To the question of small-sized UAVs surveillance

Radiolocation and radio navigation


Аuthors

Ananenkov A. E.*, Маrin D. V.**, Nuzhdin V. M.*, Rastorguev V. V.***, Sokolov P. V.*

Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), 4, Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, А-80, GSP-3, 125993, Russia

*e-mail: kaf407@mai.ru
**e-mail: marindv@gmail.com
***e-mail: rast@mai.ru

Abstract

The article is devoted to the problem of the detection and coordinate measurement of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the city with strong reflections from the local objects. This problem is related to the rapid growth in the number of UAVs and with a relatively soft laws aimed at the regulating and organizing of small UAVs flights. Therefore, it is necessary to provide the safety of the important objects and places with mass of people from possible threats associated with the use of small UAVs and to monitor the air space at any time and in any weather conditions. Only radar sensor meets these requirements.

It’s noted that there were attempts to solve this problem with using military radars that designed to detect mortar and artillery shells. But these radars are very expensive. Therefore, truly effective solution to this problem is the producing of a cheap short-range radar system for detection and tracking of such UAVs. However, using the radar for these objects that fly at low altitude, is associated with the complexity of the detection process. This is due to the presence of spurious background reflections from objects of urban area. These reflections exceed echo-signal from UAV by orders of magnitude.

The methods for detection of small-sized aerial objects against the background of intense reflections from the underlying surface (US) were noted. The detection can be implemented by extending the spectrum of the probing signal (PS) with reducing the pulse duration. This PS does not have side lobes of range selection function (SF) that allows to observe small target in close proximity to major. Using an ultra-short pulse (USP) PS allows to apply inter-periodic compensation methods, that allow to solve problems related with the small radial component of the velocity vector of the UAV.

The results of the radar field tests in terms of urban development are presented. It was able to detect hovering and low speed UAVs during the experiment. Echo signals of several production samples of UAVs were investigated. The algorithm of calculation and the obtained values of average radar cross-section (RCS) for the UAVs are presented.

The images of radar indicator with source data for different durations of the PS, including the UAV marks, are noted in the article.

The authors note that measured average values of RCS using USP radar are large enough for stable radar detection UAV at 3-5 km range.

Keywords:

UAVs detection, short-range radar, ultra-short pulse radar, moving target detection

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