# 2014. № 77

### Mathematics. Physics. Mechanics

Tyrymov A. A.

The method of numerical analysis of the mechanical fields in the deformable body, based on graph model of an elastic medium in the form of directed graph, is considered. A new type of elementary cell is introduced to describe the features that appear near a crack tip in isotropic elastic material. An elementary cell is considered as a subgraph that corresponds to a single element of continuum. The configuration of a cell is defined by installing hypothetical devices upon an element of a solid. The equations of elementary cell are derived using the deformation energy as invariant that remains constant under the transformation of an element into a cell. A procedure determining the parameters of the elementary cell is described. The graph of a whole body is constructed the same way as for an elementary cell. Equations of state of the original solid body are derived by using the transformation of generalized coordinates of a decomposed solid body elements into a system of generalized coordinates of entire solid body. This transformation is performed using nonsingular and mutually inverse matrices. The specific nature of the graph discrete solid body model is such that allow you to construct nonsingular matrices without numerical inversion. Kirchhoff graph laws were used for derivation of a system of defining equations. Graph rules (apex and contour) have mechanical interpretation and their application cause the equations of equilibrium and strain compatibility to be satisfied when the net dimensions are reduced. The results of numerical calculation of compliance and stress intensity factor in a centrally cracked tensile plate obtained by graph method are presented.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, elasticity, directed graph, crack, stress singularity, stress intensity factor, compliance

Ivanov S. V., Naumov A. V.

A statement of the bilevel problem of stochastic programming with quantile criterion and several followers is suggested. Random parameters of the problem assumed to have a discrete distribution. In this problem, there are several decision makers: leader and several followers. These decision makers may have different own purposes. The followers choose strategies solving their optimization problems when a leader’s decision is already known. The leader chooses his own strategy taking into account the followers’ optimal strategies and solving his own optimization problem. The followers’ problems are assumed to be linear in follower’s decision variables. Due to this fact, the followers’ problems may be replaced by nonlinear equilibrium constraints using the slackness complementary conditions. The following theorem is proved: the original problem can be reduced to a mixed integer mathematical programming problem. This theorem is used in solving the problem of optimization of energy saving projects. In this problem, the leader is a transport company and the followers are companies carrying out the energy saving projects. The aim of the transport company is to minimize investment costs and expenses for the purchase of energy resources. The aim of a followers is to maximize own profit carrying out their project. In this application, the random parameters are the demands for different energy resources in different planning periods. It is proved that this applied problem can be reduced to a mixed integer linear programming problem. The results of a numerical experiment concerning typical section of the railway are presented. Three projects for saving two energy resources: electrical energy and diesel oil are considered in this experiment.

Keywords: stochastic programming, bilevel problem, quantile criterion, energy saving

Starovoytov E. I., Lokteva N. A., Starovoytovа E. E.

Bending of elastic rectangular orthotropic three-layer plate with a hard core and the composite layers under the influence of local load is considered.
Statement of the problem is carried out in a rectangular coordinate system associated with the median plane of the aggregate. To describe the kinematics of the plate the hypothesis of broken normal are taken as follows: in the bearing layers Kirchhoff’s hypothesis are correct, in incompressible thickness filler the normal remains straight and does not change its length, but turns on some extra angle. On the contour of the plate it is assumed a presence of a rigid diaphragm, which prevents the relative layers shift. Deformations are small.
The equilibrium equations and force boundary conditions follow from the Lagrange principals of virtual work. As the fixing conditions the free bearing plate fixed on the contour of rigid tower is accepted. The plate is exposed to the following external loads: locally uniformly distributed load, concentrated force and concentrated moment.
The solution of the boundary value problem is carried out in a double trigonometric series. The projections of the load are expanded in trigonometric series. To find the displacement amplitudes a system of linear algebraic equations obtained from the differential equations of equilibrium in terms of displacements is used. The analytical solution is written out in the determinants.
Numerical parametric analysis of stress-strain state of the plate under the action of local loads has been carried out. Numerical results are obtained for the three-layer square orthotropic plate package, which consists of the following layers: support layers — high-strength carbon fiber epoxy binder, filler - polytetrafluoroethylene.
The action of surface loads such as load distribution on the entire outer surface of the plate and a force applied in the middle of the plate are considered. With equal resultant of forces data the movements from loads strapped on to the center of the plate are more. Differences in amount of displacement along different axes are explained by orthotropic of bearing layers materials.
The presented method of the three-layer rectangular orthotropic plates calculating allows to obtain sufficiently accurate parameters of the stress-strain state for engineering practice. Orthotropic materials of bearing layers are substantially affects the displacements and stresses in the plate.

