2011. № 43

43 выпуск электронного журнала «Труды МАИ» является тематическим и содержит 29 научных статей, подготовленных на основе докладов, поставленных на IX международной конференции «Авиация и космонавтика» и признанных Программным комитетом конференции наиболее значимыми. Заседания IX международной конференции «Авиация и космонавтика» состоялись 16-18 ноября 2010 года в Московском авиационном институте (государственном техническом университете). Участниками конференции были более 500 человек, среди которых ученые и специалисты – представители более 80 предприятий аэрокосмической отрасли и смежных отраслей, преподаватели, научные сотрудники, аспиранты и студенты 15 научных и высших учебных заведений России, ближнего и дальнего зарубежья. В рамках конференции по четырем направлениям (авиационные системы; ракетные и космические системы; энергетические установки авиационных, ракетных и космических систем; информационно-телекоммуникационные технологии авиационных, ракетных и космических систем) проводилась работа 7 секций, на которых было заслушано более 250 докладов по актуальным вопросам научно-технологического аэрокосмической отрасли и смежных отраслей. Программный и Организационный комитеты IX международной конференции «Авиация и космонавтика» выражают надежду, что издание данного выпуска будет полезным для дальнейшего развития высоких технологий в Российской Федерации.

Space technics and technology

Alifanov O. M., Matveev Y. A., Lamzin V. V., Lamzin V. A.

Problem questions of effective modernization of Earth remote sensing space system (ERS SS) and creations of spacecraft (SC) modifications are considered. The primary problem of search a rational design decisions of ERS SS with the account of development (modernization) of technics during the planned period is formulated. Shows the logical scheme of the dismembered research of the primary problem and its main tasks are defined. The researches conducted using developed methodical bases, allow to estimate quantitatively characteristics of alternative variants of ERS SS, to determine their rational values, to establish the laws of development of technics and technologies.

Keywords: space system; Earth remote sensing; modernization; planned period; design decision.

Bobe L. S., Solyankina A. A., Astafiev V. B., Sterin V. F., Andreychuk P. O., Zapryagaylo E. D.

The paper describes a membrane filter-separator and separation of gas-liquid flow through semi-permeable walls and water-retaining materials on the basis of which the JSC NIICHMMASH has developed a two-stage separation method for space stations’ life support systems. The membrane filter separator works as a preliminary separation stage. It was designed owing to continuous increase in condensate contamination and irregularity of its supply and with purpose of increasing service life of the separator fitted with nickel porous tubes, being the second separation stage. The membrane filter-separator has successfully been in operation on the ISS since the 1st of September 2009. Home-produced recovery systems with two-stage static separators exceed foreign ones in life, reliability, power consumption and quality of separated condensate.

Keywords: water supplies system, membrane technology, moisture absorption, liquid separation, static separation, hydrophilic membrane.

Kochetkov A. A., Kurmazenko E. A., Khabarovsky N. N., Kamaletdinova G. R.

One of the main problems which restrict implementation of interplanetary flights, is a guarantee of reliability and safety of the onboard system operation in conditions autonomous manned spaceflight. This issue is not fully analized, that is why it is necessary to answer to a series of new issues, which distinguish interplanetary missions from orbital flight of comparable duration (1.5 - 2 years). The main aim of the “Mars-500 project” is learning of the “man – environment” system in conditions of prolonged isolation, which simulates the flight to Mars (long duration, autonomy, changes of the communication conditions with Earth – restrictions of expendable resources and the information transmission rate).

Keywords: life support system; long duration space mission; simulation modeling; simulation training system; hardware/software complex; off-normal situation

Naumov, O. N.

The paper analyzes the spatial motion of the deployed tether system consisting of a base spacecraft and the landing capsule.The problem is considered taking into account the rotation of the end-bodies about their centers of mass. Capsule and the spacecraft is considered as rigid bodies, carrying out the angular motion under the action of the force of elasticity of the tether. The tether is attached to the capsule is not strictly on the axis of dynamical symmetry, and with some small shift, which determines the static asymmetry of the capsule. Tensor inertia of the capsule is different from a dynamically symmetric, with small deviations of the data is characterized by its dynamic asymmetry. Tether is deployed to a predetermined law.

Keywords: Landing capsule, asymmetry, space tether, rotational motion, tether system of coordinates.

Nadiradze A. B., Shaposhnikov V. V., Korsun A. G., Kurshakov M. Y., Gabdullin F. F., Tverdokhlebova E. M.

