2012. № 50
Mathematics. Physics. Mechanics  
According to methaequilibrium model of twotemperature quasistationary plasma calculated distributions excitation states of argon. Results of calculations are in good with the experiments of I.V.Podmoshinskiy, H.Shindo and S.Imazu. Keywords: distributions excitation states of argon plasma, manylevels kinetics of argon plasma, diagrammas of methaequilibrium states, optical diagnostics plasma jet 

As part of a twotemperature model of metaequilibrium quasistationary plasma tasked and solved the problem of modeling the distributions of excited states of argon to explain the classic V. Kolesnikov’s experiment, referring to the spectroscopic studies of arc discharge at atmospheric pressure (differently valued nature distributions in the plasma of argon arc). The calculations of distributions of excited states of argon are in good agreement with the considered experiments in super sounding jet of argon plasmas. Keywords: radiation plasmadinamic, collisionradiative equilibrium (metaequilibrium) in plasma, diagnostics of argon plasmas jet, distributions of excited states 

In this article the main properties of Lambert function are discussed. Here there are provided several problems, where implementation of Lambert function lets to derive exact analytical solutions for equations which otherwise could be solved only numerically Keywords: turbulence, analytical solutions, mathematical functions 

Experimental solution of the key problem of angular momentum transport by an electromagnetic radiation is presented. According to the classical electrodynamics, angular momentum of a circularly polarized light beam is localized near to the surface of the beam; however, the quantum theory predicts the spin angular momentum fills all body of the beam. We offer to interfere two beams, which pass through two halfwave plates, one of which is divided into two parts concentrically. When one of the parts is being rotated manually, the light frequency changes if this part absorbs angular momentum. It results in a movement of interference fringes, and makes it possible to verify theoretical predictions Keywords: electrodynamics torque; interferometer, classical spin 

The modern idea that spin of an electromagnetic radiation is a moment of a linear momentum seems to be incorrect. This fact is of great importance for calculating the torque, which experiences an absorber of a circularly polarized electromagnetic beam. We show that the classical monographs of Jackson and Becker contain inaccurate calculation in the case of a radiation produced by a source localized in a finite region of space. We use a spin tensor introduced into the electrodynamics previously when calculating the total torque. Keywords: spin tensor, BelinfanteRosenfeld procedure 

Features of optimization of the program block in mechanics and electrodynamics problems of background plasmas on an example of a problem of a flow of the cylinder placed in a stream of lowionized dense plasma are considered. The choice of an optimum step on time, the size of settlement area, a settlement grid, feature of a choice optimum certainlyraznostnyh and numericallyanalytical methods of calculation is discussed. The special attention is given to possibility of application classical stability conditions of KurantaFridrihsaLevi to problems of the given class. Keywords: background plasmas; the indissolubility equations, the equation of Puasson, a method of large particles, a condition of stability of KurantaFridrihsaLevi, a settlement grid, a step on time, a method of RungeKutta. 

We have considered different commutation relations between the total orbital momentum operator of the particles and a scalar product angular momentum operators, or sum squares of momentum operators, etc.In case of manyelectron problem, we have considered combinations different operators with the spin momentum operator. Keywords: commutation relations, the operator of orbital moment, spin operator, manyelectron problem. 

Aviation technics and technology  
The results of numerical and experimental studies on the reattachment of the flow behind the partition and the effect of the form of the partition on the attachment point of the flow. Partition was set of the plate perpendicularly at 0,25 chord. Keywords: plate, partition, separatedvortex flow, flow separation. 

The importance of the stage of flying tests is considered in the general cycle of creation of modern airplane. Tasks which a crew decides on the stage of preparation to the tests, during realization of flying experiments and analysis of their results are considered. The method of complex analysis to realization of navigation flying tests is formulated. It's based on the joint analysis of results of tests pilots, developers of equipment and leading engineers on tests. Application of complex analysis allows raise efficiency of test flights and objectivity of the got results due to association of highquality estimation of functioning of equipment, executable a crew and quantitative estimation of necessary characteristics. Keywords: flying tests, pilotagenavigating complex, air navigation. 