Keywords: three-layer circular plate, oscillations, local load, stress-strain behavior, composites

### Aviation technics and technology

Nikitchenko Y. A.

Physical-chemical processes, which take place in the gas and on the surface that is streamlined by this gas, depend on the energy of thermal motion of molecules. In nonequilibrium flows, the energy of thermal motion is distributed unevenly between translational and internal degrees of freedom of molecules. Under these conditions it is necessary to consider the energy of the translational degrees of freedom (translational temperature Tt) separately from the energy of the internal degrees of freedom (internal temperature TΩ).

The physical-mathematical models of the first approximation are most common in practical applications. These models can be obtained from the system of moment equations of polyatomic gases [1]. A method for constructing models of the first approximation is described in [2].

Two models of the first approximation are considered. The first model is written down by using the thermodynamic variables. Its system of equations contains 5 scalar equations (5-moment model). This model is the Navier-Stokes-Fourier model. The coefficient of bulk viscosity is adduced in an explicit form. The system of equations does not contain Tt and TΩ temperatures. These parameters are defined by a special dependency through the coefficient of bulk viscosity.

The second model contains 6 scalar equations. The Tt and TΩ temperatures are defined by independent moment equations (two-temperature model). The heat flow is represented by two components. The first component is the energy flow of the translational degrees of freedom. The second component is the energy flow of the internal degrees of freedom. The coefficient of bulk viscosity is not used. The exchange of energy between translational and internal degrees of freedom is described explicitly.

Numerical testing of the models was conducted on the sample problem of the shock wave shape. The tests have shown that 5-moment model produces qualitatively incorrect values of Tt and TΩ temperatures. The second law of thermodynamics was violated in some profile areas. The two-temperature models only produce errors of quantitative nature. These errors can be reduced by the adjustment of free parameters of the model.

The two-temperature model has significant advantages over the 5-moment model during the modeling of the nonequilibrium flows. These advantages are essentially important for the description of physical-chemical processes.

Keywords: moment equations, first approximation, bulk viscosity, two-temperature model, shock wave shape

Popova A. I., Tretiyakova O. N.

The paper is devoted to the development of a program, which is aimed at automating the design and calculation of parameters of the pressure control system valves within the airplane air conditioning systems. Thus the program should accelerate the development of new valves with the help of computers. A generalized classification of valves has been proposed for the development of this program. This classification unites the whole diversity of types of valves within one scheme. The classification system divides the valves into the following types according to their purpose: exhaust valves, emergency valves, and combined valves. Three categories of actuator valves are allocated according to the type of their closure members: valves with solid, elastic and aerodynamic closure members. Three types of valves can be distinguished by the kind of energy they consume (actuation types): pneumatic, hydraulic and electric. This paper considers the actuator valves, which are classified according to the type of consumed energy (actuation).
The main characteristics and groups of input and output data have been allocated for each valve type. The design features of the individual valve elements, such as spring and diaphragm, were studied.
The program algorithm was formulated based on the allocated input and output data. The program is a universal structure of mathematical calculations. Calculation formulas are specified via entries in the configuration file with mathematical expressions. These expressions use Python mathematical operators. The program is written with taking into account the possibility of its scaling. This possibility is taken into the account both in nature of the program and volume of calculations, which are carried out on the basis of specific data. The change of calculation logics, amount of calculations and introduction of new calculations does not require any changes in the existing program code. It is only necessary to to supplement the program with the blocks for calculation of new valve types.
The calculations of two real pneumatic valves were presented to confirm the operational capability of the program: membrane-spring valve for the Tu-204 airplane and piston valve for IL-96 airplane.

Keywords: automatic pressure control system, design automation, programming, valves, calculation

### Space technics and technology

Sokolov N. L.

