natural frequency of flap motion blade lower than the rotational speed of the rotor. Reduction of the natural frequency, as well as its increase (screws with positive flapping-hinge offset or rotors with elastic fastening of blades) leads to a phase shift of the flapping motion of the blades. The phase shift of the blades flapping motion leads to an increase the angles of attack on the advancing side of rotor and to a decrease in the retreating side, and thereby detracts from the appearance of a stall at high flight speeds.

The analysis of the effect of its design features on aerodynamic characteristics is carried out. Presented are the equations of the flapping motion of main rotor blades with negative offset of flapping hinges, as well as of the moment on the rotor hub. The paper also considers the method for calculating the coefficients of the first harmonic of the blade flapping motion and the expressions for calculating angles of attack in blade sections. The analysis of the operation of rotors with both negative and positive flapping-hinge offset is carried out, an estimation of the influence of some rotor parameters on angles of attack of blade sections is obtained. Also presented are the results of calculating such rotors that illustrate the possibility of increasing angles of attack on advancing blades and reducing them on retreating blades by means of the swash plate deflection.

Afanas'ev V. A., Monakhova V. P., Muhina S. D., Versin A. A., Nazyrova O. R., Bolkhovitin M. S. Experimental means development for pressure receivers' calibration. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The article presents the results of the structural components' development of the experimental workbench for calibration of receivers of total and static pressures in the jet of a gas flow. The speed range of the controlled gas flow at the subsonic nozzle edge is regulated from λс = 0.3 to λс = 1.0. The necessity of this workbench development is associated with the fact, that pressure receivers' designs are developed individually for various placement locations along the path of the gas turbine engine compressor.

The basic requirements that had to be met while the development of the stand are as follows

                         –  The relative velocity of the gas stream λ in the placement of the receiving holes of the comb should be measured with an accuracy of ±0,01;

                         – The numerical values of the pressures in the pneumatic circuits of the comb should be stay within ± 0,3% of measured values;

                         – The linear and angular positioning parameters of the receiving holes of the comb under study should be determined with an accuracy of ±1 mm and ±0.5 degrees respectively.

The following calculations were performed in this work:

                         – Calculation of the subsonic nozzle profile;

                         – Design of the diffuser.

Calculation of the subsonic nozzle profile allows obtaining a controlled airflow at the outlet with a uniform velocity value in the cutoff of the nozzle. The pointing device allowing the smooth movement of the inlet orifice of the studied receiver with the possibility of speed adjustment, and position it on the geometric axis of the nozzle, as well as change the angle between the flow velocity vector and the axis of the inlet orifice within the limits of ± 45° in the tangential and meridian planes.

The article also presents a calculation of the diffuser design meant for for converting the kinetic energy of the flow into static pressure.

Konstantinov M. S., Min T. . Optimization of the trajectory of launching the spacecraft into the geostationary orbit for transport system with specific impulse of the engine 600-900 s. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The spacecraft flight from the low Earth orbit to the geostationary orbit is considered as a typical transport operation. The optimization of the interorbital flight, the control laws for the movement of the spacecraft during the flight and the flight trajectory are carried out. The main goal of the work is to provide the users who analyze the interorbital flight, the possibility of correct and simple estimation of the characteristic velocity for the transport operation in question.

When optimizing the flight from the low Earth orbit to the geostationary orbit, a method based on the Pontryagin maximum principle is used. The problem of optimizing the trajectory reduces to the boundary-value problem. The boundary-value problem is solved using the evolutionary strategy with the adaptation of the covariance matrix.

The characteristic velocity for the operation is considered as a function of the specific impulse of the engine and the initial reactive acceleration. Specific impulse of the engine is considered in the range of 600-900 s. The initial reactive acceleration is considered in the range 1.25-12.5 mm / s2.

The results of the analysis are presented in the tables form of the characteristic velocity reactive as the function of initial reactive acceleration (the range 1.25-12.5 mm/s is considered) and the specific impulse (range 600-900 s). Such a range is typical, for example, a solar thermal rocket engine. Another result of the work is the analysis of the optimal flight, the analysis of the properties of the optimal flight and the optimal control law for the movement of the spacecraft during the interorbital flight.

The results of the work can be used to analyze the space transport systems for interorbital spacecraft flight with the specific impulse of the engine in the range of 600-900 s.

