Comparative fidelity analysis of turbofan engines masses mathematical models

Thermal engines, electric propulsion and power plants for flying vehicles


Kuz'michev V. S.*, Filinov E. P.**, Ostapyuk Y. A.***

Samara National Research University named after Academician S.P. Korolev, 34, Moskovskoye shosse, Samara, 443086, Russia



The article presents comparative fidelity analysis of aviation gas turbine engines mass models accessible in open press. The authors of models are Torenbeek (Delft University of Technology, Nederland), Raymer (Conceptual Research Corporation, USA), Jenkinson (Loughborough University, UK), Svoboda (The University of Kansas, USA), Clavier (Cranfield University, UK and France), Guha (Indian Institute of Technology, India), Byerley (USAF Academy, USA) and Kuz'michev (Samara National Research University, Russia). Thermodynamic and dimensions parameters, used for analysis, of 77 modern bypass engines, differing significantly on working process parameters are presented in the article. Missing data for the above said base were obtained by the mathematical models identification method.

Mass of each of 77 engines was determined by all eight models, and the obtained results were compared to the real engine mass. The analysis results revealed that some of the considered models such as Guha’s, Byerley’s, Jenkinson’s and Clavier’s models are applicable only for high-scale engines and their inaccuracy does not exceed 12%. The listed models calculate the small-scale engines weight with significant error. Moreover, the error value increases with the engine size reduction. This trend applies to all models without exception. For example, Kuzmichev's model has a total error of 6.3%, but for engines weighing less than 1500 kg the standard deviation approaches 20%. Based on the analysis presented in the article, it can be concluded that Svoboda’s and Raymer’s models can be employed for the aircraft conceptual design. Besides, these models can be applied at conceptual design stage. Torenbeek’s and Kuzmichev’s models are more detailed and account for cycle parameters. Thus, they may be employed for engine cycle optimization at design operational conditions.


bypass turbofan, mass mathematical model, mathematical model fidelity, conceptual design


  1. Torenbeek E. Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design. Delft, Delft University Press, 1976, 598 p.

  2. Raymer D.P. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, Washington, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1992, 745 p.

  3. Jenkinson L.R., Simpkin P., Rhodes D. Civil Jet Aircraft Design, London, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1999, 429 p.

  4. Svoboda C. Turbofan Engine Database as a Preliminary Design Tool, Aircraft Design, 2000, no. 3, pp. 17 – 31.

  5. Lolis P. Development of a Preliminary Weight Estimation Method for Advanced Turbofan Engines: Ph.D. Thesis. Cranfield University, 2014, 189 p.

  6. Guha A., Boylan D., Gallagher P. Determination of Optimum Specific Thrust for Civil Aero Gas Turbine Engines: a Multidisciplinary Design Synthesis and Optimization, Proc IMechE Part G, Journal Aerospace Engineering, 2012, vol. 227 (3), pp. 502 – 527. DOI: 10.1177/0954410011435623.

  7. Byerley A.R., Rolling A.J., Van Treuren K.W. Estimating Gas Turbine Engine Weight, Costs, and Development Time During the Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design Process // Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo, 2013, vol. 4, GT2013-95778, pp. V004T08A01, DOI: 10.1115/GT2013-95778.

  8. Trent 1000 package C update, available at:

  9. Introducing GE’s Catalyst™ Advanced turboprop engine, available at:

  10. Products, available at:

  11. V Mezhdunarodnyi tekhnologicheskii forum “Innovatsii. Tekhnologii. Proizvodstvo”, 16-18 April 2018, available:

  12. Roux E. Turbofan and Turbojet Engines. Database Handbook, Blagnac, Elodie Roux, 2007, 595 p.

  13. Sorkin L.I., Vedeshkin G.K., Knyazev A.N. Inostrannye aviatsionnye dvigateli i gazoturbinnye ustanovki (Foreign aircraft engines and gas-turbine plants: reference book (based on foreign publications)), Moscow, CIAM, 2010, vol. 15, 415 p.

  14. Skibin V.A., Solonin V.I. Raboty vedushchih aviadvigatelestroitelnyh kompaniy v obespechenie sozdaniya perspektivnyh aviatsionnyh dvigateley (Works of leading aircraft engine companies in providing the creation of advanced aircraft engines: an analytical review), Moscow, CIAM, 2010, 673 p.

  15. Shustov I.G. Dvigateli 1944-2000: aviatsionnye, raketnye, morskie, promyshlennye: tehniko-ekonomicheskaya baza dannyh. Entsiklopediya po dvigatelyam (Engines 1944-2000: aviation, missile, marine, industrial: technical and economic database. Encyclopedia of engines), Moscow, AKS-Konversalt, Tsentr istorii aviatsionnyh dvigateley, 2000, 394 p.

  16. Mattingly J.D., Heiser W.H., Pratt D.T. Aircraft Engine Design, Reston, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2002, 679 p.

  17. Civil Turbojet/Turbofan Specifications, available at:

  18. Kuz’michev V.S., Morozov M.A. Izvestija vuzov. Aviacionnaja tehnika, 1991, no. 3, pp. 44 – 48.

  19. Kuz’michev V.S., Ostapyuk Y.A., Tkachenko A.Y., Krupenich I.N., Filinov E.P. Comparative Analysis of the Computer-Aided Systems of Gas Turbine Engine Designing, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research, 2017, vol. 6 (1), pp. 28 – 35. DOI: 10.18178/ijmerr.6.1.28-35.

  20. Rybakov V.N., Tkachenko A.Y., Kuz’michev V.S., Krupenich I.N. Computer-aided system of virtual testing of gas turbine engines, MATEC Web of Conferences, 2016, vol. 77. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20167701028.

  21. Kuzmichev V.S., Krupenich I.N., Rybakov V. N. et al. Trudy MAI, 2013, no. 67, available at:

  22. Kuzmichev V.S., Krupenich I.N., Rybakov V.N. et al. Trudy MAI, 2012, no. 58, available at:

  23. Kuz’michev V.S., Tkachenko A.Y., Ostapyuk Y.A., Krupenich I.N., Filinov E.P. Features of Computer Modeling of the Working Process of Small-scale Gas Turbine Engines, 2017 International Conference on Mechanical, System and Control Engineering, ICMSC 2017, Saint -Petersburg, May 19-21, 2017, pp. 136 – 140.

Download — informational site MAI

Copyright © 2000-2021 by MAI