Flight safety of spacecraft (SC) in the space debris environment has become significantly important.
One of the main conditions for the solution to this problem is prompt determination of space debris orbit parameters. It allows to estimate characteristics of its rendezvous with controlled spacecraft.
It should be noted that detection of small-sized space debris fragments by ground-based facilities is rather difficult. So the solution to this task using onboard facilities has great current interest. The analytical method proposed in this work allows to determine space debris orbit parameters with the help of measurements of spacecraft onboard facilities.
The method is based on the transformation of initial system of differential spacecraft motion equations with the use of a number of proved assumptions and composition of final calculation dependencies for calculation of time and spacecraft angular position between two measurement moments following each other. It is supposed that space debris fragments are located in the visibility zone of onboard optical sensors.
The computational errors and calculation duration are estimated.
The numerical and graphic materials are introduced. It is shown that during the spacecraft motion along the low circular orbits with the calculation intervals of no more than 100 seconds the computational errors do not exceed 0,1 %. There is the same level of computational errors during the determination of parameters of high elliptical orbits with the eccentricity of up to 0,7 in the conditions of reducing the measurement intervals to 20-25 seconds.
The proposed method provides calculation of orbit parameters of space debris fragments in the wide range of initial conditions for the required calculation accuracy. The computational errors can be reduced due to the increase of a number of measurements and use of the known data filtering and smoothing algorithms. At the same time, for the final estimation of accuracy characteristics it is necessary to consider different perturbing factors influencing on the motion dynamics of spacecraft. First of all, they include changes of ballistic coefficients during the flight.

Keywords: spacecraft, space debris, orbit parameters, onboard measurement facilities, analytical method, transformation of equation system, computational errors

Sysoev V. K., Barabanov A. A., Dmitriev A. O., Nesterin I. M., Pichkhadze К. М., Suymenbaev B. T.

Development of space solar power station technology shows the necessity of demonstration space solar power station development based both on the available space-rocket equipment and on electro-optical technology. Laser emission is chosen as energy transmission channel, because it gives the possibility to receive focal spot of acceptable size.
The key factor determining power capacity of such demonstration space solar power station is the necessity of oversize transformable photoconverters design development at available SC with the relevant fairing.
Factors, which determine layout schemes of demonstration space solar power station various alternatives, are the following:
- the necessity for oversize photoconverters design and cooling radiator;
- the necessity for a system by means of which it is possible to adapt photoconverters and cooling radiators design for available rocket fairing;
- the necessity for oversize optical telescope installation on SC for laser emission transmission.
Four SC layout schemes of such demonstration space solar power station have being studied:
- SC scheme with unified hex module;
- SC scheme with unified quadrangular module;
- SC scheme with photoconverters' deployable curtain on the base of pneumatically rigidizable design;
- SC scheme with flexible photoconverters' deployable curtain based on solar sail principle.
Detailed design works on these variants allow to make an optimum choice of solar power station space segment layout.
However, performance of work on demonstration space solar power station will allow not only to perform flight tests of such space complex and receiving capable hybrid space solar power station.
Demonstration experiment in real outer space conditions is an integral part of space station preparation, because it is the only mean to confirm the possibility of decisions made during theoretical research.

Keywords: spacecraft, satellite, laser

### Aerospace propulsion engineering

Mansurov V. S., Moskovkin S. A., Rebrov S. G., Yanchur S. V.

The design of lithium-ion battery for space application is developed. The lithium-ion battery contains prismatic lithium-ion accumulators in series connected into the electric circuit with the electronics module and the device for active equalizing voltage battery charge and discharge. The full cycle of ground tests, including electrical, mechanical, climatic tests are carried out with prototypes of battery. The program and methodology of testing, including cyclic tests simulated mode in geostationary orbit (charge current: 20 A within 120 minutes; discharge current: 40 A within 60 minutes; discharge depth - 80%) are developed for carrying out electrical tests. Battery tests were carried out in both normal climatic conditions and under vacuum (3·10-6 mm Hg). The test results showed that the actual discharge capacity at the beginning of the testing was approximately 81 A-h (the nominal capacity is 50 A-h), the actual power-intensity was approximately 2300 W-h. When cyclic battery tests on the appropriate battery modes operation on geostationary and low earth orbits in normal climatic conditions were conducting the energy efficiency was approximately 0,96, the maximum surface temperature of the batteries wasn’t greater than 22 ºС while the temperature of the cooling system plate surface was about 13,5 ºС. When cycling of the battery in a vacuum were conducting the temperature increased to 32-34 ºC while discharge current was 40 A and tendency to a slight further growth with cycling continuation was observed.

