Studying icing under various conditions

Fluid, gas and plasma mechanics


Zhbanov V. A.*, Kashevarov A. V.**, Miller A. B.***, Potapov Y. F.****, Stasenko A. L.*****, Tokarev O. D.******

Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after N.E. Zhukovsky (TsAGI), 1, Zhukovsky str., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia



The article discusses the results of aircraft icing studying performed at TsAGI in the conditions of liquid droplet, crystalline and mixed clouds. The experimental set-ups for icing studying are described. Methods of ice crystals forming in the flow of icing wind tunnel are presented. The article presents data on the size and shape of the obtained crystals.

The results of the latest activity of TsAGI in international research projects on icing are presented. A number of coatings were studied under the conditions of run-back ice formation within the framework of the ICETRACK project.

The HAIC project (High Altitudes Ice Crystals) is studying the physics of icing under fully glaciated conditions. The experimental results on the formation of run-back ice on a wing profile model with a heated leading edge are described. The experiments were performed under conditions of crystal impingement for the cases of the initially dry heated surface and for that covered with an artificially created liquid film.

The physical-and-mathematical models of the of ice crystals interaction with both dry and wetted surfaces of streamlined bodies were developed.

For the case of a wetted surface, the water film movement along the surface is considered. The impact of the finite melting time of the crystals and the dependence of the effective suspension viscosity from the mass fraction of the dispersed phase on the processes occurring in the film are accounted for.

The movement of spheroidal crystals in the airflow is considered for the case of a dry surface. The model accounts for the orientation of non-spherical particles with respect to the air velocity vector. It is shown, that the process of ice accretion on the wing profile surface in the stream carrying oblate spheroidal crystals differs greatly from the case of a flow with spherical crystals

A numerical verification of the developed models was performed by comparison with the experimental data. The results of these studies are important for the problems of icing of engines and Pitot tubes in fully crystalline and mixed conditions.


icing, overcooled droplets, ice crystals, aero-cooling installations


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