The characteristics of the optimal flight scheme are analyzed. The optimal flight path contains three characteristic sections. On the first of them, the SC engine operates at the perigee section of the multi-revolutions trajectory. In this area, the eccentricity of the orbit increases (the radius of the apogee increases, with a slight increase in the perigee altitude). The inclination of the orbit decreases a little due to a small yaw angle (less than 2 degrees). At the end of the first segment of the flight path, the radius of apogee appears to be substantially larger than the radius of the geostationary orbit. On the second part of the trajectory, the engine operates at the apogee sections of the trajectory. In this case, the radius of the perigee of the trajectory increases actively, the radius of apogee hardly increases. The yaw angle on the flight path provides an effective reduction in the inclination of the orbit. At the beginning of the section, the yaw angle value is large, the optimal yaw angle decreases in each revolution. At the end of the second section of the trajectory, the inclination of the orbit is practically zero. On the third part of the flight path (the duration of the section is approximately two revolutions of the trajectory) the active sections are located in the vicinity of the perigee of the orbit. The engine breaks the spacecraft, providing zero eccentricity of the final orbit.
Sypalo K. I., Medvedskiy A. L., Babichev O. V., Kazarinov G. G., Kan A. V. Engineering of Aircraft Demonstrator. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The article presents the methodology for creating demonstrators of technologies in aircraft building, based on the harmonization and use of the existing system of national standards.

As one of the mechanisms of realization of a control system of research works, it is supposed to use a scale of assessment of technology readiness level. The technology readiness level scale is taken as a basis for gradation of development stages of new technologies by many departments and the organizations, both in the USA, and in some other countries. The classification used reflects a condition of research programs depending on the current technologies readiness level that simplifies control for developers and customers control over the course of research works and the choice of the technologies, most ready for industrial introduction.

The scale of technology readiness level represents the formalized assessment of degree of the technologies maturity for practical use when developing from the idea to a prototype of the complete system tested in the conditions close to real.

On the grounds of the system engineering tools which are based on the formalization of measurements of technologies readiness levels, and use of the existing national standards base — state standard specifications — the methodology of creation the technologies demonstrators of technologies in aircraft industry has been offered.

The presented methodology of creation of technologies demonstrators in aircraft industry solves a problem of integration of the existing system of national standards with the world practice of quantitative and quality standard of the developed technologies.

Harmonization of standards on carrying out research and development with world practice and also use of quantitative and high-quality indicators of technology readiness level scale, including methodology for creating of aircraft technology demonstrators, will allow to reduce significantly risks during creation of the aircraft equipment.

Kotel'nikov V. A., Kotelnikov M. V., Filippov G. S. The role of guard electrodes in probe diagnostics. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

Flat remote and near-wall probes are widely used in probe diagnostics of rarefied plasma (static and dynamic). They are installed on hypersonic aircraft and space satellites in order to study the radiophysical parameters near their surface. Flat probes can be installed both parallel and perpendicular to the flow velocity in the rarefied plasma streams. Nonlinear border and edge effects occur at the edges of a flat probe, which have a significant influence on the probe current. The boundary effect is associated with the thickening of the lines of force of the electric field at the boundary of the active surface of the probe. The final effect arises under the influence of a directed flow velocity if the probe is oriented parallel to the flow velocity. Charged particles enter the space charge layer of the probe. They can fly through the probe line and not contribute to the probe current, depending on the potential of the probe and the velocity of the plasma flow.

The present article is devoted to an analysis of the effect of these nonlinear effects on the probe current. In the literature, there is insufficient information on this issue, the technique for conducting a probe experiment, and processing probe characteristics, taking into account the border and edge effects.

The physical and mathematical models of the problem are formulated. Extensive computational experiments were carried out. Conclusions and recommendations useful for the practice of probe measurements are made.

Consider a probe in the form of an elongated strip of width 2rр and potential φρ. The directional plasma flow rate U is parallel to the probe surface and perpendicular to its short side (fig. 1).

a) the probe is oriented along the flow,

   b) the probe is oriented towards the flow;

   1 - probe surface,

   2, 3 - the surface of the guard electrodes.

If the characteristic size of the probe is 2rр≥103rd, (rd is the Debye radius), then the effect of the border and edge effects can be neglected and the Bohm formula can be used when processing probe characteristics. If 2rр<103rd, then the arising nonlinear effects can be removed by constructing the guard electrodes in the form of strips along the elongated sides of the probe, separating them from the probe by thin insulating layers. In this case, the Bohm formula is also used. The width of the guard electrodes is calculated in numerical experiments and is presented in the work in the form of graphical dependences U, rp and the potential φρ (fig. 2, 3).

If the probe in the form of a strip is directed by its active surface towards the flow, the border effects is absent, and the edge effect is analogous to the case of parallel flow around the probe. If 2rр≥103rd, then the Langmuir formula, which describes the ion current with concentration, flow velocity and probe potential, is valid. If 2rр<103rd, then guard electrodes are placed, which remove the effect of edge effects. Their size is much smaller than with parallel flow around the probe. Recommendations for choosing the width of guard electrodes are given in the work as a function of the characteristic parameters of the problem.