The article presents numerical investigations of experimental methods refining of functioning resource of aviation starting equipments by repeated static loading as well as dynamic loading. By using of these methods the results of numerical calculations of functioning resource of aviation starting equipments were compared. Keywords: aviation starting equipment; finite elements method; damage measure; functioning resource. 

In the Paper there are the results of Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the model the diskshaped Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with Lifted System of Shrouded Rotor in the side flow mood. The obtained results provided to expose the features of the ring and rotor interaction on these moods. It was the base for development of the aerodynamic calculation method. Keywords: diskshaped UAV; Shrouded Rotor; Aerodynamic Characteristics; Experimental Investigation 

This paper describes the design of a nonlinear robustadaptive controller for spatial motion of airbreathing highspeed vehicle. The control strategy, rely on Lyapunov theory, aims at stabilizing spatial motion. Keywords: spatial motion; highspeed vehicle; ramjet; longitudinal motion; flight control system; controller; Lyapunov theory; robustness; adaptivity. 

Investigated the influence of acceleration of structural elements and the fluid viscosity on the process of emergence and development of cavitation in the crevices, theoretically derived formulas for the three cavitation criteria, two of which (by acceleration and fluid viscosity) were previously unknown. Formulas are derived which express the cavitation criteria through the critical values of the basic hydrodynamic criteria. Is presented a mathematical model of the conditions of the appearance of cavitation in the crevices of structural elements, taking into account the fluid viscosity and the accelerations of structural elements. Keywords: criteria of cavitation; clearances; fluid viscosity; the acceleration of structural elements. 

In article calculation and designing he supported composit panel loaded with crosssection loading is considered. The solution is realized in the analytical form with use of V.Z.Vlasov’s variation method in series on displacements to design planes. The panel can be loaded by any crosssection force and have any conditions of fastening. The received solution is a basis for satisfaction of a condition of strength in a designing problem. Examples of the solution of a problem are resulted. Keywords: contour supported panel, a composit material, crosssection loading, V.Z.Vlasova's method. 

Space technics and technology  
Descent of space vehicle in Martian disturbed atmosphere can be presented as multivariate Markov process. At the same time it is necessary to create the system of stochastic differential equation for disturbance, i.e. the equations of the GaussMarkov model. We will consider later the uncertainty of the atmospheric density model as disturbances which are the results of Martian dust storms. Let’s create the linear nonstationary GaussMarkov model of the 1st order at partial statistical information. Keywords: space vehicle; Mars; disturbed atmosphere; dust storm; GaussMarkov model. 

This article describes amethod for calculation and optimization of interplanetary trajectories which use lunar gravity assist maneuver for space vehicles equipped of electric propulsion system. As an example of application techniques, analyzed the Earth –Moon  Mars trajectory for space transportation system, based on launch vehicle "Soyuz21b" and upper stage "Fregat".We present estimates of the gains in the final mass of the spacecraft, which can be obtained through the use of lunar gravity assist for this flight. Keywords: spacecraft; electric propulsion system; interplanetary trajectory; lunar gravity assist; optimization. 

The paper presents results of numerical analysis of fluid flow in the axial pump for thermoregulation systems of aircraft. There are the features of the flow of coolant in the pump at different operation modes. It was found that the pump operation at low flow rate accompanied by significant and intense reverse flow and separation effects, while varying the angle at the entrance to the impeller geometry can minimize the identified effects. Keywords: axial pump, thermoregulation system, weight and size characteristics, numerical analysis 

The results of the design of axial pump bearings for thermoregulation systems of aircraft with a view to minimizing the size and the high requirements for reliability. The paper considers the approaches to the selection of materials of friction bearings. Showing the results of designed bearing unit tests in the experimental samples of axial pumps. Keywords: bearings of axial pump, thermoregulation system 