The mechanisms of both the formation of ionized environment around a geostationary spacecraft, called in the paper spacecraft own ionosphere (SCOI), and the generation of the main SCOI’ component – the secondary plasma fluxes from the electric thruster exhausted jet, are considered. It is described the computer simulation technique to calculation the negative effects of SCOI impacts among them: erosion, force, contamination, optic jamming and radio noice. The presented software was developed jointly the MAI’ and TsNIImash’ specialists and allows to solve the basic problems relating to the determination of SCOI parameters and its impact on the spacecraft.

Keywords: spacecraft; own outer atmosphere; ionosphere; electric thruster, software

Kurenkov, V. I., Stratilatov, N. R., Fedorenko, O. G., Shilov L. B.

Selection criterion of the cooler location on observation SC surface has been introduced in the article with account of relative time of Sun effect on the cooler, complex spatial geometry of the cooler panels and Sun angles change during orbital flight and SC programmed turns when special-purpose operation. Respective mathematical models, algorithm and software have been developed.

Keywords: spacecraft; cooler; cooler geometry; mounting area; selection criterion; Sun exposure; average daily time; shading cased by SC body; flight simulation; turns simulation; software

Yurchenko I. I., Karakotin I. N., Kudinov A. S.

The main contribution to the heat protection weight makes aerodynamic heat fluxes to the head fairing. General physical laws for LV head fairings surface as well as for blunted models, represented in papers by laminar-turbulent transition in boundary layer researchers, were obtained and were applied when reducing heat fluxes factors were being looked for. It was shown that the main factor providing reducing heat flux magnitude is surface roughness height. The carried out analyses revealed that more optimal and predictable approach associated with non-loss heat protection applying. Using spread material on the heat protection outer surface were proposed in order to reduce heating by the Sun while standing on the launch pad and for boundary layer condition changing owing to less roughness height. That features lead to thermal resistance improvement of the external heat protection layers.

Keywords: the boundary layer; the heat flux; the turbulent-laminar transition; blunt body; the surface roughness; thermocouple; the calorimeter; spread materials.

Ashurbeili I. R., Lagovier A. I., Ignatiev A. B., Nazarenko A. V.

Use of an airborne laser energy transfer system (LETS) for applications such as space debris removal or low-orbit spacecraft sustaining provides a set of advantages over the ground-based and space-based systems. It is less subject to atmospheric turbulence and absorption influence than ground-based system which leads to a great increase of duration and efficiency of interaction between LETS and target. Also, high mobility of an airborne LETS allows interacting with the multiple targets (or more frequently interact with the single target). In the same time, the performance of an airborne LETS is subject to some additional degradation factors that have to be countered or taken into account. The beam jitter control is especially important for orbit sustaining applications, where the laser spot should be kept within the geometrical limits of an energy receiver. This article formulates and considers principal requirements to an airborne LETS and evaluates its potential capabilities for the two above mentioned applications

Keywords: lazer, space debris

Aerospace propulsion engineering

Arbekov A. N., Leontiev A. I.

The paper displays the main milestones in the development of the home space closed-cycle gas turbine plant by the team of researchers headed by V.L.Samsonov from the Bauman Moscow State technical university. The problems to be solved are being formulated. Main achievements in the development of such plants and their critical units are being described and directions of further research are offered.

Keywords: Closed-cycle gas turbine plant; spacecraft; recuperator; cooler-radiator; solar concentrator ; heat receiver-accumulator; centrifugal compressor; centripetal turbine; synchronous generator.

Brykin B. V., Leontiev M. K.

In the article carried out investigations of the gas flows in the labyrinth seals. Also aerodynamic forces arising in steady-state rotating rotor were calculated using commercial CFD ANSYS-CFX. Different labyrinth seal models were investigated - model with a given clearance (uniform) and model with an eccentricity. For these cases were obtain results for gas flows in the steady-state conditions leaking through seals with different eccentricities. The article is useful for engineers specialized in aerodynamics and turbo-machinery.

Keywords: labyrinth seals, aerodynamic forces, computational fluid dynamics

Evdokimov I. E.

The article gives in account results of modelling heat exchange between hot gases and thin wall in jet propulsion test bench exhaust nozzle. In the paper present analysis of the predicted and experimental temperatures. Also it is discussed about the optimal spectral models allows to improve accuracy independently of objective complexity of modelling gas flow characterized high velocities and intensive turbulence. All calculations were carried out in the commercial ANSYS CFX and it refers some features of modelling in this bundled software. The article is useful for specialists and researchers in the field of heat exchange using ANSYS CFX.