If flat probes of another geometry (square, disk, etc.) are used, it is recommended to take their characteristic size 2rр>103rd. In this case, the role of border and edge effects is small and one can use the recommendations stated above for probes in the form of an elongated rectangle.

Vernigora L. V., Pichkhadze К. М., Sysoev V. K. Analysis of optical beacon emitter parameters for spacecraft navigation system. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

Spacecraft (SC) optical observation is one of the main method of SC tracking and measurement of their parameters.

The successful development of semiconductor emitters' technology allowed gaining the high-efficient laser diodes with high capacity level at low mass and dimensions parameters. This permits to develop optical beacon systems for spacecraft navigation based on these diodes.

Firstly, these are optical beacons installed on planetary landing stations, such as Luna-Glob/Luna-Resource-1 (and in the future – on modules descending to the Martian surface). Installation of such beacons allows high-accuracy location of the landing stations with the help of spacecraft optical TV equipment and ground-based tracking stations. Being connected to the radioisotope power source they can be used as beacons for future lunar missions.

The article describes the developed algorithm for semiconductor light sources' selection necessary to solve the problem of optical beacons design for space expeditions:

1. The beacon's radiation should be reliably registered by the receiving optical system. This requires the following steps:

‒ Determination of the necessary emission power. Selection of the emitter's power is stipulated by sensitivity of the receiving ground-based optical system, distance to the spacecraft, the light source radiation angle and, of course, the time of exposure;

‒ Selection of the semiconductor light source allowing creation of low divergent light beams, which is necessary for transmission of this radiation for long distances;

‒ Determination of necessary emission spectrum of the semiconductor light source (rather wide emission spectrum of the semiconductor light source is allowed for “space-to-space” system). In the case of “Spacecraft‒Earth” system selection of emission spectrum is stipulated by the atmosphere's properties;

‒ Time persistence of the optical beacon should not exceed the frequency response of the receiving equipment, necessary for signal coding.

2. Optical beacon should provide operation in the space flight conditions: diminutive mass and dimension parameters, long lifetime, radiation and vibration resistance, capability to operate at low voltage, high efficiency.

The results of the analysis were used for selection of the optical laser beacon emitters developed within the framework of Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource-1 projects.

Zakovryashin A. I. Construction of membership functions of radio-electronic equipment parameters on experimental data. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

Estimation of a radio-electronic equipment object’s workability supposes its diagnosis.
Diagnosis of the equipment is performed based on continuous mathematical model.
Measurement and a priori information on an object is being accumulated.
As additional a priori information, the author suggests to employ statistical properties of the object’s parameters.
Studying technical documentation on the equipment objects allowed reveal three types of tolerance ranges.
The article formulated the requirements to the membership functions of parameters with various types of tolerance ranges.
The procedure of construction of membership functions (operability functions) of parameters was developed.
The article presents the examples of constructing of membership functions of parameters based on histograms.
Increasing of a priori information volume used for processing by the described method will allow increase the accuracy of obtaining quantitative estimations of technical states.

Kulikov S. V., Gudaev R. A., Mikhalchenkov A. A., Zelenkov A. V., Vikulova Y. M. Methodology of synthesis of ultrahigh frequency matching units on nonhomogeneous loops. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The goal of the article consists in improving the methodology of broadband matching units’ synthesis for complex loads, allowing ensure maximum of match strips spacing by employing nonhomogeneous stepped loops.

The set goal is achieved based on Kohn method allowing compute broadband matching units for complex loads on nonhomogeneous loops. The versatility of the suggested method consists in the fact that instead this method any other method, allowing compute a matching unit on homogeneous loops can be used.

This work was supported by the Grant of the President of Russian Federation.

Based on the obtained results of studying of characteristics of the broadband matching unit on nonhomogeneous loops performed using mathematical model the following inferences can be drawn:

Increasing of relative match strip width ω leads to damping reduction in a stop band. Reducing the standing wave ratio in the match strip КСТ leads to a decrease in attenuation in the stop band. Increasing the number of loops of the matching unit contributes to the increase i in the stop band. When placing a heterogeneous loop near the source, the attenuation in odd tuple bands increases, and in even tuple bans decreases. The match strip relative width increase w, stand wave ration in match strip reduction and increasing the number of loops of a broadband matching unit affects the value of match strips’ spacing, which is expressed in its reduction. Employing the five-step loops can significantly improve the characteristics of band rejection, but the characteristics in match strip are degrading.