Keywords: lithium-ion battery, transport properties, discharge capacity, discharge velocity, temperature regime conditions, power-intensity

Fedorov V. A., Obukhov V. A., Mogulkin A. I.

A continuum thermo-mechanical model for densely perforated electrodes of the ion-extraction system (IES) was developed. It is based on representing the emissive, accelerating and decelerating electrodes as structurally orthotropic sloping thin-walled spherical (profiled in general case) panels. An uneven heating of the electrodes along the radius and through their thickness was considered as the basic loading factor. As a consequence, the coefficients of electrode filling with materials, which are simultaneously the coefficients of constructive orthotropy in the considered model, were directly taken into account in the initial equations of thermoelasticity.
Relations between the geometric sizes of round perforation holes, regularly arranged according to a triangular scheme, and the coefficients of electrode filling with materials were calculated by a special algorithm, which gave an opportunity to properly consider the thermal impact on the IES as a whole. Acceptance of such thermo-mechanical model of electrodes resulted in a diagram of dependence of the constructive orthotropy coefficients on the ratio of hole diameter to the distance between them.
For the direct calculation of strain state of spherical electrodes at their uneven axisymmetric heating, there was used the mathematical apparatus of matrix boundary integral and integrodifferential equations represented in convenient dimensionless form. Solution of such equations obtained in the geometrically nonlinear statement of the problem on the bending of sloping spherical panel was based on iterative methods in combination with process of step-by-step temperature loading of considered electrodes.
It is advisable to use the above algorithm for solving the obtained integral equations at critical stages of checking calculations on durability and rigidity. When conducting multivariate research calculations, it is better and more effective to make preliminary calculations by simplified algorithm.
It is the first approximation of the iterative process for solving the appropriate integral equations not in the numerical but in the analytical form. The obtained resulting nonlinear algebraic equation of the third degree relative to the dimensionless additional deflection is solved by using the corresponding software package, such as MathCAD.
In accordance with the above simplified algorithm of calculation of additional deflections of sloping spherical panels, there was conducted a multivariate study of the deformation process of emissive electrodes made of molybdenum and its alloys, titanium-niobium alloy of invar-class, as well as of a carbon-carbon composite material. For the accelerating electrode there was considered a molybdenum alloy and carbon-carbon composite material. The base diameter of the ion beam was taken to be equal to 160 mm and 450 mm.
The developed thermo-mechanical model can be extended to a wider range of problems relating to the geometry of electrodes and the materials used.

Keywords: ion thruster, ion-optical system, perforation, deformation, constructive orthotropy, thermal load, thermal deformation, thermo-mechanical model

Sidlerov D. A., Ponomarev A. A.

In this article a physical-mathematical model, which gives the possibility to compute features of individual and group regimes of evaporation and combustion of dense turbulent sprays, consisting of fuel droplets, is considered. Investigation results of operational process peculiarities inside combustion chambers by varying the regimes of evaporation and combustion of fuel droplets are presented.

Working process development inside liquid rocket engine combustion chamber is in a significant extent determined by an interaction of liquid sprayed flows of fuel and oxidizer. Combustion of propellant droplet arrays can be profoundly affected by the collective interaction between droplets that impedes large scale intermixing of fuel and oxidizer vapor thus forming oxidizer or fuel reach regions with unflammable conditions inside sprays. Additionally, the presence of large number of comparatively cold liquid droplets tends to decrease the temperature inside spray.

Three spray combustion regimes can be proposed: 1) individual regime of combustion, typical for sparse sprays, when every droplet is surrounded by an individual combustion front; 2) regime, when droplets in internal regions of the spray have no individual combustion fronts, and at the same time in the outer regions of spray individual droplet combustion regime takes place; 3) regime, when droplets inside the spray only evaporate, and combustion front surrounds all the spray on the outside.

