Application of adaptive high-lift devices by an light transport airplane
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after N.E. Zhukovsky, TsAGI, 1, Zhukovsky str., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
AbstractThe paper presents the results of calculation and experimental research on increase of efficiency of high-lift devices of light transport airplane.
The purpose of the research is to estimate the efficiency of various versions of adaptive high-lift devices during landing. This is done via usage of a program, which provides numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations.
The result of estimation of the efficiency of adaptive high-lift devices is presented. One of the main elements of these high-lift devices is the rear rotary part of the wing, which is situated above the flap.
Four versions (angles) of double-slotted flap deflection were studied: 20 degrees (take-off configuration); 32 degrees (landing configuration) and large angles (35 degrees and 40 degrees). Also the influence of the size of the slot between the deflector and the main part of the wing on flap efficiency was investigated.
Computational research was carried out via FINE/HexaTM computational software system by NUMECA Int. (Belgium). The airplane model tests were carried out in T-102 wind tunnel in TsAGI.
Computational research revealed the specific features of viscous flow streamlining of airfoil with adaptive high-lift devices and its advantages over the “normal” high-lift devices.
Utsage of adaptive high-lift devices leads to considerable lift increase. For example, the deflection of the rear wing part onto an angle δ=5º increases the lift coefficient of model take-off configuration by 28% in comparison with the basic version. The lift coefficient increase for model landing configuration in this case would be around 11÷13 %. Deflection of the adaptive element onto an angle δ=10º increases lift coefficient by 20%.
It is possible to make the following conclusions according to the results of the conducted research: Modification of double-slotted flaps increases their efficiency. The lift performance of the high-lift devices version with adaptive single-slotted flaps is only slightly worse than that of “normal” double-slotted flaps. Other aerodynamic performance of these versions is almost identical. Thus the results of analysis and experiments allow recommending the version of high-lift devices with adaptive elements for further investigation of structure design variants.
The development of wing high-lift devices for modern airplanes remains a topical and complex problem in modern aerodynamics. Airplane take-off and landing modes become more and more complex due to increase of take-off and landing weights and speeds as well as more rigid flight safety requirements. Thus the research on development of improved concepts of high-lift devices, which can provide for necessities of the advanced created airplanes, has great practical value. The paper elaborates one of such concepts and addresses the abovementioned issues.
Keywords:light transport airplane, adaptive high-lift devices, efficiency, wind tunnel
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