The simulation results of the synthesized broadband matching unit on nonhomogeneous loops confirmed the principal possibility of developing physically realizable impedance matching units with an increased spacing of the parasitic match strips.

Rybnikov S. I., Nguyen T. S. Analytical design of damping system for flexural aeroelastic vibrations of the wings of airliner. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The analytical design of the active system of damping of flexural aeroelastic oscillations of the wing, which is optimal according to the extended variational criterion of generalized work.

The first tone of aeroelastic oscillations of wing airliner often have frequencies of the same order with the natural frequency of undamped oscillations of the steering gear. Therefore, the synthesis and analysis of the dynamics of the stabilization systems of the airliner dynamics such the angular position of the wing is expedient to take into account and to ensure high quality in these adjustment systems may be required to build the system damping vibrations of aeroelastic wing independent or internal in relation to systems organized on the basis of the aileron channels. The assumption of the symmetry of the oscillations of the wing considered the synthesis of active system of damping of flexural vibrations of a wing of the airliner. For the synthesis of the damping system uses the method of analytical design of optimal regulators (AKOR) according to the criterion of the generalized work, the extended variable energy members of the penalty function, which takes into account the work of the control forces to move the controlled object. The joint variation in energy of the members of the penalty function is intended for counter control the level of damping wing in the transitional processes of the system, on the one hand, control-related energy consumption.

Damping of flexural vibrations of the wing is constructed using as the executive bodies of external ailerons, or specially imposed limit deflected surfaces mounted on the wing. Steering was adopted with a minor, about 15% excess frequency undamped oscillations over the frequency of the third tone aeroelastic oscillations of the wing that allows you to build a complicated damping system oscillations, which includes the first and third tones. In the mathematical model of the damping system first and the third tone of Flexural vibrations of a semi-wing and working steering aileron are described by differential equations of the second order. The control is constructed as linear, in variants with complete information about the control object and with incomplete information containing signals only of the total velocities and displacements of the console.

Performed parametric synthesis of the system damping with the current settings of the extended control object, it is shown that the choice of coefficients criterion, if sufficient control actions, it is possible to reduce vibration of the object, providing an unambiguous or even its monotonous transition function with its adjustable duration. The change in the coefficient km for the energy the members of the penalty function in the process of designing the system is an effective impact on the nature of the transition process in it. With its growth, the absolute values of the feedback coefficients in the system, its natural frequencies, the level and efficiency of the control action decrease, and the transient process in the system approximates to free fluctuations of the object. With decreasing km, conversely, the moduli of the feedback coefficients in the system and its natural frequencies increase, as well as the values of the control actions and their efficiency, the oscillation of the transient process decreases, then the process becomes single-valued and then goes monotonous. Tightening restrictions on the derivatives of the deviations from the ends of the console from a stable state to be performed in the form of an increase in the coefficients in front of them, with sufficient energy, leads to a decrease in variability transients in the system, in extreme cases , to its complete elimination . The handling qualities transients change in the coefficient km is maintained.

Smirnov K. K. Automation of operations of traceability of integrated structures quality in the manufacture of VLSIs. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

Nowadays the quality of modern integrated circuits is considered as a complex indicator, which depends on production operations metrology support and improvement of technological process. The modern development of microelectronics with wide miniaturization solutions complicates control technology, measuring and testing of VLSI integration. Moreover, it requires constant improvement of the technological way of manufacture, technological solutions in the design of the production tools, creation of new instruments of monitoring and evaluation parameters, as well as the tightening of the shop rates and the transition to higher levels of automation of production processes.
The article considers the problem of traceability of subjects of labor in performing functional control of VLSI in terms of production. To solve this problem the author developed special application-dependent software that provides traceability of subjects of labor and carrying out the process, analysis and presentation of results. The author presents examples of the analysis of measurements, and the solution of a number of production targets.
The software developed by the author solves the following tasks of traceability:
— Saving test results on all process stages with reference to serial numbers of products and accompanying documentation;
— Providing the staff of various departments with a uniform access to the measured data;
— Providing opportunities to combine measuring equipment located in different areas in order to form a common information space;
— Providing an opportunity to observe the results of the measuring equipment on a real-time basis;
— Providin a common graphical interface in various process stages;
— Provide the ability to analyze measurement results during various process stages and compare them;
— Providing the opportunity to conduct a correlation analysis of measured parameters on various process stages in order to identify potentially unreliable VLSI.