The mathematical model includes equations of the Navier-Stokes type and the k — ε turbulence model. The combustion rate is defined by the model of turbulent vortex dissipation and from the generalized equation of chemical kinetics of the Arrhenius type. Calculation of motion, warming up, evaporation and breaking of droplets is conducted in the Lagrange approach. Thereat, the interchange with mass, momentum and energy between phases of gas and droplets with regard to turbulent flow characteristics are taken into account. The equations are digitized with the control-volume method and solved with an algorithm of the SIMPLER type.

Additional relations, which give the possibility to identify realization of individual or group spray combustion regimes, are being proposed.

This technique is widely used at Keldysh Research Centre for numerical modeling of the working process in subscale and full-scale combustion chambers and gas generators that operate with a variety of injectors and using different propellants.

Possibilities of the method have been demonstrated by an investigation of features of the working process inside a combustion chamber with coaxial jet injectors under different regimes of fuel spray combustion.

Keywords: evaporation and combustion of fuel droplets, combustion chamber, numerical simulation

Evdokimenkov V. N., Kim R. V., Voronov A. A., Vekshina A. B.

This paper presents an approach to the problem of aircraft systems technical state estimation method. This method uses information stored by regular on-board flight information monitoring systems. The principle of the method is based on reference pattern formed by way of finite set of points within the space of state variables of controlled on-board system for every generic flight mode upon condition of its normal operation. To estimate current aircraft system condition considering non-controlled factors action including factors of accidental action, we use probability criterions that characterize probability of current controlled parameters set membership to reference pattern. In this work we suggest computational algorithms for such probability criterions. These algorithms intend to apply Mahalanobis distance from reference region points to its geometric center as a variability measure of controlled system parameters values. Estimation of the probabilistic criteria is performed using Mahalanobis distance distribution function. This function is obtained by approximating Mahalanobis distance cumulative distribution function which can be calculated based on the information about previous flights of the exact aircraft. With the help of distribution function we can calculate the probability of occurrence Mahalanobis distance value exceeding the argument of the function in case of normal operating of controlled system. We define this probability as a main probabilistic criteria. We also define an inversed probabilistic criteria as a quantile of the distribution function for given probability value. In this case quantile is a Mahalanobis distance value that will not be exceeded with a given probability value. Developed algorithms allow us to identify the moment of abnormal operation mode occurrence. To solve this task we use inverse probabilistic criteria. This moment occurs when the current Mahalanobis distance calculated using the current flight data exceeds pre-determined quantile value.

Developed methods and algorithms were used to estimate Su-35 aircraft conditioning system state. The analyzed period encompassed 50 flights, beginning from 80th to 129th, carried out during two years of exploitation. By using the proposed method an abnormal performance in the temperature channel of air conditioning system was detected in 2 out of 50 flights (105th and 106th). Obtained results fully correspond to the state of the system fairly confirmed by technical inspection report. According to the report the breakdown of turbo-compressor due to inadmissible overheating of a bearing was registered during 106-th flight.

Keywords: aircraft system, aircraft system reference region, probabilistic criteria, Mahalanobis distance, environment control system

Platonov S. A., Glotov V. D.

The article describes existing methods and systems of monitoring of GLONASS radio navigation field and highlights their weak side i.e. low precision of monitoring of user accuracy. The presented example of current accuracies for high-precision positioning methods demonstrates that the monitoring of radio navigation field must perform in high precision mode. Technique combining two high-precision methods (relative positioning by phase measurements and precise point positioning) was overviewed and main results of its implementation were presented. The results of relative positioning for two couples of Russian receivers (manufactured in «Navis» and «Izhevsk radio factory») showed that using of two similar receivers on a base station and rover can result to fixed solution with accuracies not worse that for GPS-only solution. It was also obtained that optimal solution of high precision GLONASS monitoring is autonomous monitoring in a receiver because of high influence of local error sources like multipath, loss of visibility in city canyon, radio noises and systematic errors of phase measurements. The necessity of global network monitoring of continuously reference stations with using various high precision ephemeris and clock information is approved in real time mode and in post-processing by receivers of various manufactures as well as high precision monitoring in various software.

Keywords: GLONASS, accuracy, radio-navigation field monitoring, relative method, precise point positioning, high-precision ephemeris & clock information

Valaitite A. A., Nikitin D. P., Sadovskaya E. V.

