Global criteria of efficiency and their hierarchy for life support systems for space stations crews

Design, construction and manufacturing of flying vehicles


Аuthors

Proshkin V. Y.*, Kurmazenko E. A.**

Scientific Research and Design Institute of Chemical Engineering, NIIchimmash, 14, Bolshaya Novodmitrovskaya str., Moscow, 127015, Russia

*e-mail: v_proshkin@mail.ru
**e-mail: e_kurmazenko@niichimmash.ru

Abstract

The authors suggest employ three global criteria of efficiency (GCE) to analyze life support systems (LSS) for space stations crews and planetary bases. These GCE integrate a number of LSS’s partial criteria (PC) such as survivability (G) (integrating such PCs as resource, reliability etc.); cost value (integrating PCs such as energy consumption, weight, servicing time, material cost etc), and comfort F (including such PCs as habitat, interaction with crew and other systems, layout, operation modes etc.).

The GCE hierarchy (significance) relative to each other depends on the type and characteristics of the LSS, its complexity and availability of means for reprocessing the source substances into final product within the system. Survivability is of most significance for regenerative LSS (RLSS), the cost value – for LSS on consumable components (LSS-C), and comfort – for emergency life support systems (LSS-E).

G > C > F. RLSS with a long operating time (several years), operating constantly, without maintenance.

G > F > C. RLSS, which operates periodically and for a short time (hours), with maintenance.

C > F > G. LSS-C with simple structure and processes.

C > G > F. LSS-C with more complex structure and processes (more probability of abnormal situations effecting the crew occurrence).

F > C > G. Emergency stock of consumables.

F > G > C. LSS-E for operation in abnormal situations on board.

G ≈ F ≈ C. Biotechnical LSS of future planetary bases, which will have a more significant cost value (high consumption of mass and energy) and comfort (specific requirements for greenhouses LSS).

While performing analysis, influence coefficients on three GCT kG , kC , kF are being determined for each parameter. The total coefficient is kΣ = a1 kG + a2 kC + a3 kF .

Weight coefficients a1 , a2 , a3 have their own values for each LSS and relative to each other correspond to the GCE hierarchy. For example, on board of International space station for Russian “Elektron-VM” system (О2 generation by water electrolysis): a1 = 9, a2 = 3, a3 = 1.

Application of this analysis in relation to existing and LSS being developed allows identify parameters and components with higher coefficients of influence and gives directions for constructional and operational modernization.

Keywords:

life support system, global criteria of efficiency, survivability, cost, comfort, hierarchy of global criteria

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