Astapov V. Y., Khoroshko L. L., Jozdani M. S., Khoroshko A. L. Manufacturing of Sheet-Metal Edge Formers of Aircraft Access Doors by Magnetic Pulse Method and Simulation Using CAD System. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

When designing any components of various aircrafts, it is important that the designer knows the technical capabilities of the preforming and forging production, and focuses on the most advanced technology processes of their manufacture. A large number of components used in an airplane design are composed of parts made of sheet materials, which are used as edge formers. The presence of a web, edging and various elements increasing the stiffness and reducing the weight, is common for such parts. These sheet-metal parts present intricate and mainly closed forms, the manufacturing of which by methods of the plastic deforming requires rather complicated forging outfit and their finishing to the required dimensions following the deforming.

The article is concerned with a topical issue of the determination of optimal conditions of exposure to the deforming force required in the prove-out of an intricate shape forming process of edge former structures by deforming a sheet-metal workpiece with the pulsed magnet field pressure, and the simulation of this process. The process of the magnetic pulse forming makes it possible to concentrate the exposure, deforming a sheet-metal workpiece, within the range of pre-set parameters and within a specified zone, but requires a thorough adjustment of technical regimes. Recommendations are developed for the determination of the required power parameters of the sheet-metal workpiece forming process ensuring the maximum efficiency of the process that reduces the number of technological operations, the complexity and the time of manufacture of the outfit and the equipment operation.

In the theoretical solution, the improved mathematical models of the magnetic pulse deforming of the sheet material were developed with account of actual mechanical characteristics of the workpiece materials. The theoretical dependences obtained were experimentally tested on samples; the assumptions and assertions made were verified. The impact of the magnetic pulse deforming on certain properties of sheet-metal part materials was determined. The proposed new technical solutions for implementing the processes developed in practice were examined. Methods for experimental testing of the high-speed magnetic pulse forming of sheet material were developed and implemented using various moulds of complex geometric surfaces, including the material shift dynamics and the impact of the deforming on the metal characteristics, as well as special aspects of the forming and influence patterns of power parameters, processing factors and tool configuration in operation of magnetic pulse sheet-metal forming were established. The influence of the magnetic pulse deforming on mechanical and process characteristics of materials after their exposure to the pulsed magnet field pressure and forming in a mould was determined. It is found out that when applying the pulsed force action, the metal is compacted, its surface hardness is increased, and micro-fractures and porosity are eliminated, that is the quality of a metal zone deformed by the pulsed magnet field is improved. ANSYS LS-DYNA program, a multipurpose software-based multi-function system of a finite-element complex, was used for the computational investigation and simulation of the magnetic pulse forming process of edge former surfaces. When solving the problems by CAD system, the geometrics of workpieces, material specifications, and energy parameters of the magnetic pulse deforming were variated. The workpiece shift and its deformation in moulds having different profile shapes were simulated. Based on the solutions obtained and in comparison with scales of equivalents, it is possible to determine any timing-wise shift of the sheet-metal workpiece web, the final finite deformation of workpieces, any stresses arising in contact zones with forming tools during the deforming and forming.

Efimov A. I., Il'in V. N. Methodology for analysis of objects shape data, received from video sequence of the camera. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

In this article we will discuss different ways of analysis of objects shape data, received from webcams. Purpose of this research was development of various areas of augmented reality and computer vision.

In the analysis of the video sequence, we can distinguish several steps:

  • Pre-processing image. It include decreasing influence of noise effects and light artifacts on data recognition.

  • Receiving the camera position. Program try to find special flat marker, placed on image. Depending on received data, we establish relative position of camera in current frame.

  • Find stable points. We find set of cue points, using FAST-ER method. After frame data processing we can declare stable points of global coordinate system.

  • Getting silhouette. We can resolve image depth and cue points of image drop. By processing of gradient between such points we can produce approximate silhouette of object on current frame.

  • Systematization final result to get accurate data about object shape.

In the future we decide to develop halftone recognition to make object shape restore even more accurate. We can also create variation of described algorithms without using of special marker, but it required bunch of sophisticated changes in it.

Described algorithm can be used to get object’s 3D models for create it copy on 3D printer. Next important area for us is augumented reality, because of potential of depth map to resolve problems of real and virtual objects intersections and increased range of objects for tracking. Depth maps also has an ability to create stereographic image from set of frames of video.

Analysis of objects shapes is important way of development of computer vision and recognition.

Deniskin Y. I., Dubrovin A. V., Podkolzin V. G. Innovative production life cycle processes quality management on basis of computer aided quality management system. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The article describes the work on semantic analysis of terms and definitions of national and international standards for quality management. Construction of semantic maps graphically displays the types of information flows within the information system for lifecycle processes quality management.

The trend of increasing the number of applications of digital manufacturing enforces to develop new approaches in the field of quality and competitiveness of products. This kind of manufacturing is a relatively new and isn’t explored yet on domestic enterprises wide enough.