This paper considers the possibility of assessing influence of the reflected signal on the parameters of the GNSS signal from the simulator satellite navigation signals Spirent, so that let getting measurements of the selected satellite when exposed only multipath errors. The research was depended of the multipath error of a GPS C/A signal in the presence of one of the reflected signal from the delay of given amplitude of the reflected signal and the comparison of experimental results with theoretical calculations. A result of comparison was revealed that the value of the envelope multipath errors are obtained in the real experiment, in a good agreement with the value of the envelope multipath errors are obtained by the theoretical calculation for the navigation signal receiver. This fact allow to use theoretical calculation at the design stage of a new receiver, in order to assess the influence of multipath errors on the accuracy of the measured navigation parameters at the selected frequency plan and the filter in a high-frequency part of the receiver. The results of field experiments can be used to analyze the ability of the equipment to withstand the multipath errors at a stage of mass production. A theoretical calculation and methodology are in the experimental study are universal and can be used to estimate the multipath error for any GNSS signal.

Keywords: global navigation satellite system, multipath error, strobe method, navigation field simulator, GPS, pseudorandom number

### Technical cybernetics. Information technology. Computer facilities

Konstantinov A. A.

The purpose of this work is to develop the technique, by which one can effectively develop software to realize mathematical tool for aerodynamic forces simulator with FPGA.

To develop this technique we carry out system analysis of the aerodynamic equation, which constitutes a part of the aerodynamic forces (AFS) simulator. This analysis resulted in selection of integral form of the equation for further implementation with FPGA. We performed discretization of the equations, and reduced them to fixed-point arithmetic. To increase the speed of algorithm operation, we replace division operator with binary shift. While developing the technique we used existing recommendations for FPGA programming in LabVIEW.

After implementation of the developed technique a list of typical mathematical operations and methods of their implementation, based on the analysis of the equations included into the algorithm are formed. In addition the separation of slowly varying and rapidly varying parameters calculations is performed.

Implementation of this technique during aerodynamic forces simulator design allowed to increase the speed of the algorithm for eight interconnected channels from 17.7kHz to 416.6 kHz, which corresponds to 24 times increase in performance. To obtain the results we used National Instruments equipment: eight-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with 16 bit resolution and sampling rate of 750 kHz as well as eight-channel digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with 16 bit resolution and sampling rate of 1 MHz.

The proposed technique can be implemented during various measurement and information as well as management systems design, with severe requirements for operation speed, accuracy and channeling with explicit synchronization of execution.

Keywords: programmable logic integrated circuit, digital-to-analog convertor, aerodynamic forces simulator, analog-to-digital convertor, electromechanical modeling method

### Material authority

Yahya Taha Abdo Al Ademi -. -., Ahmed Abdulbaset Arabi Abulkasem -. -., Pulko Т. А., Nasonova N. V., Lynkov L. M.

The disadvantages of the majority of wideband electromagnetic shields with geometrically non-regular surface areas follows: their large thickness, weight and sufficient cost. The electromagnetic shielding constructions of a linear corrugated shape are suggested, which are based on compressed cellulose filled with a hygroscopic solution. The EMR attenuation and reflection characteristics are investigated in the frequency range of 0.7-17 GHz for the different orientation of corrugations with reference to the electromagnetic waves polarization.

The electromagnetic shielding constructions based on liquid-containing compressed cellulose of a linear corrugated shape and flat shape are suggested. In order to stabilize the liquid-content, the hygroscopic metal salt solution in equilibrium concentration was synthesized. The solution is characterized by high sorption and, as a result, prevents liquid content variation when the ambient temperature and humidity alter. The sample surface microstructure was studied using metallographic microscope МЕТАМ—Р1 with amplification up to 507 times. The obtained microphotographs show, that there are local volumes of the solution preserved within the cellulose fiber structure during the whole period of the investigations. The experiments show, that the samples of flat shape 5 mm in thickness possess the reflection coefficient as low as −12 dB. The reflection characteristics for the flat-shaped sample on a metal base are quite flat in a wide frequency band. The EMR attenuation increases from 2 to 14 dB with the frequency increase due to the radio-absorbing properties of the liquid-containing filler.