. Results of the analysis of heat and mass destruction in the surface layer of thermal protection of reentry spacecraft small form committing ballistic descent to Earth. The calculation of trajectory parameters and heat transfer on the surface of the landing of the spacecraft at hypersonic flight segment. According to the calculation results, a series of experiments on hightemperature gasdynamic stand to determine the thermal protective performance TRV series. Selected material surface layer of a heat of the thermal protection of spacecraft. The estimation of the thickness of the destruction of the layer. Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, hypersonic speed, thermal protection, orbital parameters, the enthalpy of inhibition, orbital flight, ballistic descent, gasdynamic stand 

Aerospace propulsion engineering  
The structure of a plasma stream effusing of a nozzle of the electrojet drive in vacuum, by the solution of combined equations of VlasovaPuassona is viewed, distribution functions of charged particles, velocities, concentration and the selfcompounded electric fields in a plasma stream, depending on the characteristic parametres of a problem are gained: directional velocity on an edge of a nozzle, concentration, breadths, the relation of temperatures of ions and electrons. Keywords: a stream of rarefied plasma, a stationary plasma propulsion unit, the equations of VlasovaPuassona, a method of large particles, a distribution function of charged particles. 

The technique of processing of probe experiment in a stream of the rarefied plasma by means of the flat probe focused on a meeting to a vector of speed of a stream is offered. Results of processing of probe characteristic received in a stream, expiring of magneticplasmadynamic engine are resulted. Keywords: probe plasma diagnostics, flat electric probes, magneticplasmadynamic engine, probe characteristic. 

The jet exhausting stationary plasma thruster (SPT) is the accelerated plasma flow consisiting of at least ions, electrons and atoms. Knudsen numbers for all mentioned particle interactions are close or exceeds 1. Therefore an adequate description of such flow behaviour is possible only on base of the kinetic theory. For this purpose the different model equations are created at macroscopic level which are solved jointly with Maxwell equations or some statistical methods of simulation are used (like Bird’s method). And the principal difficulty is appeared in the determination of an electric field in plasma due to the corresponding Maxwell's equations degeneracy. Till now this difficulty was overcomed by usage of the selfconsistent electric field method associated with one or another way of the conservation equations satisfaction by the condition of the electrons and ions densities equality. The problem statement for the fully kinetic description of all particles dynamics simulation in plasma and for determination of the electric field are presented in paper and possible method of this problem solution is discussed. Keywords: stationary plasma thruster, rarified plasma jet, dynamic of particles, system of kinetic equations, distribution function of electrons, ions and neutrals, the Maxwell equation (Poisson), electric field, Larmor radius, Debye length, quasineutrality, a small parameter, asymptotic methods, the conservation equations, Newton's potential 

Results of researches of influence of various forms of cores of external sources of magnetising force of magnetic systems of electric propulsion thrusters on azimuthal evenness of distribution of a magnetic field in a working interpolar interval are presented. Keywords: Electric Propulsion, Hybrid Plasma Thruster, Magnetic System, Magnetic Coil 

The paper represents the mathematical model (MM) of thermophysical properties of fuels and individual hydrocarbons (IH) and their mixes in various ratio, and also synthetic liquid fuel (SLF) is submitted. Results of experiments by determination thermophysical properties individual hydrocarbons and their mixes which were compared with results of calculation of MM are submitted. Keywords: mathematical model, synthetic liquid fuel 

The energy, which requires for solving modern energyintensive tasks of spacecraft control, can be given only by nuclear power plants. The spectral method is suitable for simulating automatic control systems of a nuclear power plant. Presently various mathematical computeroriented systems and their extension packages are used to simulate control systems by the spectral method. In this paper the spectral method is applied for simulating automatic control systems of a nuclear power plant on conditions that it is described by the point kinetics equation. In order to simulate such control system the MLSY_SM extension package for Mathcad is used. Keywords: automatic control system, spectral form of the mathematical description, mathematical computeroriented systems; fractional integral and differential units, nuclear power plant. 