Objective. Providing an integrated life cycle processes quality management of innovative products within digital manufacturing on basis of the computer aided information support.

Subject of research — quality of innovative product lifecycle processes within digital manufacturing.

Research methods. The research was performed using methods of the system analysis, graph theory, the principles of total quality management, expertise of quality control, methods of functional modeling (IDEF0), FMEA methodology, universal CASE-tools.

Practical value of the work is to create an integrated information support tools for the designing and integrated lifecycle process management on the basis of the fundamental requirements of national and international standards in the field of lifecycle support and quality management, in accordance with the specifics of automated enterprise management systems (ERP).

Developed functional and information models may serve as a basis for the rational designing of enterprise process model and for the innovative enterprises structure management.

Designed qualitative methods for evaluating the quality of the life cycle processes within digital manufacturing make it possible to provide information support for quality management system foundation (control, management, maintenance, improvement, planning) within digital manufacturing.

Podaruev V. Y. Program code developpment experience based on Galerkin method with discontinuous basic functions of high order of accuracy. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

The paper enunciates the experience of developing the software based on the Galerkin method with discontinuous basis functions of high accuracy. The purpose of the work consists in describing the specifics of of the program code developing intended for use on a multiprocessor computer system. The methodollogy of the work is based on the modern approach to simulation of complicated 3D flows using Galerkin scheme with discontinuous basis functions. The methodology of this work execution includes theoretical analysis of the method, application of modern approaches to programming, verification and validation of employed ideas and demonstration of the developed code’s suitability for complicated nonlinear calculations. The result of the work are recommendations for the software developing based on modern methods of computational aerodynamics.

To develop a software interface for specific codes, it is convenient to use the Python programming language. Before proceedeing to descring the computational domain topology, the calculated grid type (structured or unstructured) should be defined. It is necessary to determine what types of geometric objects are to be worked with. In the case of “serendipian” elements, the desired order of the problem approximation should be selected and the elements for linear, quadratic, cubic, etc. cases should be identified, with further changing only the sets of shape functions, characteristic to the specified elements. It is convenient herewith to realiize these sshape functions in the form of the so-called “lambda” functions included in the C++ standard.

The results of this work can be applied for educational purposes in technical universities and in practical works on developing new software in scientific institutes and design offices. The main conclusion of the paper is that a high-order scheme allows diminish entropic errors while calculating the flow after stagnant zones, as well as calculate all the flow specifics, which are characteristic for flow around the high-lift wing with released slats and flaps. Modern programming approaches allow ensure the high code scalability. In addition, the main features of the Galerkin method with discontinuous functions, such as reconstruction of conservative variables, the approximation of convective, diffusion and source terms, Gaussian quadratures, with account for the surface curvature, coordinate transformations using “serendipian” elements, are briefly described.

Krasinsky A. Y., Ilyina A. N., Krasinskaya E. M., Rukavishnikova A. S. Mathematical and computer modeling of rover with elastic suspension longitudinal dynamics. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

In the paper we provide a method of constructing an accurate mathematical model and solving a steady motion stabilization problem by the example of a simple rover − a four-wheeled mobile single-link manipulator with elastic suspension. It is an actual problem [16] because Lagrange equations of the second kind are not applicable for such systems. Redundant coordinates and equations of motion in M.F. Shul’gin’s form [1-3] are used to model the mechanical part of the manipulator dynamics. Vector-matrix form of the equations is convenient for analysis and control theory and the theory of critical cases [6-8] applying. The algorithm of solving stabilization problem was developed in [10-11].

The manipulator has to move rectilinearly with a constant speed and keep its clamp (with a camera or a scanner, for example) on a specified height. The system has a geometric constraint as the link is connected with a DC motor gear wheel by an inextensible arm AB. As a control action additional tension at the anchor engine is accepted. The wheels are simulated as two springs.

Solving the problem consists of a few steps:

  1. Mathematical modeling using F.M. Shul’gin’s equations.

  2. Calculating parameters of a steady motion.

  3. The first approximation of the disturbed motion equations around the steady motion is found.

  4. The linear substitution [10-11] is used for the system to have a special form of the theory of critical cases [6-8].

  5. Manipulator controllability [9] is confirmed.

  6. Coefficients of the optimal linear control law are determined uniquely by solving linear-quadratic problem using N.N. Krasovsky’s method [9, 15].

  7. System stability is analyzed.

Results of numerical computations showed that the control law provides asymptotic stability with respect to all variables. This algorithm was programmed in MATLAB.