Keywords: radiation; heat transfer

Kalashnikov V. V., Dudnik V. V.

This paper offer structure and working principles of ultralight aircraft’s engines` measuring complex. The results of the Rotax 912 engine stand testing are presented.

Keywords: Engine monitoring system, diagnostics, controller, ultralight aircraft, internal combustion engine.

Melnik I. I., Favstova L. A.

The fundamental characteristic of product is product structure. Other product characteristics are drawn up around one. Product structure management bases on stored information about com-prised components, performances, configurations and relations between all parts and assemblies contained. User is able to view any information about product including documents of occurred parts. Article is devoted the principles of product structure management of russian-developed prod-ucts and implementation of these principles in PLM system.

Keywords: PLM system; product structure; configuration

Radio engineering. Electronics. Telecommunication systems

Dishel V. D.

The new approach to formation of redundancy of satellite measurements and to statistical treatment of these measurements in the problems of dynamic filtration is presented. This approach is directed towards the use in integrated GNC systems for dynamic objects the guidance of which is a process of irreversible nature. On the basis of the influence function theory, the analytic dependences of estimation errors upon inertial and noninertial measurements errors, dynamic disturbances, and various setting parameters are obtained. The interrelation of estimations obtained on the basis of the proposed approach and in terms of the Kalman filter is shown. The theoretical results laid the groundwork for the new version of the dynamic filtration method that served as a basis for the onboard software of the integrated inertial/satellite GNC systems for space launchers. The results of the first applications of that sort of systems during Fregat upper stage missions (injections of Meteor-M, Globalstar-2, and Electro-L satellites) are discussed.

Keywords: satellite and inertial navigation; terminal guidance; conjugate system; flight test

Bryzgalov A. P., Kovalchuk I. V., Hnykin A. V., Shevela I. A., Yusupov R. G.

Problems and examples of mathematical simulation applied to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are considered using two models. The simulation model of SAR is intended for development of space-time processing algorithms and creation of radar images. The mixed-level simulation complex is intended for simulation (including real-time) of radar images that meet real SAR images. The complex is used for development of detection and recognition algorithms and communication of SAR with related systems.

Keywords: radar; synthetic aperture; simulation; matched processing; radar images; modeling

Okhotnikov D. A., Kornev Y. I., Immoreev I. Y., Stepanov R. J.

In the article features the construction of ultra-wideband radar, developed at the Research Center for UWB technologies of the Moscow aviation institute (SRC UWB MAI) and designed for continuous observation and monitoring of premises and areas related to unauthorized entry or movement of people, including non mobile people (at movement of the thorax) and the people behind optically opaque barriers (walls, vegetation, fog, smoke). Examples of practical use of such radars.

Keywords: ultrawideband radar, processing the two quadratures, Doppler radar, phase detection, digital signal processing.

Material authority

Shtrikman M. M., Kashchuk N. M.

Finite element model, allowing to analize the resistance and deformations during friction stir welding, is described in the paper. An example of model's practical appliance for determination of optimal welding conditions also is given in the paper.

Keywords: friction stir welding, FSW, three-layer panels, thermal process, residual deformations, computer simulation.

Lyakhovetsky M. A., Tyurin V. N.

The results of corrosion resistance study of samples made from zirconium alloy (Э-110) coated with microarc oxidation (MAO) at the different regimes – are presented in this paper. The advantages of MAO method as compared with ion-plasma depositions methods are exhibited. There are considered the mechanism and physicochemical concept of zirconium alloys plasmaelectrolysis. The optimal regimes of coatings forming and electrolyte compositions with using of mathematical design of experiments are determined. It was obtained, that corrosion resistance of samples with MAO coatings in two times higher than samples without coatings. The materials obtained in this paper applying both in space nuclear power plant and in ground-based nuclear power plant.

Keywords: plasmaelectrolysis; microarc oxidation, zirconium alloys, coating, nuclear reactor, corrosion resistance, optimal regimes, mathematical design of experiments

Economics and management

Korunov S. М., Belova G. N., Gudkova T. I.

In the article actual problems of use of results of space activity in national economy branches are considered. These problems are considered in a context of innovative activity on an example of one of the most complicated as of today the high technology projects of the Russian Federation - of the MCS. The basic instruments of innovative activity and prospect of their use in space branch are analysed.