Control systems  
Presently various mathematical computeroriented systems and their extension packages are used to simulate control systems by the spectral method. Modern technologies such as a fractal methodology in various applications (for example, dynamical systems) generate the new electronic components. These component models contain fractional integral and differential operators. In this paper the spectral method is applied for simulating distributed and fractional distributed processes and control systems. To simulate such systems the MLSY_SM extension package for Mathcad was modified. We demonstrate the MLSY_SM extension package to solve the anomalous diffusion equation and to simulate automatic control systems of a nuclear power plant with fractional PID controller. Keywords: nonstationary automatic control systems; spectral form of the mathematical description; mathematical computeroriented systems; fractional integral and differential units; anomalous diffusion; nuclear power plant. 

This article is considering stationary linear object, which have strictly positive real parts of all characteristic values (the spectrum). It is shown, that if the control is providing minimum of the integral of the square of control signal, spectrum of the object is symmetrically displaying in the left half of the complex plane. Proof and example are presented. Keywords: spectrum of a matrix , the unstable object, optimum control, dynamic programming, linear law with limit of control , the attraction area , the symmetrical transformation. 

Navigation systems  
The technique of accounting satellite and receiver antenna phase center offset in Global navigation satellite systems is shown in the article. Also experimental results that show the significance of accounting such offsets in Precise Point Positioning are outlined. Technical reasons of appearance antenna phase center offsets are considered in the article. Experimental results are provided for postprocessing high precision user coordinates estimation process in absolute mode. Keywords: global navigation satellite systems; gnss; precise point positioning; ppp; pco; phase center offset phase center variation. 

The airborne gravimetry problem with respect to it’s statistical spatial nonhomogeneity is considered. The problem reduces to the estimation problem for state space systems with jumps. The application of method of gravity anomaly and noise parameters estimation based on solving the identification problem for the moving averages mixture model with Markov jumps is considered. The solution of the identification problem allows to apply the optimal Kalman smoother for the anomaly estimation on the survey flight line. The results of the testing this technique on flight data are presented. Keywords: gravimetry; gravity anomaly; hidden markov models; mjls; training; recognition; kalman filter; 

Electrotechnology. Electromechanics  
The work is dedicated to the design of a radio transmitter, designed for transmission over a distance of information coming from several sensors. The transmitter of the transmitter of information is made on the microcontroller. Using the MCU enables the development of devices that have qualities such as weight and size and the best energetic performance, relative cheapness, simplicity and reliability. The undoubted benefits of products made with the use of microcontrollers include compatibility with the PC via standard interfaces. We solved the problem of designing circuitry and design of the transmitter. The estimation of parameters, confirming the efficiency of a transmitter under defined conditions of application. Keywords: transmitter; a microcontroller programmer; construction. 

The mechatronic module with the digital control system and threephase brushless dc motor in case of 180degree commutation method has been investigated. The results are new analytic expressions of proposed approaches, a computer model of the mechatronic module in Simulink, Matlab script files for automation of model simulating and visualizing of results, modules in AHDL for programming in CPLD, minor differences in currents and voltages of phases between simulation results and experiments, torquespeed and efficiency characteristics. The new method has been defined. This method has linear torquespeed and regulation characteristics, and minimal energy losses. It can be recommended for new electric drives. Keywords: energy efficient algorithm; digital electric drive; pulsewidth modulation; commutation methods; threephase brushless motor; computer simulation; software; digital signals; voltage; torquespeed characteristics; energy characteristics. 

Radio engineering. Electronics. Telecommunication systems  
Crosscorrelation properties of Msequences ensembles are completely determined by the Galois field structure, from which they mapped to the binary symbols. This dependence is very complicated. In the case expandable Msequences lengths and, especially, expandable polynomials degrees some important properties of crosscorrelation function can reveal by the numerical methods. One of these methods for even values of polynomials degrees proposed in this paper. Feature of the method and based on it the techniques for reviewing the characteristics of their crosscorrelation function is analytical in nature, which certainly expands the boundaries of knowledge about the properties of these widely used encoded sequences. Discussed in the article examples of estimating methods show high accuracy of the analytical results. The results obtained can also be viewed as a starting point for further method development and further detail the properties of Msequences crosscorrelation function. In addition the proposed method can be successfully applied to estimate the correlation properties of the composite encoded sequences that are algebraically related to the Msequences, in particular, the Gold codes. The proposed method and the crosscorrelation function estimation technique may be useful in selecting ensembles of complex encoded signals in the asynchronous address and command control airspace communications systems. Keywords: analytical estimating, signal ensembles, asynchronous address systems, telecommunications, crosscorrelation functions. 