Lisov A. A., Chernova T. A., Gorbunov M. S. Modeling of limiting states in the operation of electromechanical transducers. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 95,

In actual operating conditions of electrical industry’s products the degrading changes of their properties should be accounted for. The object of research is various kinds of electromechanical converters, for which even a slight degradation of the properties leads to the serious technogenic aftermath. Methodological basics for solving such problems were considered and suggested; a number of regularities of degrading changes is established, and mathematical models were developed.

Analysis of the characteristic parameters changes allows the four most typical types of functions for describing these regularities: the entire rational functions or polynomials; fractional rational functions; exponential functions; function describing the saturation processes. For each dependence under consideration, examples of the limiting state attainment forecast and the residual resource calculation are given. Models’ building of degrading changes supposes tabulating the measured values and selection of such approximating function, which will provide the least mean square deviation from the tabular dependence. The best results in solving the problems of this kind is ensured by the method of least squares (OLS).

Analysis of considered functions degradation of processes’ descriptions allows establish the following: all functions have an initial value, known from the nameplate data on the device in service. Thus, it is expedient while the degradation changes analysis to study not the whole function, but only its degradation deviation. The initial value of the deviation function is zero, so its plot passes through the origin. When determining the number of approximating function parameters their number is reduced by one for the deflection function, therefore decreasing the order of normal OLS systems.

A practical tool for predicting the modes of functioning of electrical devices and estimating the residual resource has been developed, and a residual resource has been calculated for the degradation changes described by the dependencies of a different type. Prediction of residual resource is based on the solution of nonlinear equations, in which the degradation deviation function takes normative allowable values. The solution of the equation must be determined by limiting the value of the argument, as the moment of failure. Estimation of the residual resource of the device was performed based on the moment of failure.

Aleroeva H. T., Aleroev T. S. Fractional differential equations and kernels, and small vibrations of mechanical systems. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 94,

The article studies the Dirichlet boundary value problem for the equation of motion of an oscillator with viscoelastic damping in the case when the damping order is greater than one but less than two. Such problems simulate many physical processes, in particular, string vibrations in a viscous medium, changes in the deformation-strength characteristics of polymer concrete during loading, etc. Earlier, in the case, when the order of the fractional derivative is less than one, the authors established basic oscillation properties, using the methods of perturbation theory. They are as follows. All the frequencies are simple (i. e., the amplitude function of the natural oscillation of a given frequency is uniquely determined up to a constant factor); the natural oscillation with the lowest frequency  (the fundamental tone) does not have any nodes; the natural oscillations with frequency  (the jth overtone) has exactly j nodes; the nodes of two successive overtones alternate. It was also shown, that the operator, generated by the differential expression of a second order with fractional derivatives in lower terms and boundary conditions of Sturm-Liouville type, is a Keldysh’s operator. This makes it possible to establish the completeness of the systems of eigenfunctions and associated functions of boundary value problems induced by second-order differential expressions with fractional derivatives in the lower terms and Dirichlet boundary conditions.

In the case when the order of the fractional derivative is greater than one, the previously used technique based on perturbation theory for the study of oscillatory properties does not work. In this paper, we investigate the Green’s function of the corresponding problem, which allows us to establish the positivity of this Green’s function. From this fact, some oscillatory properties follow for the equation of motion of an oscillator with viscoelastic damping in the case when the order of the fractional derivative is greater than one. Since the application of the first eigenvalues is usually of the greatest interest in applied problems, the results obtained can be applied to evaluate the study of the natural oscillation with the lowest frequency, and also to establish that the fundamental tone has no nodes.

Kuroedov A. A., Borisov D. M. Effect of averaging method of solid propellant power plant operating parameters on acoustic vibrations damping factor. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 94,

The article deals with studying the work process stability in a solid propellant power plant (SPPP) chambers with respect to small pressure perturbations. The research method is based on the energy approach, which allows evaluate the gas flow stability, comparing the disturbances energy inflow and outflow. The aim of this study is the analysis of the two time averaging methods of the SPPP chamber parameters – simplified time averaging widely used in the foreign studies of the SPPP stability (No 1), and common time averaging (No 2). The analysis is based on calculations of the first longitudinal acoustic mode oscillations damping factor for the three types SPPP chambers for various applications with tubular grain.

The acoustic disturbances in steady incompressible gas flow propagating in a cylindrical channel with permeable walls are considered. The first oscillation longitudinal mode damping factor is determined with averaging small isentropic perturbation energy equation over the chamber volume and time.

The damping factor as a function of the tubular grain radius of the three SPPP types calculated by two time averaging methods was obtained through computational experiment.

It was found that for all SPPPs under consideration the work process in combustion chamber is more stable while using averaging No 1 to averaging No 2. The greatest difference was observed for the small-scale SPPP. Relative divergences for small-scale, mid-size and large SSSPs are 61%, 32% and 26% correspondingly.