Keywords: an innovation, a commercialisation, an innovative call, service of space activity, a diversification, conversion, a commercial effectiveness.

Opryshko N. V., Ruban N. V.

This article describes the problem of high level of equipment depreciation in Russian industry. Review of different finance sources for renewing equipment was made and most popular sources of external finances - credit and leasing were analyzed in the article. Was created decision-making model at renewing equipment, allowing consider maximum factors.

Keywords: obsolescence, renewal of equipment, credit, leasing, integration, decision-making model.

Aviation technics and technology

Komarov V. A., Kuznetsov A. S., Lapteva M. Y.

An approach for estimation of wing deformations based on mathematical model of body with variable density is proposed. The approach is implemented in the software tool coupling aerodynamic and deformation analysis modules. The results of parametric study for a number of wings with different geometrical parameters are presented. It is shown, that significant reduction in structural mass can be achieved by accounting wing deformation on early design stages.

Keywords: wing; deformation; aerodynamic load; body with variable density; optimization; estimation

Lebedev I. I.

Emergency evacuation is the one of the most important problem of passengers’ safety. Addition the real demonstration of evacuation with results of computer modeling will extremely reduce cost of type aircraft certification and time for it realization. Results of mathematical modeling coincide with results of real demonstration. Finally this model and software would replace a certification tests. Also this software can model a non-standard emergency landing, for example, landing with breaking of nose landing gear, or water landing. These types of emergencies are very dangerous and cannot be reproduced by people throw process of certification demonstration. Implementation of the offered software will solve this problem.

Keywords: emergency evacuation; computer modeling; aviation rules; artificial intelligence; software.

Podlipyan P. E., Maximov N. А.

This article describes new approach to solving the problem of planning the flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to monitor the distributed targets. This approach is based on the representation of the planning problem as a capacitated vehicle routing problem and it further decomposition into subtasks. Based on this approach multi-phase algorithm for solving the problem of planning the UAVs was developed.

Keywords: distribution of targets; flight planning; genetic algorithm; vehicle routing problem; unmanned aerial vehicle.

Mamayev A. A., Semenikhin K. V.

The problem of aircraft trajectory estimation from range and direction cosines measurements is studied in the minimax framework. Using the ellipsoidal constraints on the unknown parameters of kinematic model, the iterative estimation algorithm is designed on the basis of the dual optimization theory. The efficiency of the obtained solutions is illustrated by means of computer simulation.

Keywords: kinematic model; measurements; minimax estimation; ellipsoidal constraints; dual optimization problem

Kopkin A. S., Dudnik V. V.

This article is devoted algorithm of functioning of agriculture helicopter assistant system which allows to record information about aviation chemical work and to give pilot data about optimal moving track relatively the current parameters of wind. The results of helicopter experimental flight with this system in record regime also presented.

Keywords: aviation chemical works, chemical drift, field map, quality of dusting.

Stoljarov D. V., Popov Y. I.

This article considers the method of strength and parametric analysis for the perfection of frames designs for the tail part fuselage frame of the integral composition fighter. An object of analysis is the structure of a full-size power with a ring in pod zone of the integral composition fighter two diverse engines. It is consider the causing of form of cross-section fuselage section to rational scheme of load-caring frames.

Keywords: design; frame; load; strength; parameters; mass.

Yarygina M. V., Popov Y. I.

The paper describes some peculiarities of naval aircrafts and folding wing special. Theexperience of naval crafts design is presented; the classification of typical methods of folding wing design is made. There are described the factors influencing mass increase. The method of folding wing weight analysis is shown. The influence of each junction element on wing mass increase is detected.

Keywords: wing; folding junction; mass; navalaircraft;axis.

Bissenov O. V., Tsarev E. K., Obolensky Y. G.

Abstract. The paper considers the analysis and synthesis of an autoland flight control system of a tailless UAV in lateral motion stabilization mode during runway roll-out. The UAV lateral motion is unstable and, consequently, stability region of the closed loop is bounded due to control constraints. The maximum stability region is computed. The scheduled-gain static controller, obtained using LMI, is used for lateral motion stabilization during runway roll-out. The simulation results are presented using high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft model.

Keywords: UAV, automatic landing, control constraints, unstable aircraft, runway rollout.

Methods and tutorials

Malyshev V. V., Pijavsky S. A.

The information technology of formation student’s research competence, based on mathematical modeling, the laws of operated development youth scientific abilities is considered.

Keywords: research competence, high school, mathematical modeling, management, information system

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