Keywords: electromagnetic radiation shield, composite materials, liquid-containing matrrials

### Economics and management

Smirnov M. P., Utolin K. S.

Russian production companies engaged in space industry are controlled by the Government through a special federal authority, ROSKOSMOS (Federal Space Agency), and another authorized organization, joint-stock company “ORKK”, as stated in Decree of the President № 874 of 2nd December, 2013. The revenue secured by the state-guaranteed order in the total income of such companies exceeds 80%. Strong governmental support gives the companies significant advantages in terms of stable guaranteed orders and loan capital. However, in these circumstances they become exposed to regional and country risks.
The situation in the international market of space services has considerably changed over the last 20 years towards co-operation and commercialization of businesses. The Russian companies face increased competition which may have a negative effect on their financial and economic operation results.
Under the current conditions management of the companies face the necessity to adopt new operational methods and introduce an up-to-date manufacturing resources control and financial management system in order to ensure sensible allocation of the resources to the company units. The system to be implemented should encourage cooperation between companies within the industry on the technological grounds.
During the analysis performed and identification of the features specific to space production (ex., single-item production, state-order orientation) provisions for the introduction of a budgeting system to space companies have been determined highlighting industry technology centers.
Such a system is being tested at Machine-building Plant of Rocket&Space Corporation "Energia". In the course of its implementation main steps were determined for research and development of industry technology center functional model. This conversion is only possible with a control system properly organized which would enable keeping records in the context of required analytical procedures. Development of the budgeting system suggests the following steps:
1. Linear-functional budgeting;
2. Matrix budgeting system;
3. Establishment of branch technology centers (divisional management system).
The last mentioned step shall include the essential market research and technology attractiveness expertise in addition to the traditional feasibility study.
Any innovation should be implemented gradually step by step, otherwise the introduction of any unproven production solution in the business practice of a company can result in failure to meet principal production deadlines.

Keywords: management cost, mechanism of budgeting

Mikhailova E. A., Kamakina O. V., Efimova P. E.

While production order making, one usually has little information about cost calculating, so that it is difficult to decide whether order profitability is sufficient or not. This problem is especially important if production life cycle is rather long, which is common considering aviation industry. The article considers the method of gage cost preliminary evaluation. The gages mentioned are used for rotation solids diameter measurement at the industrial companies. A set of recently designed gages was chosen and a number of different parameters were subjected to analysis for giving preliminary evaluation of material and labor costs. One who makes tool set order has his requirements and the designer while developing the gage fixes a set of variables. While investigation it is proved that connection does exist between the first and the latter mentioned, which is shown in the form of correlation coefficients matrix. It is stated that gage parameters required determine tool set material and labor costs. The cost evaluation method is proposed based on econometrics equations. The method gives the description of the parameters connection in the form of linear regression equations, in which order requirements are used as independent variables and the cost as the dependent one, so that it can be calculated at the moment the order is transferred to the tool set department. The equation gives a preliminary sum of costs providing rather high degree of its accuracy due to strong parameter correlation. Production profitability can be easily evaluated using such method that is really important for industrial companies.

Keywords: cost evaluation, econometrical equations, instrumental manufacturing, gages

Mokrousova E. I.

Purpose
The purpose is to prove that the theory of potentials can be justifiably used to estimate the effectiveness of organizational transformations.
Design/methodology/approach
The point of this method is to calculate the potential of the business system before and after transformations.
Findings
The article estimates the business system competitiveness through correlation of its potentials and shows the methodological approach in finding areas of competitiveness in the system under consideration. In addition the article analyses the key points of the theory of potentials in the context of business processes in the business system. It highlights the fact that a concept of potential reflects the dynamic nature of competitiveness as its key property. It is noted that potentials of the object is defined on the basis of its functioning costs. When market context is excluded, it makes values of costs and business equity potential equal. The method of costs calculation also influences potential’s value.
Research limitations/implications
These findings can be used to determine effectiveness of organizational transformations of economic systems.
Originality/value
The originality of this research consists in the proposition of non-traditional approach to the evaluation of effectiveness of organizational transformations of economic object.

Keywords: restricting, aero engine building, efficiency, competitiveness, cumulative potential