According to the performed studies, a conclusion was made that the time averaging No 2 is more suitable for practical calculations.

Berezko M. E., Nikitchenko Y. A., Tikhonovets A. V. Joint of kinetic and hydrodynamic models by the example of the Couette flow. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 94,

The problem of setting the boundary conditions on a solid surface for the viscous heat-conducting gas equations becomes very relevant in the case of hypersonic and moderately rarefied flows. The statement of the boundary conditions at the level of gas-dynamic variables results in significant errors for relatively large Mach values (M) and Knudsen (Kn) numbers. Physically adequate formulation of the boundary conditions on active (absorbing or releasing the gas) surfaces is impossible without considering molecular processes.

The kinetic models describing the gas flow at the molecular level make it possible to set the physically adequate conditions on the surfaces with different properties for any flow regime. However, the kinetic calculation of the flow field of complex geometry by  is rather inefficient.

The purpose of this work is the development of a physical-mathematical flow model (KIN_NSF) containing the Navier-Stokes-Fourier model (NSF), «joined» to the kinetic model equation of polyatomic gases. The kinetic model is used in the near-wall Knudsen layer. The remaining flow range is described by the NSF model. In the range of the model, joining the approximating velocity distribution function of molecules is recovered by the parameters determined by the NSF model. It represents the expansion of the local-balanced distribution function in terms of the thermal velocity. The expansion coefficients (unbalanced stresses and heat fluxes) are presented in the Navier-Stokes approximation.

The developed KIN_NSF model is efficient enough for the practical applications and at the same time allows setting the boundary conditions at the kinetic level of the gas with the surface interaction processes description.

A series of test calculations has been performed on the example of a flat Couette flow in the intervals . The kinetic model equation for polyatomic gases, NSF and KIN_NSF models were tested.

The results of the calculations revealed that the KIN_NSF model is not much inferior in accuracy to the kinetic model, and it substantially exceeds it in the efficiency. With  the KIN_NSF model required a few dozen times less CPU time than the kinetic model.

When describing flows of the dense gases, the economy of the KIN-NSF model does not depend on the Kn number and depends weakly on the M number, which is typical for the NSF model.

Novak K. V., Oleshko V. S., Starikova I. O., Toforov M. S. Analysis of complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles used by special operations forces of the United States of America. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 94,

As effective military instruments, used to amplify its political and military influence abroad, mainly in third world countries, the USА is considering special operations forces.

One of the actively used in recent years, the types of weapons the special operations forces of the USА are the complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles, which, in order to enhance the effectiveness of special operations forces, capable of solving the following main tasks:

– obtaining in advance, or constantly in the course of warfare intelligence information about the enemy by its transfer on control points in real time;

the results of targeting on mobile, time-critical and again you manifest to order to command posts, aircraft, ships, and weapons outfitted with equipment retarget in-flight (cruise missiles, sea- and air-based);

– jamming weapons and retransmission signals;

– defeat of enemy on call of duty provisions in the air or on the ground.

Armed forces special operations United States at present-presence of the complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles of various ranges from multi-purpose unmanned aerial vehicles long range reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicles of small and middle range.

Currently, units of the special operations forces of the USA successfully used the complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles RQ-11 “Raven” and the RQ-14 “Dragon eye”, “Puma” and “WASP AE”, PD-100 “Black Hornet”.

On the basis of the conducted analysis of tactical complexes of the special operations forces of the USА and considered international experience, it is possible to argue that the Armed forces of the Russian Federation:

– is the actual application of tactical complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles in the interests of tactical units and special operations forces;

– is it appropriate to conduct scientific research in the development of miniature unmanned aerial vehicles as a component of the advanced equipment of the Armed forces of the Russian Federation;

– is it appropriate to conduct scientific research in the field of combating tactical complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles a potential enemy.

Ershov G. V., Murlaga A. R. Unitized ultra-broadband system for helicopters’ individual passive protection. Trudy MAI, 2017, no 94,

The article discusses passive jamming systems development allowing decrease helicopter signature from prospective observation and guidance facilities in infrared, laser and visible centimeter wavelength ranges. The standard ejection unit, as a part of modern helicopters configuration and meant for false thermal targets jettison, was taken as a basis of the suggested system. The false thermal targets ensure signature reduction only within the infrared wavelength range. Thus, the authors suggest supplementing the standard ejection unit with special ammunition to form the cloud (screen) of volume-distributed composition from nano-structured carbon material (technical carbon of “Veil” brand). While furnishing the standard unit, the volume of the chamber, containing the powder, in the suggested ammunition will be 58.9