In this article the algorithm of twochannel canceling disturbances is presented. It is efficient in conditions when disturbances in canceller’s channels are mutually noncorrelative. It is theoretically proved, that developed by the author algorithm allows optimally to extract a desired signal by criterion of the least meansquare error. Keywords: modeling disturbances canceller; forming white noise; the optimal filter; the compensating filter. 

In this paper have considered the problem to remove harmonic noise from image. Such noise can appear on the satellite photos owing to the nature of the equipment (the socalled dark current drift). For remove this noise, we use filtering in frequency domain after application Fourier transform. Using this approach offers significant advantages over the methods of spatial filtering when using the luminance values of pixels and can be a noticeable loss of useful information in the form of reduced sharpness and blur boundaries. When using frequency filtration to remove the periodic noise are removed mostly just noise, as cut is only a small portion of the spectrum of whole image. And this method is useful enough, because exist algorithms for fast Fourier transform (FFT). Keywords: frequency filtering of images, fast Fourier transform, periodic noise in the images. 

The article describes the main problems of the manufacturing of printed circuit boards (PCB). The dominating factors of technology process, which affect quality PCB, are identified. Ways to improve the stability of the process technology, which are reducing costs and improving quality of product, are described. The methodology of evaluating the geometric stability of the laminates in multilayer PCBs and the methodology of processing the results and using these results to adapt computer aided manufacturing (CAM) system. Keywords: geometric stability; laminate; printed circuit board; computer aided manufacturing; via connection; registration system. 

Economics  
In this article the legislative base defining the procedure of classification of information to the state secret or to the confidential information are considered. The structure of the confidential information of university and possible variants of its leak by physical, organizational and technical methods of reception of the information are analyzed. Legal and illegal methods are considered. Keywords: information resources, state secret, confidentiality, illegal access, information loss. 

We consider the problem of the investment distribution which is earmarked for the development of the aerospace complex in terms of the random demand for the products of industries and competition. This model is based on a twostage bilevel stochastic programming problem with the quantile criteria. We show that in the particular case the problem reduces to a singlestage stochastic linear programming problem. We give the sufficient conditions for the existence of the solution. For the case of discrete distribution of the vector of random parameters we provide a special method. This method is coming of the original problem to a mixed integer linear programming problem. Keywords: stochastic programming; quantile criteria; mixed integer linear programming problem; confidence method; twostage problem, bilevel programming problem. 

Original author’s approach to management of aero engines competitiveness was suggested in the work. The competitiveness of aero engines was analyzed in many technical and economical aspects. To evaluate competitive level it is important to develop methods and systems of appraisal including tendency of demand and factors of supply. The main components of competitiveness were defined while methods of management were considered. Keywords: competitiveness; aero engine; market segmentation; product supply; demand tendency. 

Article is devoted to the problems of updating of the Russian park of transport planes. Data on the enterprises which are developing and serially letting out transport aircrafts of marks "Il", "Tu" and "An", and also carrying out their aftersales service and repair are resulted. The separate part of article is devoted to the enterprises which are projecting and letting out completing products, units, systems of navigation and lifesupport for transport planes. Problems of deliveries of accessories and spare parts to the given type of planes are considered. Keywords: cargo air service; transport planes; a batch production of planes; maintenance service of planes; repair of air cargo courts; spare parts; completing products; aircraft repair factory; the aviation equipment 

The structure of methodology of modelling of organizational isolations of the lowest and intermediate levels, characteristic for a modern aviationindustrial complex of Russia is offered. The mentioned structure is entered into maintenance of performance of the feasibility report on administrative decisions concerning corresponding organizational isolations. Keywords: aviationindustrial complex, organizational isolation, management, organizational designing, methodology. 
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