Trends analysis of domestic and foreign booster’s super-heavy

Space technologies


Аuthors

Khusnetdinov I. R.

Central Research Institute of Machine Building, 4, Pionerskaya st., Korolev, Moscow region, 141070, Russia

e-mail: ildar.husnetdinov@yandex.ru

Abstract

Development results in research on super-heavy rockets in United States, Russia, ESA and China show that promising projects of super-heavy rocketsare constructively implemented based on the schemes of «Energia» and reusable space transportation system «Space Shuttle». The main purpose of the NASAAgency is the Mars mission planned for 2030. Expedition to the Mars demands several launches of new super-heavy rockets, so NASA has focused on the development of «SLS» (Space Launch System) and has displaced creation oflight and middle class rockets to the private companies.
Analysis of global trends in the development ofsuper-heavy class launch vehicles goes in two directions:
1) There are carriers based on the experience of development of «Energia — Buran» and «Space Shuttle». This experience involves the use of solid and liquid boosters and oxygen-hydrogen central unit.
Advantages:
Creation oflaunch vehicle with capacity from 80-85 tons to 200 tons achieved by increase in number of side blocks and Central Bank filling increase.
Disadvantages:
The high cost of start that may not be acceptable for flight to the Moon.
(~ $ 500 million)
2) There are varieties of carriers with cheaper and safer engines, which allow to reduce the launch cost with keeping security and energy characteristics. For example, the company «SpaceX» has designed rocket with capacities from 53 to 140 tons. Similar options are being considered in Russia. These variants have tendency for the insertion lower coast.

Keywords:

super-heavy, SLS, SpaceX, NASA, analysis of global trends

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